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Innovative technologies in agriculture


<ul><li> 1. This presentation highlights the status oftechnology and innovation in world agriculture currently and projections for the future, emphasizing crop production</li></ul> <p> 2. Over past two decades, the average annual growthrate for the world: agricultural product demand of 2.1 % agricultural product supply of 3.1% agricultural product prices declined by more than 1% But over past year, food and feed prices have risen abruptly, choking off demand and creating food insecurity (FAO 2008) 3. Agriculture in India came intoexistence during the Neolithic revolution (roughly 80005000 BCE.) Rice was cultivated in the Indus Valley Civilization as early as 4530 BCE and 5440 BCE . Irrigation was developed in the Indus Valley Civilization by around 4500 BCE. 4. Kallanai (1st-2nd century CE), a dam built onriver Kaveri during this period, is considered as one of the oldest water-regulation structures in the world still in use. During 2003-04, agriculture accounted for 22%of India's GDP, and employed 58 per cent of the country's workforce. India is also the third largest producer of tobacco and rice, the fourth largest producer of coarse grains, the fifth largest producer of eggs, and the seventh largest producer of meat. The method of agriculture was mainly manual and did not include any type of machines. 5. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. India's GDP is steadily declining with the country'sbroad-based economic growth. As Per the 2010 FAO world agriculture statistics, India is the second largest producer of wheat and rice, the world's major food staples. One report from 2008 claimed India's population is growing faster than its ability to produce rice and wheat. 6. CropQuantity Rice Wheat Pulses Oilseeds Sugarcane Tea CottonAverage YIELD, 1970-1971Average YIELD, 1990-1991Average YIELD, 20102011kilogram per hectare 1123 1307 524 579 48322 1182 106kilogram per hectare 1740 2281 578 771 65395 1652 225kilogram per hectare 2240 2938 689 1325 68596 1669 510 7. The low productivity in India is a result of thefollowing factors: Adoption of modern agricultural practices and useof technology is inadequate, hampered by ignorance of such practices, high costs and impracticality in the case of small land holdings. India has inadequate infrastructure and services.World Bank also says that the allocation of water is inefficient, unsustainable and inequitable. The irrigation infrastructure is deteriorating. Overregulation of agriculture has increased costs,price risks and uncertainty. 8. Inconsistent government policy. Agriculturalsubsidies and taxes often changed without notice for short term political ends. Irrigation facilities are inadequate. Farmers still being dependent on rainfall,specifically the Monsoon season. A third of all food that is produced rots due toinefficient supply chains and the use of the WalMart Model" to improve efficiency is blocked by laws against foreign investment in the retail sector. 9. The Most Importanttechnologies applied in agriculture are as follows: Irrigate via Smartphone 2. Sensing how your crop is feeling 3. Field documentation 4. IT in agriculture 1. 10. Mobile tech is playing a big role inmonitoring and controlling crop irrigation systems. Moisture sensors in the ground are able to communicate information about the level of moisture present at certain depths in the soil. This increased flexibility allows for more precise control of water and other inputs like fertilizer that are applied by irrigation pivots. 11. Crop sensors are taking variablerate technology to the next level. Instead of making a prescription fertilizer map for a field before you go out to apply it, crop sensors tell application equipment how much to apply in real time. Optical sensors are able to see how much fertilizer a plant may need based on the amount of light reflected back to the sensor. 12. Because of onboard monitors and GPS the ability todocument yields, application rates, and tillage practices is becoming easier and more precise every year. As harvesting equipments rolls through the field it calculates yield and moisture as it goes tying it in with GPS coordinates. When finished a map of the field is printed. These maps are often called heat maps. Each color on the map relates to a certain yield range. Now the farmer can see what varieties had the best, worst, or most consistent yield over varying conditions. 13. The benefits of IT for the improvement and strengthening of agriculture sector in India include timely information on weather forecasts and calamities. Better and spontaneous agricultural practices, Reduction of agricultural risks and enhanced incomes. Better awareness and information. Improved networking and communication. Facility of online trading and e-commerce.Better representation at various forums, authorities and platform. E-agriculture can play a major role in the increased food production and productivity in India. 14. Be informedBe remindedUnderstandSustainable developmentKnow our responsibilitiesFollowEducate ourselves 15. peopleprofessions AGRICULTURE </p>