the appendicular skeleton - cuyamaca college · pdf filethe appendicular skeletonthe...

of 54 /54
The Appendicular Skeleton

Upload: dangbao

Post on 16-Mar-2018

292 views

Category:

Documents


10 download

TRANSCRIPT

Page 1: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton

Page 2: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

• Includes bones of the:– Limbs– Girdles, attach the limbs to the axial skeleton– Ligaments

Page 3: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Fig

7.1

Page 4: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

The pectoral girdle & upper limbs

• Bones of the pectoral girdle include:– Scapula & the Clavicle

• The sternoclavicular joint is the only direct connection to axial skeleton

• Muscles and tendons loosely hold the pectoral girdle in place

Page 5: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Glenohumeral joint

• The loose glenohumeral (scapula / humerus) joint has a wide range of flexibility but less stability

• The glenohumeral joint is a commonly dislocated joint

Page 6: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Fig

7.2

Page 7: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

The pelvic girdle & lower limbs

• Bones of the pelvic girdle include:– Two coxal bones

• Each coxal bone is made of three bones– Ilium, ischium, & pubis

• The symphysis pubis joins the coxal bones on the anterior side

• Pelvis = 2 coxal bones, sacrum, coccyx, symphysis pubis

Page 8: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

• The sacroiliac joint connects the sacrum to the coxal bones on the posterior side (strongest joint in the body)

Fig

7.11

Page 9: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

The female pelvis has:

Wider pelvic inlet & pelvic outlet

Less anterior curve to the sacrum & coccyx

Broad low pubis

Ilia that project farther laterally

Broader pubic arch

Fig

7.13

Page 10: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Fig

7.12

Page 11: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Knee injury• Occurs when foot is planted flat on ground• Blow on lateral side of the knee hinge joint

causes medial side of joint to widen tearing ligaments

• Terrible triad:• Medial collateral lig.• Medial meniscus• Ant. Cruciate lig.

Page 12: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

• Ligaments of the knee are mostly avascular ergo slow to heal from injury

• Surgery is need in most cases

Page 13: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Ankle injury-Inversion-eversion injury

• Inversion injury-• Forces plantar surface medially• Talus is shoved into the medial malleolus

of tibia• Talaus & calcaneus are forced away from

the lateral malleolus of fibula

Page 14: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

• Torn or stretched-• Cancaneofibular ligament &/or • anterior. & posterior Talofibular ligament

Page 15: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

• Eversion injury-• Forces plantar surface laterally• Talus is shoved into the lateral malleolus

of fibula (fracture to lateral malleolus)• Talaus & calcaneus are forced away from

the medial malleolus of tibia

Page 16: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

• Talus may be driven between fibula & tibia forcing bones apart & tearing interosseusmembrane

• Torn or stretched-deltiod ligament

Page 17: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Fig

7.9

Page 18: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Scapula

Page 19: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Clavicle

Page 20: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

The surgical neck is a common site of fracture on the humerus

Humerus

Page 21: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular
Page 22: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Ulna

Page 23: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular
Page 24: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Radius

Page 25: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular
Page 26: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Metacarpals numbered 1 – 5, lateral to medial

Page 27: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Phalanges numbered 1 – 5, lateral to medial

Page 28: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

ilium

Page 29: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular
Page 30: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

ischium

Page 31: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

pubisbody

Page 32: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

femur

Page 33: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular
Page 34: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

tibia

Anterior

crest

Page 35: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular
Page 36: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

fibula

Page 37: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

patella

Page 38: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

The talus articulates with the tibia

tarsals

Page 39: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Metatarsalsnumbered 1 – 5,

medial to lateral

Page 40: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

phalangesnumbered 1 – 5,

medial to lateral

Page 41: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Ligaments of the appendicularskeleton

• Chapter 8

Page 42: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Pectoral girdle

Page 43: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular
Page 44: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Rotator cuff tendons

Page 45: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Deepens the sock for the head of the humerus

Page 46: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Elbow joint

Page 47: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular
Page 48: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Hip joint

Page 49: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Ligamentumcapitisfemoris

Page 50: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Knee joint

Page 51: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular
Page 52: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Ankle joint

Page 53: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular
Page 54: The Appendicular Skeleton - Cuyamaca College · PDF fileThe Appendicular SkeletonThe AppendicularSkeleton ... Ligaments of the appendicular skeleton • Chapter 8. ... The Appendicular

Foot