the axial skeleton – part 2 the vertebral column

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The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column • The spine or vertebral column: – protects the spinal cord – supports the head and body 26 bones: – 24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and coccyx Regions Cervical (C) – 7 v Thoracic (T) – 12 v Lumbar (L) – 5 v Sacral (S) Coccygeal (Co)

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The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column. The spine or vertebral column : protects the spinal cord supports the head and body. 26 bones: 24 vertebrae , the sacrum, and coccyx. Regions Cervical (C) – 7 v Thoracic (T) – 12 v Lumbar (L) – 5 v Sacral (S) Coccygeal (Co). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

The Axial Skeleton – part 2The Vertebral Column

• The spine or vertebral column:– protects the spinal cord– supports the head and body

• 26 bones: – 24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and

coccyx• Regions– Cervical (C) – 7 v– Thoracic (T) – 12 v– Lumbar (L) – 5 v– Sacral (S)– Coccygeal (Co)

Page 2: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

• Curvatures • Cervical curve• Thoracic curve• Lumbar curve• Sacral curve

• Primary Curves – Thoracic and sacral curves - present during fetal

development– aka accommodation curves-accommodate internal

organs• Secondary Curves– Lumbar and cervical curves-appear after birth– Aka compensation curves-shift body weight for

upright posture

Page 3: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

Vertebrae

• 3 Parts of a Vertebra 1. vertebral body (centrum)-transfers weight

along the spine2. vertebral arch-posterior margin of vertebral

foramen 3. articular processes-lateral projections

between laminae and pedicles

Page 4: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

Figure 7–17d,e

• Intervertebral Discs – Are pads of

fibrocartilage – Separate the

vertebral bodies

– Absorb shocks

Page 5: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

Vertebral Regions

Figure 7–16

• Vertebrae are numbered:– by region, from top to

bottom– C1 articulates with skull, L5

with sacrum

• Vertebrae of each region:– have characteristics

determined by functions

Page 6: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

• Characteristics of C1–C7:– small body (support only head)– large vertebral foramen (largest part of spinal

cord)

– C1 (atlas) has no spinous process all others have short spinous processes

– tip of each spinous process is notched (bifid)

The Cervical Vertebrae

Page 7: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

– Atlas (C1):• articulates with occiptal condyles of skull• has no body or spinous process• has a large, round foramen within anterior and

posterior arches– Axis (C2):

• supports the atlas• has heavy spinous process• to attach muscles of head and neck• Has dens(tooth)

Page 8: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

– Vertebra prominens (C7):• transitions to thoracic vertebrae• has a long spinous process with a broad tubercle

• Whiplash:– a traumatic dislocation of cervical vertebrae

Page 9: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

The Thoracic Vertebrae• Characteristics T1–T12:

– have heart-shaped bodies– larger bodies than in C1–C7– smaller vertebral foramen

than in C1–C7– long, slender spinous

processes– Dorsolateral surfaces of body

have costal facets-which articulate with heads of ribs

Page 10: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

– T1–T10:

• Ribs at T1–T10:-contact costal and transverse costal facets• T1–T8 articulate with 2 pairs of ribs-at superior and inferior costal facets

• T9–T11 articulate with 1 pair of ribs• T10–T12 transition to lumbar vertebrae

Page 11: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

The Lumbar Vertebrae• Characteristics L1–

L5:– largest vertebrae– oval-shaped bodies– thicker bodies than T1–

T12– no costal or transverse

costal facets– triangular vertebral

foramen– Transverse processes-

slender– Spinous process-short,

heavy – for attachment of

lower back muscles

Page 12: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

Comparing Vertebrae

Table 7–2

Page 13: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

The Sacrum and Coccyx• Characteristics -

sacrum:– is curved, more in

males than in females

– protects reproductive, urinary, and digestive organs

– attaches-the axial skeleton to pelvic girdle of appendicular skeleton

– broad muscles that move the thigh

– The adult sacrum:• consists of 5 fused

sacral vertebrae• fuses between puberty

and ages 25–30• leaving transverse

lines

Page 14: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

– Sacral canal:• replaces the vertebral canal

– Sacral cornua:• horn-shaped• formed by laminae of the 5th sacral vertebra• which do not meet at midline

– Sacral hiatus:• opening at the

inferior end of the sacral canal

• formed by ridges of sacral cornua

• covered by connective tissues

Page 15: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

– Median sacral crest:• fused spinous processes

– Lateral sacral crest:• attach to muscles of lower back and hip

– Auricular surface:• articulates with pelvic girdle (sacroiliac joint)

– Sacral tuberosity:• attaches ligaments of the sacroiliac joint

Page 16: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

• 4 Regions of the Sacrum – Base-the broad superior surface– Ala-wings at either side of the base to attach

muscles– Sacral promontory-at the center of the base– Apex-the narrow inferior portion articulates

with the coccyx

Page 17: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

• Characteristics - coccyx:– attaches ligaments and a constricting muscle

of the anus– mature coccyx-consists of 3 to 5 fused

coccygeal vertebrae– first 2 coccygeal vertebrae-have transverse

processes and have unfused vertebral arches– coccygeal cornua-formed by laminae of 1st

coccygeal vertebra

Page 18: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

The Thoracic Cage• The skeleton of the chest-supports the

thoracic cavity• Consists of:

– thoracic vertebrae– ribs– sternum (breastbone)

• Rib Cage - formed of ribs and sternum

Page 19: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

Articulations of Ribs and Vertebrae

Figure 7–22b

• Functions – Protects organs of

the thoracic cavity-heart, lungs, and thymus– Attaches muscles:• for respiration• of the vertebral column• of the pectoral girdle• of the upper limbs

Page 20: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

The Ribs• Functions

– are flexible– are mobile– can absorb shock

• Rib movements (breathing):– affect width and

depth of thoracic cage

– changing its volume

• Ribs (costae)-12 pairs of long, curved, flat bones extending from the thoracic vertebrae

Page 21: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

• Ribs 1–7 (true ribs)– vertebrosternal ribs– connected to the sternum by costal cartilages

• Ribs 8–12 (false ribs): – do not attach directly to the sternum– Vertebrochondral ribs (ribs 8–10):

• fuse together • merge with cartilage before reaching the sternum

– Floating or vertebral ribs (ribs 11–12):• connect only to the vertebrae• have no connection with the sternum

Page 22: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

• Structures of the Ribs – The head (capitulum):

• at the vertebral end of the rib• has superior and inferior

articular facets

– The neck:• the short area between

the head and the tubercle

– The tubercle (tuberculum):• a small dorsal elevation• has an auricular facet that

contacts the facet of its thoracic vertebra (at T1–T10 only)

– The tubercular body (shaft):• attaches muscles of the

pectoral girdle and trunk• attaches to the intercostal

muscles which move the ribs

Page 23: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

The Sternum• The sternum-a flat bone in the midline of

the thoracic wall • 3 parts

– 1-manubrium:• superior portion of

sternum• broad, triangular

shape• articulates with

collarbones (clavicles) & cartilages of 1st rib pair

• has a jugular notch between clavicular articulations

– 2-sternal body:• tongue-shaped• attaches to the

manubrium & costal cartilages of ribs 2–7

Page 24: The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

– 3-xiphoid process:• smallest part of the sternum• attaches to the sternal body