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Introducción a la teoría musical.

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    HelpCenterSegment1:MusicalNotes

    Segment1

    Firstlyhereisanexampleofsomeearlymusic,writtenbeforethestandardisedstave/staffcameintouse:

    Ithinkyoucanseehowthiswasproblematic.

    Namingthenotes:

    Herearethesevenalphabeticalnotenamesinascendingorder.NotetheledgerlineforthelastA,to

    temporarilyextendthestave/staff:

    HeretheyaredescendingfromAwithmoreledgerlines:

    Themnemonicsforlearningthepositionofthenotesinthetrebleclef:

    (Foragenderneutralversiontry:EveryGreenBusDrivesFast!)

    Herearethenotesonapianokeyboard:

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    Finallyweintroducedtheoctave.Herearethesevennotenamesshowninadjacentoctavesonthe

    stave.Notethatwhenthelowernoteisontheline,itsoctaveaboveisonaspaceandvisaversa:

    ThislowerCwithoneledgerlineiscalled'middleC

    Youcanfinditrightinthemiddleofthekeyboard(thenotenamesaresometimeswrittenonelectronic

    keyboards,butonarealpianoitsnearthelockofthelid).

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    HelpCenterSegment2:Octaves

    Intervals

    Hereistheintervalofasecondasshowninthevideo:

    Atapproximately3minutes20secondsinthesegment,Zackgivesseveralexamplesofmoreintervals,

    andheretheyareintheorderheplayedthem:

    Tonesandsemitones:

    Notethatusingonlywhitenoteswehaveidentifiedtwosetsofsemitones.ThefirstsetisbetweenBand

    C:

    TheothersetisbetweenEandF:

    Theseintervalscanmostclearlybeseenonakeyboardbecausethereisnoblackkeybetweenthemif

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    youlookbackatthekeyboardgraphicyouwillseethis.

    TheCmajorscale:

    Knowingthedifferencebetweenthesetones(T)andsemitones(S),allowsustoderivetheCmajorscale:

    Cisthetonichere,andthisscaleisanexampleofadiatonicscaleonethathasapatternof2

    semitonesand5tonesgoingfromoneoctavetothenext.

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    HelpCenterSegment3:MoreonScales

    TheAnaturalminorscale/Aeolianmode:

    Whenthepatternoftonesandsemitonesisdifferent,thescalesoundsdifferentformallyithasadifferentquality.

    Hereisanexampleofthatdifferentquality.ThisisGodRestYeMerryGentlemen,theChristmasCarolthatIplayedonflute,(writtenbyanunknowncomposer,butprobablydatingbacktotheSeventeenthCentury).

    Ifyouarenewtoreadingnotationdontworry,youcanstillfollowthenotesofthistuneandnoticehowthemelodykeepscomingbacktotheA.

    WealsonamedtheAnaturalminortheAeolianmodewewillnowmoveontothemodes.Differentmodesaresimplyfoundbystartingourmajorscaleonadifferentnotethisthenarithmeticallyrearrangesthepatternofthose5tonesand2semitonesthefollowingmodesareallthereforealsodiatonic.

    Herearethenamesaswerefertothemtoday:TheSevenDiatonicModes(showingthepatternsoftonesandsemitones)

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    Amnemonicforrememberingthemodesis:

    IDontPunchLikeMuhammadALi.Togetafeelforthespecialqualitiesofeachdifferentmode,tryplayingthemyourselfatakeyboard.Noticethedifferentsequenceoftonesandsemitones.

    Alsotrythisexercise.IfyouknowthesongScarboroughFair,findthenoteDplaytwoDsandthenanA,(thebeginningofthesong)keeptryingtoplayitbyear(yesIknowthisisaliteracybasedcourse,butthatdoesntmeanyoushouldntuseyourearsitsanimportantskill).Ifyoumanagetogetthroughthe

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    tunelistentohowthatDfeelslikehome.Trysingingthescalewhilethesongisinyourmemory.Itmightbequitehard,butplayingaroundlikethiswillhelpyoutoexperiencetonality,anditwillhelpdevelopyourgeneralmusicianship.

    AnothersongintheDorianmodeisWhatShallWedoWithaDrunkenSailor.ToplaythissongwithwhitenotesyouhavetostartonAandgodowntoaDwhatshallwedowiththedrunken(that'stheDonken).

    Musicdoesntalwaysstartonitstonic,butitoftenfinishesonit,andthissongfinishesonD,whichagainshouldfeellikehome.

    Ofcourseyoucandothiswithsimplesongsbasedonthemajorscale.YoucanbeginTwinkleTwinkleLittleStaronCinordertokeepitonwhitenotes.FrereJacques(alsocalledBrotherJohnorAreYouSleeping),startsandfinishesonC,butMaryHadaLittleLambwouldstartonE(the3rd).Ontheotherhand,youcouldplayalongwithourversionofSheMovedThroughtheFair,andseeifyoucanfeeltheGasthetonicnote.JustkeepplayingthenoteGandseehowit'fits'Anyway,tryitimproviseonakeyboardoryourowninstrument!

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    HelpCenterSegment4:IntroductiontoChords

    TheCmajorandAminortriadsAtriadisathreenotechord.

    DerivingtheCmajortriadfromtheCmajorscale:

    DerivingtheAminortriadfromtheAnaturalminorscale:

    Herearethetwotriadsstandingalone,CmajorandAminor:

    WecansayherethatCmajoristhetonicoftheCmajorscale,andAminoristhetonicoftheAminor

    scale.

    Understandingtheinternalstructureofthetriadsmajorandminor:

    Firstlywewillunderstandtheintervalbetweenthebottomnoteandthetopnote,bybreakingitdown

    intosemitones,andaddingthoseup.ForCmajor,itsCandG:

    Thisintervalisaperfectfifthanintervalthatspanssevensemitones.WegetthesamethingforAminor

    betweenAandE:

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    NowweneedtofindtheintervalbetweenthebottomandmiddlenoteofthetriadofCmajor:

    ...whichgivesusamajorthird

    AndforAminor:

    Herewehavetheminorthirdsmallerbyonesemitone,i.e.theminorthirdspansonly3semitones.Itis

    thisdifferenceinthesizeortheintervalofthethirdthatmakesallthedifference(perceptually)between

    thesetwochords.

    HerewehaveallthetriadsasplayedbyZackstartingatabout5minutesinthevideo:

    InthenextsegmentwearegoingtobeginlookingathowthesetriadsrelatetotheCmajorscale,starting

    withthethreeprimarychords.

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    HelpCenterSegment5:PrimaryChords

    Thethreeprimarychords:

    SowehavetheCmajortonictriad,builtonthetonicofthescale.Thesubdominanttriadisbuiltonthe

    fourthnote,andthedominanttriadonthefifth.Theromannumeralswrittenunderneathrefertothese

    scaledegreesandareanotherimportantmeansofidentifyingthedifferenttriadsinthescale.Wewilluse

    thismuchmoreinthecominglectures.

    (notethesearetheonlymajorchordsD,E,andAareminorandofcoursetheBisdiminished)

    At3minutesinthevideo,Iharmonisedeachnoteofthemajorscalewithoneoftheseprimarychords

    thefollowingshowsthisinnotation,alsowiththenamesofeachchordinleadsheetchordsymbols:

    Afinalwordonallthesechords.Wearedescribingthemasquitefixedentitiesweidentifydifferenttriads,

    wesaywhichnotesgobestwithwhichchordetc.Historicallymusicwasaroundforalongtimebefore

    chordswereidentifiedinthisway.Inearlychurchmusic,monksbegansingingdifferentmelodicpartsat

    thesametime(harmonisingeachother'svoices).Thisdevelopedintothetechniqueknown

    ascounterpoint(thetermmeansnoteagainstnote).Ascounterpointbecamemorecomplex,three

    voicessingingdifferentnotesmightarrivetogetherandformthekindofchordswehavebeenidentifying.

    Slowlypeoplebegantorealisethatthesecouldbeextractedandusedmoreexplicitlyinthewaywedo

    now.RameauinhisTreatiseonharmony(1722)isgenerallycreditedwithfirstdescribingtriadicchords,

    aswenowknowthem,(buttheywouldalreadyhavebeeninuse).Inthetwentiethcentury,someclassical

    musicbegantodispensewithtriadicharmony,butinjazz,rock,pop,andfolk,chordscontinuetobethe

    mainwaymostmusiciansthinkofharmony.(Visitcertainpop/rockmusicforumsonlineandyouwillsee

    countlesspostsfrompeopleaskingforthechordstoplayawholevarietyofsongs).

    Postscript

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    ThroughoutthislecturethereareplaceswhereIwouldlovetosaymore.Placeswherewehavehadtosimplify

    certaintruths.Thefollowinginformationisforyourinterest,ratherthanyourfundamentalunderstandingofthe

    fundamentalsofmusictheory.

    Octaves

    Inthefirstsegmentweidentifiedtheoctaveontheguitarbyhalvingthestring.Thisbringsupaphenomenon

    formallyknownastheharmonicseries.IfyoukeephalvingastringandplayingityoudontJUSTkeepgettingthe

    nextoctaveitbecomesmoreinterestingthanthatthereisamathematicalrelationship,whichPythagorasisoften

    citedasthediscovererof(althoughothershadprobablyfigureditoutbefore).Ifyouareinterested:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonic_series_(music)

    Semitones

    Inthesecondsegmentweintroducedsemitones,butsmallerintervalsexistandareusedinlotsofmusic.Theyare

    formallycalledMicrotones.Awellknownexamplewouldbesingersorguitarists'bending'anoteupordownin

    Blues,RockandJazz.Classicalmusicfromthemidtwentiethcenturyoftenusedmicrotones,asdoesmuchmusic

    fromotherculturesaroundtheworld.

    Moreonmodes

    Thereismuchmoretosayaboutmodesandotherkindsofscalesforinstancewehaventeven

    touchedonpentatonicscales,whichareverycommoninallkindsofmusic.Foraverydetailed

    articleonthemodesandtheirhistorycheckwikipediahere:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(music)

    Andforpentatonicscaleshere:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentatonic_scale