Textile Wet Processing - Production in Textile Wet Processing ... for example, filters, environment. ... higher concentrations of the substance in each management control of ...
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Cleaner Production8 iD Textile Wei
1 A Workbook for Trainers 1
First Edition .March 1996
~,""', \~ iF~UNEPUNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMMEINDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT3~3. QUAI ANDRE ClTROEN7S739 PARIS CEDEX IS-FRANCE
TEL: (33)0144371450FAX: (33)0144 3714 74E-MAll. : firstname.lastname@example.org:/ /www.unepie.org/home.bbnl
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-)!t') Ind~stry and Cleaner Production -'
~ "~ Env~ronment in Textile Wei Processing~~..~d Envlronmental .
Training Unit A Workbookfor TramersUNEF This package is one of a series that provides practical support material to
teachers and trainers wishing to commence or enrich their curriculum withup-to-date approaches in environmental management.
It is based on extended experience with training workshops by UNEP andother agencies, and is now being made available for wider use in ail regionsthroughout the world.
The flfst version of this trainers workbook was prepared in
March 1996 by Dr Prasad Modak for UNEP lE and later
edited by Fritz Balkau.
It was subsequently trialled in workshops and courses in
several places, leading to subsequent revis ions to produce
this current document.
UNE? wou Id like to thank the many individuals andorganizations who contributed ideas and materials, or who
assisted in reviews and redrafting.
Copyright If:) UNEP 1996Ali rights reserved. No part ofthis publication may be produced, stored ina retrieval system or transmitted in any fonn or any means: electronic. )electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording orotherwise, without pennission in writing from the copyright holder.
First edition March 1996
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in thispublication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on thepart of the United Nations Environment Programme conceming the legalstatus of any country, territory, city or area or of ilS authorities, orconceming delimitation of ilS frontiers or boundaries. Moreover, theviews expressed do not necessarily represent the decision or the statedpolicy of the United Nations Environment Programme, nor does citing oftrade names or commercial processes constitute endorsement.
United Nations Publication
1 ISB~ 92-807-1608-5 1
8Table 01 Contents
Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing
Evaluation Form i
Users Guide """.".'..".""""""""""""""""""""'."""'."'.".""""".'.'...""""""""" iii
Part 1 Introduction Part V Environmental Aspects of the Dyeing Process
1.1 This package 1:4 5.1 Dyeing v:3
1.2 Contents ofthis package [:4 5.2 Dyes and their applicability v:4
Part Il Organizing Effective Training Activities 5.3 Dyeing machineries v:6
2.1 Introduction 11:3 5.4 Dyeing pollutionalloads v:9
2.2 Notes on interactive 5.5 Exercises V: II
workshop organization 11:4 5.6 Solutions V 17
8 2.3 Some.ideas for m~re .Part VI Environmental Aspects of the Printing
effective commurncatlon 11:9 and Finishing Processes
2.4 Some personal suggestions 6.1 Printing vI:3
for effective training Il: 10 6 2 F .. h 'ng V I .4.mIs 1 , ,2.5 Resource persons guide Il: II 6.3 Printing and finishing pollution
2.6 Suggestions for self study Il: 13 loads , vI:7
Part III Introduction to Current Environmental 6.4 Exercises vI:8
Issues and Aspects of 6.5 Solutions v[:9
Textile Wet Processing Part VII Application of Environmental Audit to
3.1 Introduction 1113 identify Cleaner Production Measures
3.2 Understanding 7.1 Achieving cleaner production VII:3
environmental problems 1II4 7.2 Cleaner Production audit VII: 5
3.3 Env!ronmental. as~ects of the 7.3 Conducting a waste audit VII:6 .
textIle processmg mdustry 1II:67 4 Ph 1 P t VII 7ase re-assessmen 3 4 :Exercises 1II9 7' 5'
Ph 2 l~ t .1 b 1 ce..ase JVJa erla a an :
3.5 Solutions III: II process inputs and outputs VII: 9
Part IV Environmental Aspects of 7.6 Economic and environmental
Preparatory Processing evaluation VII: 24
8 4.1 Sizi~~ (slashing) lv3 7.7 Solutions VII:294.2 Deslzmg Iv:4 Part VIII References
4.3 Scouring Iv:6 8.1 Some background documents
4.4 Bleaching Iv8 on the environment VIII:345M " IvlO ..
5.ercerlzmg 8.2 Audlovlsuals VIII:4.6 Exercises [V 12
4.7 Questions , IV 15
4.8 Solutions [v: 17
1 Data related to Pollution Issues mcludmg Health and Safety Aspects Il A Compilation of the Best Environmental Practices in Textile WeI Processing 13
Appendices1 S . D t fi th ' s Package 3
upportmg ocumen s or 1 11 List of Training Resource Packages available from UNEF lE 5
/II About UNEF Industry and Environment 7
T his is a trainers support package, not a problem-solving. Such work needs to be guidedreference book. It does flot give a by a rotor who is a recognized expert in the field.
systematic, comprehensive overview This method allows the full complexity of real(there is flot enough room to do fuis); rallier, it decision-making to be explored.focuses on some selected aspects that are central Where calculations are required, the exercisesto the subject. The structure of the document are more oriented towards throwing light onallows further sections to be easily developed and useful approaches or management decisions thanadded as additional modules. simply fmding the 'correct' answer. Trainers are
The package is written for trainers to provide strongly urged flot to see this package merely as athem with support material and ideas. It bas flot set of arithmetic exercises.
8 been intended as a study book for students. The ln some instances, answers are indicated. Theaverage trainee will only ever see a few pages or 'correct' answer often depends on the context ofexercises reproduced from this document. the question. It is here that a tutor or extemal
One of the purposes ofthis package is to resource expert is useful.provide some case studies and situation scenarios Many trainers find fuis disturbing. They shouldthat can be used as a basis for interactive training remember that real decision-making depends onand simulated decision-making. The exercises the wider circumstances surrounding the
only explore a small part of the potential of the problem, and that a numerical answer which iscase studies, and train ers are strongly encouraged politically or socially unacceptable, orto develop further exercises or tasks. administratively unworkable (even though
The package is oriented at developing insights accurate), is flot in effect 'correct'.and decision-making ski Ils. It is not particularly The simulation of reallife situations andsuited to teaching the factual knowledge base of decision-making that is the basis ofthis packagethe subject. For this, trainers are referred to the makes it most suitable for senior students and
reading lists in the bibliography. trainees, and especially for professional trainingWork exercises are predominantly based on (or retraining) courses.
interactive groupwork and a team approach to
8 Do flot forget to also refer to the package on Cleaner Production
for teaching the underlying concepts and approaches in this workbook.
Finally, we must stress again that fuis package does flot cover ail aspects of the subject. Its primepurpose is to lead trainers into this field, and to help and encourage them to develop their own material,appropriately tailored to their specific leaming situation. UNEP is prepared to work further with trainers
who wish to extend this package into new directions, or go into greater depths on some subjects.
8 --A Workbook for rrainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processlng
iv United Nations Environment Programme elndustry and Environment
How 10 sian a Iraining aclivitv )
based on Ibis workbook
1 Remember that this is a starters kit, not a 3 Refresh Jour memory by reading some of thecomplete recipe book. Remember also that the background papers and studying the overhead
workbook aims to develop insights and decision- transparencies. Write your own notes in the
making skills, not to convey knowledge or facts. spaces provided.
2 Understand the needs ofyour trainees. What 4 Identify some expert resource persans whoinsights or skills do you intend to develop? cou Id be invited as rotors to help you in
Define your learning objectives. discussion sessions.
5 Select some of the exercises you wish to 7 DeveloP other exercises or questionspresent to trainees. yourself. "
6 Examine carefully tire case study or 8 Develop Jour own local case study if you can, )
scenario on which they are based. Be sure and use this instead of the one in the package.
that you have at least one solution to the exercise 9 prepare some background questions andthat you can explain and defend. preliminary exercises for train ers to carry out
before they start the workshop/course.
1 Q In session, summarize tire issues for a rotor. Discuss and compare results. Be opentrainees using the overheads given, and to ideas and experiences from trainees, and
others you may have. Discuss the problems and discuss these.
difficulties decision-makers face. Discuss where 12 Return to tire learning objectives, andfactual information can be round to help in check that they have been achieved.
decision-making. 13 Consider how to follow up and reinforceIl Commence tire work sessions, preferably the learning experience by establishing
in small groups, and preferably guided by some ongoing projects, or periodic reunions.
Refer also to other packages and workbooks, where useful addition al teaclring material is found.
To facilitate using this workbook, the header of odd-numbered pages describes the contents ofthat
particular section. This information is also repeated in the footer of even-numbered pages. You can track
your progress through the workbook by referring to the calibrations on the bar across the bottom of odd-
The shading shows your current position in the text.
Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers
T his glossary contains some tenns which are used in the background papers and exercises, orwhich you may corne across when gathering infonnation about the topic. You may want to addsome tenns to this list.
These tenns have been taken from the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for the Assessment and
Management ofContaminated Sites, the Code of Practicefor the Investigation and Mitigation ofPossible Petroleum-Based Land Contamination, the UNIDO training course on EcologicallySustainable Development, some US EPA publications, and some UNEP lE publications.
8 Absorptivity The ability to absorb matter in bulk level(s): i.e. where the site specific assessment(e.g. water, dissolved chemicals, gases). deems that a response is required to protect
Aquifer An underground rock fonnation health or the environment.composed of materials such as sand, soil or Cradle-to-grave Tenn used to imply the wholegravel that tan store and supply ground water to life cycle of a product, from raw material towells and springs. final disposai.
Background levels Levels of substances or End-of-pipe treatment Treating pollutants at thechemicals that are commonly found in the local end ofa process (by, for example, filters,environment. catalysts and scrubbers) instead ofpreventing
Bioaccumulation The retention and concentration their occurrence.of a substance by an organism. Environmental auditing The management tool
Biodegradation Decomposition of substances into comprising a systematic, documented, periodicmore elementary compounds by the action of and objective evaluation ofhow weilmicro-organisms. environmental organization, management and
Biomagnification The serial accumulation of a equipment are perfonning. The aim is to help tochemical by organisms in the food chain, with safeguard the environment by: (i) facilitatinghigher concentrations of the substance in each management control of environmental practice;succeeding trophic level. and (ii) assessing compliance with company
8 Biological monitoring Measurement of a policies, which would include regulatorycontaminant or metabolite in body tissue or requirements.fluid. Environmental impact assessment An analysis to
Clean-up The removal, treatment or containment detennine whether an action wouldofsoil contaminated with chemicals at significantly affect the environment.unacceptable concentrations. Environmental risk assessment The process of
Cleaner production The continuous application of estimating the potential impact of a chemical oran integrated preventive strategy to processes physical agent on a specified ecological systemand products, in order to reduce environmental under a specific set of conditions.risks and impacts. Exposure Contact with a chemical, physical or
Contaminated A condition or state which biological agent.represents or potentially represents an adverse Exposure assessment The estimation (qualitativehealth or environmental impact because of the or quantitative) of the magnitude, frequency,presence of potentially hazardous substances. duration, route and extent (for example, number
Contaminated site A site where the level(s) of of organisms) of exposure to a chemical
hazardous substances is (are) above response substance or contaminant.
8A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processlng
vi United Nations Environment Programme olndustry and Environment
Hazard The capacity to produce a particular type of Pollution Degradation or impairment of the purity )adverse health or environrnental effect: e.g. one of the environrnent by causing a conditionhazard associated with benzene is leukemia. which is hazardous to public health, safety,
Health risk assessment The process of evaluating aesthetics or welfare, or to animais, birds,the potential impact of a chemical or physical wildlife, fish or aquatic life, or to plants.agent on a specified human population system Porosity Property of a solid which contains manyunder a specific set of conditions. small channels or open spaces.
Hydrology The science dealing with the Preliminary assessment The process of collecting
properties, movement, and effects ofwater on and reviewing available information about athe earth's surface, in the soil and rocks below, known or a suspected hazardous waste site orand in the atmosphere. release. If further study is needed, a site
Incineration Buming of certain types of solid, inspection is undertaken.liquid, or gaseous materials under controlled Receptor An organism, plant or physical structure
conditions to destroy hazardous waste. that receives, may receive or bas receivedIndicator analytes Readily measured chemicals environrnental exposure to a chemical.
that can indicate the probable presence of Remediation The clean-up or mitigation ofcertain classes of chemicals or substances. pollution/contamination of soil by various ..
Investigation level The concentration level of a methods. )contaminant above which further appropriate Response level Response levels apply to a