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The Book of Jonah The Book of Jonah Between Science & Between Science & Religion Religion

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Page 1: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

The Book of JonahThe Book of Jonah

Between Science & ReligionBetween Science & Religion

Page 2: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Internal EvidenceInternal Evidence

• Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquityJonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

• The Book is included among the Hebrew The Book is included among the Hebrew Books, even though it disagrees with their Books, even though it disagrees with their patriotic zeal.patriotic zeal.

• Mentioned in II Kings 14:25Mentioned in II Kings 14:25“He restored the territory of Israel from the entrance of Hamath to the Sea “He restored the territory of Israel from the entrance of Hamath to the Sea of the Arabah, according to the word of the Lord God of Israel, which He of the Arabah, according to the word of the Lord God of Israel, which He had spoken through His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet who had spoken through His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet who was from Gath Hepher.”was from Gath Hepher.”

• Mentioned by Jesus ChristMentioned by Jesus Christ

Page 3: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Jonah’s 1Jonah’s 1stst Sin Sin

• Jonah Disobeyed GodJonah Disobeyed God

Page 4: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Nature Obeys GodNature Obeys God• The Storm Obeys:The Storm Obeys:

“But the Lord sent out a great wind on the sea, and there was a mighty tempest on “But the Lord sent out a great wind on the sea, and there was a mighty tempest on the sea, so that the ship was about to be broken up.” the sea, so that the ship was about to be broken up.” Jonah 1:4Jonah 1:4

• The Lots Obey:The Lots Obey:“So they cast lots, and the lot fell on Jonah.” “So they cast lots, and the lot fell on Jonah.” Jonah 1:7Jonah 1:7

• The Fish Obeys:The Fish Obeys:“Now the Lord had prepared a great fish to swallow Jonah. And Jonah was in the “Now the Lord had prepared a great fish to swallow Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.” belly of the fish three days and three nights.” Jonah 1:17Jonah 1:17

• The Gourd Obeys:The Gourd Obeys:“And the Lord God prepared a plant and made it come up over Jonah, that it might “And the Lord God prepared a plant and made it come up over Jonah, that it might be shade for his head to deliver him from his misery. So Jonah was very grateful be shade for his head to deliver him from his misery. So Jonah was very grateful for the plant.” for the plant.” Jonah 4:6Jonah 4:6

• The Worm Obeys:The Worm Obeys:“But as morning dawned the next day God prepared a worm, and it so damaged “But as morning dawned the next day God prepared a worm, and it so damaged the plant that it withered.” the plant that it withered.” Jonah 4:7Jonah 4:7

• The Wind Obeys:The Wind Obeys:“God prepared a vehement east wind; and the sun beat on Jonah's head, so that he “God prepared a vehement east wind; and the sun beat on Jonah's head, so that he grew faint.” grew faint.” Jonah 4:8Jonah 4:8

Page 5: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Gentiles Obey GodGentiles Obey God

• The Sailors ObeyThe Sailors Obey– The captain came to him, and said to him, "What do you mean, The captain came to him, and said to him, "What do you mean,

sleeper? Arise, call on your God; perhaps your God will consider us, sleeper? Arise, call on your God; perhaps your God will consider us, so that we may not perish." so that we may not perish." Jonah 1:6Jonah 1:6

– They cried out to the Lord and said, "We pray, O Lord, please do not They cried out to the Lord and said, "We pray, O Lord, please do not let us perish for this man's life, and do not charge us with innocent let us perish for this man's life, and do not charge us with innocent blood; for You, O Lord, have done as it pleased You." blood; for You, O Lord, have done as it pleased You." Jonah 1:14Jonah 1:14

• The Ninevites ObeyThe Ninevites Obey– ““So the people of Nineveh believed God, proclaimed a fast, and put on So the people of Nineveh believed God, proclaimed a fast, and put on

sackcloth, from the greatest to the least of them.” sackcloth, from the greatest to the least of them.” Jonah 3:5Jonah 3:5– ““Then word came to the king of Nineveh; and he arose from his throne Then word came to the king of Nineveh; and he arose from his throne

and laid aside his robe, covered himself with sackcloth and sat in and laid aside his robe, covered himself with sackcloth and sat in ashes.” ashes.” Jonah 3:6Jonah 3:6

Page 6: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Jonah’s 2Jonah’s 2ndnd Sin Sin

• Lack of Divine PerspectiveLack of Divine Perspective– Does not want God to spare the enemyDoes not want God to spare the enemy– The Lord said, "You have had pity on the plant for which The Lord said, "You have had pity on the plant for which

you have not labored, nor made it grow, which came up you have not labored, nor made it grow, which came up in a night and perished in a night. And should I not pity in a night and perished in a night. And should I not pity Nineveh, that great city, in which are more than one Nineveh, that great city, in which are more than one hundred and twenty thousand persons who cannot hundred and twenty thousand persons who cannot discern between their right hand and their left-and much discern between their right hand and their left-and much livestock?" livestock?" Jonah 4:10-11Jonah 4:10-11

Page 7: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Internal EvidenceInternal Evidence

• Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquityJonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

• The Book is included among the Hebrew The Book is included among the Hebrew Books, even though it disagrees with their Books, even though it disagrees with their patriotic zeal.patriotic zeal.

• Mentioned in II Kings 14:25Mentioned in II Kings 14:25“He restored the territory of Israel from the entrance of Hamath to the Sea “He restored the territory of Israel from the entrance of Hamath to the Sea of the Arabah, according to the word of the Lord God of Israel, which He of the Arabah, according to the word of the Lord God of Israel, which He had spoken through His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet who had spoken through His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet who was from Gath Hepher.”was from Gath Hepher.”

• Mentioned by Jesus ChristMentioned by Jesus Christ

Page 8: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Jesus Christ’s ReferralJesus Christ’s Referral• But He answered and said to them, "An evil and adulterous But He answered and said to them, "An evil and adulterous

generation seeks after a sign, and no sign will be given to it generation seeks after a sign, and no sign will be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was three except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. The men of Nineveh will rise up in the judgment with earth. The men of Nineveh will rise up in the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because they repented at the this generation and condemn it, because they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and indeed a greater than Jonah is here.” preaching of Jonah; and indeed a greater than Jonah is here.” Matthew 12:39-41Matthew 12:39-41

• "A wicked and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, and "A wicked and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, and no sign shall be given to it except the sign of the prophet no sign shall be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah." Jonah." Matthew 16:4Matthew 16:4

• And while the crowds were thickly gathered together, He And while the crowds were thickly gathered together, He began to say, "This is an evil generation. It seeks a sign, and began to say, "This is an evil generation. It seeks a sign, and no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah the prophet. no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah the prophet. For as Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, so also the Son For as Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, so also the Son of Man will be to this generation.” of Man will be to this generation.” Luke 11:29-30Luke 11:29-30

Page 9: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Archeological EvidenceArcheological Evidence

• The City of NinevehThe City of Nineveh

Page 10: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Location of NinevehLocation of Nineveh

Page 11: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Physical SciencesPhysical Sciences

• Two Kinds of Whales:Two Kinds of Whales:

Page 12: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Modern DiscoveriesModern Discoveries

Page 13: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Whale’s StomachWhale’s Stomach

Page 14: The Book of Jonah Between Science & Religion. Internal Evidence Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity Jonah’s frankness in confessing his iniquity

Bitter GourdBitter Gourd