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The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11

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Page 1: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate

The Appendicular Skeleton

Exercise 11

Page 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate

An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton

The Appendicular Skeleton

126 bones

Allows us to move and manipulate objects

Includes all bones besides axial skeleton

• The limbs

• The supportive girdles

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Page 3: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate
Page 4: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate
Page 5: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate

The Pectoral Girdle

Also called the shoulder girdleConnects the arms to the body Positions the shouldersProvides a base for arm movementConsists of

Two clavicles Two scapulae

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Page 6: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate
Page 7: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate

Upper Limbs

The upper limbs consist of the arms, forearms,

wrists, and hands

HumorousUlna and radiusCarpels, metacarpals, and phalanges

Page 8: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate
Page 9: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate
Page 10: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate

Pelvis Girdle

Made up of two hip bones (coxal bones)Strong to bear body weight, stress of movementPart of the pelvisCoxal bones

Made up of three fused bones• Ilium (articulates with sacrum)

• Ischium

• Pubis

Page 11: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate
Page 12: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate
Page 13: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate

Comparing the Male Pelvis and Female PelvisFemale pelvis

• Smoother and lighter• Less prominent muscle and ligament attachments• Pelvis modifications for Childbearing

• enlarged pelvic outlet• broad pubic angle (>100°)• less curvature of sacrum and coccyx• wide, circular pelvic inlet• broad, low pelvis• ilia project laterally, not upwards

Page 14: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate

Bones of the lower limb

Functions of the lower limbsWeight bearing

Motion

Page 15: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate

Bones of the Lower LimbsFemur (thigh)

Patella (kneecap)

Tibia and fibula (leg)

Tarsals (ankle)

Metatarsals (foot)

Phalanges (toes)

Page 16: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate
Page 17: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate
Page 18: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate

The Ankle

Bones of the ankle

• Navicular:

• articulates with talus and three cuneiform bones

• Medial cuneiform

• Intermediate cuneiform

• Lateral cuneiform

Page 19: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate
Page 20: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate
Page 21: The Appendicular Skeleton Exercise 11. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Allows us to move and manipulate

• Studying the Skeleton

– Reveals characteristics

• Muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone

mass)

• Medical history (condition of teeth, healed

fractures)

• Sex and age (bone measurements and fusion)

• Body size