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G E O S C I E N C E A U S T R A L I A

Padang Region Damage Survey

Sengara, I.W.; Suarjana, M.; Beetham, D.; Corby, N.; Edwards, M.; Griffith, M.; Wehner, M.; Weller, R.

APPLYING GEOSCIENCE TO AUSTRALIAS MOST IMPORTANT CHALLENGES

Record

2010/44

The 30TH September 2009 West Sumatra Earthquake

GeoCat # 70863

The 30th September 2009 West Sumatra Earthquake Padang Region Damage Survey GEOSCIENCE AUSTRALIA RECORD 2010/44 by Sengara, I.W.1, Suarjana, M.1, Beetham, D.2, Corby, N.3 Edwards, M.3, Griffith, M.4, Wehner, M.3, Weller, R.5

1. Institut Teknologi Bandung 2. GNS New Zealand 3. Geoscience Australia 4. University of Adelaide 5. Cardno

Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism Minister for Resources and Energy: The Hon. Martin Ferguson, AM MP Secretary: Mr Drew Clarke

Geoscience Australia Chief Executive Officer: Dr Chris Pigram Commonwealth of Australia, 2010 This work is copyright. Apart from any fair dealings for the purpose of study, research, criticism, or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. Copyright is the responsibility of the Chief Executive Officer, Geoscience Australia. Requests and enquiries should be directed to the Chief Executive Officer, Geoscience Australia, GPO Box 378 Canberra ACT 2601. Geoscience Australia has tried to make the information in this product as accurate as possible. However, it does not guarantee that the information is totally accurate or complete. Therefore, you should not solely rely on this information when making a commercial decision. ISSN 1448-2177 ISBN 978-1-921781-55-1 GeoCat # 70863 Bibliographic reference: Sengara, I.W., Suarjana, M., Beetham, D., Corby, N., Edwards, M., Griffith, M., Wehner, M. and Weller, R. 2010. The 30th September 2009 West Sumatra Earthquake Padang Region Damage Survey. Geoscience Australia, Record 2010/44. 201pp.

The 30th September 2009 West Sumatra Earthquake Padang Region Damage Survey

III

Contents Executive Summary ......................................................................................... 1 Acknowledgements..6 1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 9 2 Padang Region .......................................................................................... 10 2.1 Historical Development ......................................................................................................... 10 2.2 Built Environment Vulnerability ........................................................................................... 10 2.3 Regional Seismicity and Hazard Implications ....................................................................... 11

2.3.1 Ground Motion .............................................................................................................. 12 2.3.2 Liquefaction................................................................................................................... 15 2.3.3 Landslide ....................................................................................................................... 15 2.3.4 Tsunami ......................................................................................................................... 15

3 Earthquake Event ...................................................................................... 16 3.1 Epicentre ................................................................................................................................ 16 3.2 Nature of Faulting .................................................................................................................. 17 3.3 Hazard footprint ..................................................................................................................... 17

3.3.1 Severity of Ground Motion............................................................................................ 17 3.3.2 Liquefaction................................................................................................................... 19 3.3.3 Landslides...................................................................................................................... 19

3.4 Broad consequences............................................................................................................... 21 3.4.1 Buildings ....................................................................................................................... 21 3.4.2 Casualties....................................................................................................................... 22 3.4.3 Infrastructure Disruption ............................................................................................... 22 3.4.4 Public Response............................................................................................................. 22

4 Disaster Survey ......................................................................................... 24 4.1 Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 24 4.2 Teams and Deployment ......................................................................................................... 24 4.3 Survey Methodologies ........................................................................................................... 24

4.3.1 Building Stock Categorisation....................................................................................... 25 4.3.2 Detailed Survey of Schools and Medical Facilities ....................................................... 26 4.3.3 Population Based Survey............................................................................................... 27

5 MASW Survey and Spatial PGA Estimate ..................................................... 31 5.1 Aims and Objectives .............................................................................................................. 31 5.2 Teams..................................................................................................................................... 31 5.3 Survey and Analysis Methodologies...................................................................................... 31

5.3.1 MASW Survey .............................................................................................................. 31 5.3.2 PGA Estimation............................................................................................................. 35

5.4 PGA Spatial Distribution Results .......................................................................................... 35 6 Post Survey Analysis ................................................................................. 38 6.1 DALA Reporting ................................................................................................................... 38

The 30th September 2009 West Sumatra Earthquake Padang Region Damage Survey

6.2 Field Data Validation/Verification......................................................................................... 39 6.3 Earthquake Intensity Re-assessment...................................................................................... 39 6.4 Economic Measures for Damage ........................................................................................... 41 6.5 Vulnerability Assessment ...................................................................................................... 42 6.6 Infrastructure Disruption........................................................................................................ 47 6.7 Social Impacts........................................................................................................................ 49 7 Padang Earthquake Reconnaissance Workshop ........................................... 52 7.1 Workshop Activity................................................................................................................. 52 7.2 Workshop Outcomes.............................................................................................................. 52

7.2.1 Indonesian Seismicity and Regulation Development .................................................... 52 7.2.2 Padang Earthquake and Survey Activity ....................................................................... 52 7.2.3 MASW and PGA Estimate ............................................................................................ 53 7.2.4 Post-survey Analysis ..................................................................................................... 53 7.2.5 Building Stock Categorisation....................................................................................... 53 7.2.6 Preliminary Vulnerability Models ................................................................................. 56

7.3 Out-of-Session Vulnerability Ranking................................................................................... 59 7.4 Workshop Recommendations ................................................................................................ 60 8 Survey Findings ........................................................................................ 61 8.1 Detailed Survey of Schools and Medical Facilities ............................................................... 61

8.1.1 Observations and Findings ............................................................................................ 61 8.1.2 Recommendations .......................................................................................

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