the baroque era, j. s. bach

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  1. 1. The Baroque Era 1600 - 1750
  2. 2. The word "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning misshapen pearl. A description of the ornate and heavily ornamented music and architecture of this period.
  3. 3. Important historical events Religious wars in Europe (Protestants vs. Catholics) Absolute monarchy Puritan Revolution English Civil War Exploring the New World Jamestown (1607) First printed book in North American colonies: Bay Psalm Book, (1640) Colonial Williamsburg
  4. 4. Science Scientific discoveries of Galileo, Harvey and Newton. Mathematical advances of Descartes, Newton and Leibnitz. Philosophical explorations of Descartes, Spinoza and Locke.
  5. 5. Visual Art P. Rubens (1577 1640) Flemish painter The Exchange of Princesses The Virgin and Child Adored by Angels
  6. 6. Rembrandt Dutch painter Christ In The Storm On The Sea Of Galilee 1633
  7. 7. Architecture The Church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is a very good example of Baroque architecture with its domed roof and curved contours.
  8. 8. Governor's Palace (1722) in Colonial Williamsburg
  9. 9. Ludwigsburg Palace near Stuttgart, Germany's largest Baroque Palace
  10. 10. Grand Peterhof Palace and the Grand Cascade, St. Petersburg Russia
  11. 11. Melk Abbey, Austria
  12. 12. Church of the Third Order of St. Francis, Brazil
  13. 13. The Doctrine of Affections The main purpose of music is to arose the passions or affections. Each piece or a movement limits itself only to one of the emotions.
  14. 14. The Use of Different Keys C Major: rejoicing, impudent C Minor: sweet, but sad D Major: stubborn, noisy, warlike and rousing D Minor: devout, serious, grand, calming E Flat Major: pathetic, plaintive E Major: the fatal separation of body and soul E Minor: pensive and grieving, but not without hope G Flat Minor: distress, abandonment G Major: persuasive and brilliant G Minor: grace, kindness, loveliness A Major: gripping and clear A Minor: honorable and calm B Flat Major: magnificent, yet modest B Minor: hard, unpleasant and desperate
  15. 15. The creation of tonality Equal temperament Watch segments 10 16: talViewVideo.aspx?xtid=10879&psid=0&sid=0&St ate=&title=Equal%20Temperament&IsSearch=N& parentSeriesID= Zhu Zaiyu or Chu-Tsaiyu in 1584 and Simon Stevin in 1585 achieved the exact calculation. J. S. Bach wrote The Well-Tempered Clavier to demonstrate the musical possibilities of well temperament 12 notes per octave.
  16. 16. New Genres Opera Cantata Oratorio Concerto Sonata
  17. 17. Figured bass The numbers indicate what additional notes to play: the number of the scale steps above the given bass notes.
  18. 18. Violin =hcpqxQCq-UM Please watch segments 1 - 4: px?xtid=6684&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=The%20Violin&IsSearch =N&parentSeriesID=#
  19. 19. ViolinbyNicoloAmati(15961684),Cremona,1669
  20. 20. Viola damore 8Raeqm8 d99CS6o
  21. 21. Cello Baroque cello and harpsichord:
  22. 22. Violone, later Bass Please watch segments 2 and 3 in this video: d=6686&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=Bass%20Instruments&IsSearch=N& parentSeriesID=#
  23. 23. Theorbo =qeUcGD4rRRc
  24. 24. Trumpet =qPl2LUq-vpw
  25. 25. Serpent .com/watch?v=0eaf B4QqziA
  26. 26. Fortepiano
  27. 27. Harpsichord /watch?v=GMPIMUuE7yI Please watch segment 8: edu:2048/PortalViewVideo.aspx?xtid =925&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=K eyboard%20and%20Percussion&IsSe arch=N&parentSeriesID=#
  28. 28. Organ http://www.youtu JHQFOP4HoRw 0&sid=0&State=&title=The%20Organ&IsSearch=N&parentSeriesID=
  29. 29. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 1750)
  30. 30. Childhood Was born into a musical family. Lost his parents by the age of 10 and moved in with his brother, an organist. At the age of 14, was awarded a choral scholarship to study at the prestigious St. Michaels School in Luneburg, where he sang in the choir and played organ and harpsichord. Bach-Haus museum. Stands on the same location as the original Bach family house.
  31. 31. Weimar, Arnstadt, and Mhlhausen (170308) A court musician in the chapel of Duke Johann Ernst in Weimar. The organist at St. Bonifaces Church in Arnstadt. Studied with the great organist Dietrich Buxtehude. The organist at St. Blasiuss church in Muhlhausen. Married Maria Barbara Bach, his second cousin. They had seven children, four of whom survived to adulthood. St. Bonifaces Church in Arnstadt
  32. 32. Return to Weimar (170817) Returned to Weimar as organist and director of music at the ducal court. Composed keyboard and orchestral works. Transcribed Vivaldis string and wind concertos for harpsichord and organ. Composed for organ. Began The Well-Tempered Clavier
  33. 33. Kthen (171723) Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Kthen hired Bach to serve as his Kapellmeister (director of music). The prince was Calvinist and did not use elaborate music in his worship. Most of Bachs work from this period was secular. The Orchestral Suites. johann-sebastian-bach/ Six Suites for solo cello. Sonatas and Partitas for solo violin. Brandenburg Concertos. johann-sebastian-bach/ Secular cantatas for the court. Bachs first wife suddenly died and he met and married Anna Magdalena Wilcke. They had 13 more children, six of whom survived into adulthood.
  34. 34. Leipzig (172350) Was appointed Cantor of the Thomasschule at Thomaskirche in Leipzig and Director of Music in the principal churches in the town. Composed cantatas required for weekly and holiday services. Some of Bachs last compositions: The Musical Offering The Goldberg Variations Canonic Variations The Art of the Fugue Died at the age of 65 due to unsuccessful eye operation. His grave went unmarked for nearly 150 years.
  35. 35. Major Compositions For soloists, choir, orchestra St. Matthew Passions Magnificat Mass in B Minor More than 200 Cantatas For orchestra 6 Brandenburg Concertos 5 Suites For different instruments: 2 Concertos for violin Concerto for 2 violins Concertos for 1, 2, 3, and 4 harpsichords The Art of Fugue for harpsichord 6 Concertos for organ Fantasias and Fugues for organ Bach Toccata and Fugue in D Minor Sonatas 6 Sonatas for violin and harpsichord 3 Sonatas and 3 Partitas for violin solo 6 Suites for cello solo
  36. 36. Video Assignment Please watch the following video and take notes. You will be asked to reflect on Bachs life and legacy. aspx?xtid=29998&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=Johann%20Sebas tian%20Bach&IsSearch=N&parentSeriesID=
  37. 37. Required Readings

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