Teaching Collaboration and Consultation Skills to Preservice Adapted Physical Education Teachers

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [Northeastern University]On: 17 November 2014, At: 06:38Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Journal of Physical Education, Recreation &amp; DancePublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ujrd20</p><p>Teaching Collaboration and Consultation Skills toPreservice Adapted Physical Education TeachersRebecca Lytle a , Barky Lavay b , Nancy Robinson c &amp; Carol Huettig da Department of Physical Education and Exercise Science , California State University-Chico ,Chico , CA , 95929-0330 E-mail:b Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education , California State University-LongBeach , Long Beach , CA , 90840 E-mail:c San Francisco State University , San Francisco , CA , 94132-4158d Texas Woman's University , Denton , TX , 76209Published online: 24 Feb 2013.</p><p>To cite this article: Rebecca Lytle , Barky Lavay , Nancy Robinson &amp; Carol Huettig (2003) Teaching Collaboration andConsultation Skills to Preservice Adapted Physical Education Teachers, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation &amp; Dance,74:5, 49-53, DOI: 10.1080/07303084.2003.10608486</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2003.10608486</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) containedin the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of theContent. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, andare not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon andshould be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable forany losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use ofthe Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in anyform to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ujrd20http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/07303084.2003.10608486http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2003.10608486http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>Teaching Collaboration andConsultation Skills to Preservice</p><p>Adapted Physical Education Teachers</p><p>REBECCA LYTLE</p><p>NANCYROBINSON</p><p>BARRY LAVAY</p><p>CAROL HUETT/G</p><p>W hat collaboration and con-sultation content knowl-edge and skillsdo preserviceadapted physical education (APE)specialists need in order to workeffectively with other professionals?Historically, training programs inadapted physical education have donean excellent job preparing prospec-tive teachers to work directly withstudents with disabilities. However,the increased use of inclusive prac-tices has created the need for profes-sional preparation programs to trainpreservice teachers in adult-to-adultinteractions, communication, andfacilitation skills. The purpose of thisarticle is to provide instructionalactivities that are directed specifi-cally toward strengthening the col-laboration and consultation skills ofpreservice adapted physical educa-tion teachers.</p><p>Definition and BenefitsAdapted physical education consulta-tion is the process ofone professionalassisting another professional with aproblem that concerns a third party,generally a student (Friend &amp; Cook,2000). In this approach, the adaptedspecialist may be viewed as the expert.This approach can be detrimental totrue collaborative interactions. In acollaborative model, teachers workcollectively to solve problems, valuing</p><p>May/June 2003. JOPERD. Vol. 74 No.5</p><p>the expertise and input of all teammembers (Lytle, 1999). Friend andCook (2000) defined collaborativeconsultation as direct interaction be-tween at least two equal parties, whovoluntarily engage in shared decision-making while working toward a com-mon goal. The goal of a collaborativeconsultation is to provide the best pos-sible education for students. Collabo-rative consultants have the followingcharacteristics (Friend &amp; Cook, 2000):</p><p> They reflect on their own per-sonal practice.</p><p> They are open and receptive, valu-ing the ideas and thoughts of others.</p><p> They share the responsibility anddecision-making.</p><p> They share the resources and in-formation.</p><p> They share an equal power andequity in the process.</p><p> They are equally accountable fortheir outcomes.</p><p>Research shows that teachers with-out formal training often avoid col-laborative interactions (Bradley, 1994;Gersten, Darch, Davis, &amp; George,1991). Yet, how do we teach these APEspecialists the skills they need to be-come effective consultants, and whatskills do they need? Lytle and Collier(2002) identified several skills that areessential for APE specialists as theyserve in consultation roles. These in-clude communication, people, and</p><p>problem-solving skills; content knowl-edge; respect; and an understandingof others' perspectives. All of theseskills are identified in special educa-tion literature as critical for effectivecollaboration in professional interac-tions. In addition, consultation skillsare specifically identified in standard11 of the Adapted Physical EducationNational Standards (National Consor-tium for Physical Education and Rec-reation for Individuals with Disabili-ties, 1995).</p><p>One effective way to begin devel-oping interaction skills is through earlycollaborative-learning experiences.Research reveals that collaborativelearning and teaching models that areapplied to preservice special educa-tion and other related disciplineshave several forms, including thosethat focus on problem-solving andthose with applied team assessmentand intervention processes. Positivelearning outcomes for students andfaculty consist of enhanced critical-thinking and problem-solving skills,team skills, and leadership exper-ience. Cockrell, Huges Caplow, andDonaldson (2000) investigated studentperspectives on the benefits of col-laborative learning in higher educa-tion and found that students reporteda deeper understanding and reten-tion of the content in comparison towhen they used the more traditional</p><p>49</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Nor</p><p>thea</p><p>ster</p><p>n U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p>] at</p><p> 06:</p><p>38 1</p><p>7 N</p><p>ovem</p><p>ber </p><p>2014</p></li><li><p>teaching approaches. Students re-ported that there were two benefits ofcollaborative learning: (1) becominga part of a learning community, and(2) acquiring the language spokenby the professionals within the disci-pline. These findings are consistentwith the empirical results of Lytle andRobinson (2002), who found thatwhen students engaged in cross-disci-plinary, collaborative-learning experi-ences they increased their awarenessof related disciplines and improvedtheir team leadership skills. Collabo-rative problem-solving and studentinteraction in the teaching environ-ment lead to an improvement in thequality of learning projects and prod-ucts. When team members considerproblems from multiple perspectives,critical thinking and integrated plan-ning are facilitated. Most important,integrated planning, problem solving,and critical thinking allow prospec-tive teachers to improve the outcomesfor students with disabilities and theirfamily members, which is the ulti-mate goal of professional trainingin special education. Furthermore,the combined expertise of the facultymembers who co-teach in a collabor-ative-learning environment improvesthe quality of the information thatis disseminated.</p><p>However, for professionals to learncollaborative consultation at any level,including preservice training in highereducation or interactions within thepublic schools, operational proceduresmust be designed to allow them towork together effectively and to shareinformation in a collaborative ap-proach. Time must be scheduled forprofessionals to meet on a regular ba-sis. Effective communication amongstaff members of various disciplineswillnotoceurbychance (Lavay, 1994).</p><p>The rest of this article presentsexamples of assignments that the au-thors have used in teaching collabora-tion and consultation content knowl-edge and skills to preservice teachers.These assignments are sequencedfrom introductory to more advancedexperiences and utilized in introduc-tory to advanced level classes.</p><p>50</p><p>Assignments in Consultingwith General PhysicalEducatorsThe introductory undergraduatecourse, Adapted and DevelopmentalPhysical Education, at Texas Woman'sUniversity benefits students who areplanning careers in general physical</p><p>The combinedexpertise of thefaculty members</p><p>who co-teach in acollaborative-learningenvironment improves</p><p>the quality of theinformation that is</p><p>disseminated.</p><p>education, adapted physical educa-tion, athletic training, corporate fit-ness, and physical and occupationaltherapy. This diversity in career op-tions lends itself well to classroom-based group experiences in collabo-ration and consultation (Lytle, Lavay,Robinson, &amp; Huettig, 2002). Threemajor strategies are used to infusethese skills into the course content.They include a mock individualizededucation program (IEP), a case studyassignment, and an assessment report.Students are prepared for these as-signments in a number of ways.</p><p>To prepare for the mock IEP, theprofessor brings in parents of chil-dren with disabilities to talk with thestudents on the second day of class.The parents talk about the grief pro-cess and what they expect of the pro-fessionals with whom they work. Theparents are asked to address, in par-ticular, how they feel about the IEPmeeting. In addition, the students areassigned to read sections on the IEPprocess from Principles and Methods of</p><p>Adapted Physical Education and Recre-ation (Auxter, Pyfer, &amp; Huettig, 2001).</p><p>The textbook also uses a case studyapproach to guide students to thequestions, issues, and strategies thatare associated with providing qualityAPE services to learners with disabili-ties. As a result, students are exposedto the case study methodology at thebeginning of the course, and real-lifecase scenarios are discussed through-out the semester.</p><p>The assessment project is predi-cated on readings from the introduc-tory text. A real child's assessment andsubsequent programming are dis-cussed in the first section of the text.In addition, during a Friday morningpracticum class, the students are ex-pected to assess learners. (Studentsare expected to be simultaneouslyen-rolled in both the content andpracticum course.) The following para-graphs contain more specific infor-mation about each of the collabora-tive assignments.</p><p>Mock IEP Meeting Assignment. Stu-dents are given the opportunity todiscuss comprehensive APE assess-ment reports. The identities of eachchild and his or her family are keptconfidential. The students take on theroles of different professionals andhold a mock IEP, transdisciplinaryteam meeting. Using a case studyformat and real-life scenarios, thestudents work together in groups todevelop an APE plan. Here are someexamples of these scenarios.</p><p> A six-year-old boy has DucheneMuscular Dystrophy. His parents aredivorced, and the IEP meetings alwaysturn into battles. The mother wantsher son to receive all his special edu-cation in a protected environment thathas a small teacher-student ratio, whilethe father, who is still in denial, wantshis son to become a baseball player.</p><p> The occupational therapist hatedphysical education when she was achild, and now she has no use for thegeneral physical educator or the APEconsultant.</p><p> The general physical educatorhas 60 children in her class and doesnot want any more children, with or</p><p>Vol. 74 No.5. JOPERD May/June 2003</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Nor</p><p>thea</p><p>ster</p><p>n U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p>] at</p><p> 06:</p><p>38 1</p><p>7 N</p><p>ovem</p><p>ber </p><p>2014</p></li><li><p>without disabilities. The educational diagnostician,</p><p>who is conducting the meeting, hasanother IEP meeting in 30 minutesand lacks the time to talk about physi-cal education.</p><p> The physical therapist wants touse the child's physical education timeto provide physical therapy.</p><p> The principal walks in and outof the meeting and never stops tosit down.</p><p>Case Study Assignment. Students areassigned real-life case studies in whichthey must develop specific strategiesto enlist the support of the other pro-fessional. For example, the generalphysical educator has good intentionsand also has the potential to becomean effective teacher if only she usedsome basic behavior managementstrategies in her class. First, the stu-dents are asked to describe specificstrategies that the APE consultantcould implement on a personal levelto get the general physical educatorto interact with and trust the consult-ant. Second, the students outline otherspecific tactics that the APE consult-ant could use to help the teacherdevelop a more effective class envi-ronment that would meet the needsof all the children, with or with-out disabilities.</p><p>Assessment Report Assignment. Stu-dents are given the opportunity todiscuss comprehensive APE assess-ment reports. The identities of thechildren and their families are keptconfidential. The students use the fol-lowing steps:</p><p>1. They review APE textbooks orthe Project INSPIRE website (venus.twu.edu/-Chuettig/) to learn "bestpractices" in adapted physical educa-tion for children who have the par-ticular disabilities in the reports.</p><p>2. The students then develop spe-cific IEP goals and objectives.</p><p>3. Next, the students refer to thegeneral physical education curriculumof the state or school district in whichthey will teach. For example, in Texas,physical education programs reflectthe Texas Education Agency EssentialKnowledge and Skills.</p><p>May/June 2003 JOPERD Vol. 74 No.5</p><p>4. Finally, students examine the PECentral website (pe.central.vt.edu/)to find developmentally appropriateclass activities that the general physi-cal educator can use to address thechildren's IEP goals, while simulta-neously meeting the needs of the otherchildren in the class.</p><p>Introductory Assignmentsfor the APE SpecialistPreservice training programs inadapted physical education must firstdesign experiences that allow individu-als to learn the APE discipline inorder to communicate effectivelywith other professionals. An exampleof this is to provide opportunitiesfor APE professionals to communicatetheir responsibilities to other profes-sionals. In addition, APE profession-als must understand the roles thatdifferent allied professionals play inproviding educational services forchildren with disabilities. The follow-ing introductory assignments assistpreser...</p></li></ul>

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