the condition of nyc high schools: examining trends and looking toward the future (2013)

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    The Condit ion of New York CityHigh Schools: 1999-2011

    Examining Trends and LookingToward the Future

    James KempleExecutive Director

    M a r c h 2 7 , 2 0 1 3

    The Research Alliance forNew York City Schools at NYU

    1

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    Overview2

    One in a series of papers to inform future education

    policies for high schools in New York City Sets the stage with descriptive information about

    system configuration and trends over a 12-yearperiod (1999-2011)

    Papers in this series include: On-track indicators (version published in JESPAR, Feb. 2013)

    Impact of school closures (phase outs) Characteristics of schools that beat the odds

    College enrollment and validation of college readinessindicators

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    An Evolving System of High Schools4

    In 1999, 212 schools enrolling 72,928 1sttime 9thgraders: 5 Specialized HS

    186 General and Vocational HS 21 Junior HS (grade 7-9)

    In 2010, 409 schools enrolling 72,588 1sttime 9thgraders: 9 Specialized HS 148 Gen. and Voc. HS operated continuously since 1999 251 New HS (73% enrolling 110 or fewer 1sttime 9thgraders) 1 Junior HS

    Over 12 years, 60 schools phased out or no longer serving 9th

    graders: 38 original HS phased out 20 original JHS no longer serve 9thgraders 2 schools opened and phased out

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    The Shifting HS LandscapeMore Schools/Smaller Size

    5

    212

    409

    344

    178

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    400

    450

    1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Number

    ofSchool/StudentperSchool

    First Year of High School (as of September)

    Number of Schools

    New 9th Graders pschool

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    Steady Progress/Persistent Aspirations Gap6

    Steady improvement at key stages of development:

    Getting on track in Grade 9 (28 percent growth from 2001 to2007 cohorts, 50 percent through 2011 cohort)

    Staying on track and earning a Regents diploma (64 percentgrowth from 2001 to 2007 cohorts)

    Graduating with college ready credentials (61 percent growthfrom 2001 to 2007 cohorts)

    Aspirations gap: 56-64 percent of Regents diploma recipients do not meet

    aspirational performance standard based on Math andEnglish Regents exams

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    Progress on 9thGrade on Track,Graduation, and College Readiness

    7

    15.918.9

    20.4

    40.7

    19.1

    9.6

    41.6

    53.3

    62.2

    13.2

    21.3

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Perce

    ntof1stTime9thGraders

    First Year of HS (as of September)

    Local

    Regents

    Advanced Regen

    On-Track grade

    College Ready

    Diploma

    Diplom

    Advanced RegentsDiploma

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    Decline in Dropout and Discharge Rates8

    22.417.3

    18.2

    11.7

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

    Percentof1stTime9thGraders

    First Year of HS (as of September)

    Dischar

    Dropou

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    Better Preparation in Early Grades andMore Effective High Schools

    9

    Better preparation at entry to high school:

    Improving 8thgrade achievement in Math and ELA Improving attendance

    Improving on-track, graduation, and college readyoutcomes across the spectrum of prior preparation Strongest gains made by students in the bottom and middle of

    the distribution of 8thgrade attendance and achievement.

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    Better Prepared 1stTime 9thGraders:ELA and Math Proficiency in Grade 8

    10

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Perc

    entProficient(Level3-4)

    First Year of High School (as of September)

    ELA Level 3

    Math Level

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    Graduating with a Regents DiplomaBy Grade 8 Attendance and Test Score Groups

    11

    8.9

    32

    54.8

    4.4

    23.8

    63.8

    24.7

    56.6

    76.2

    22.1

    53.8

    82.5

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    = 95% Bottom 20% Middle 60% Top 20%

    PercentEarningRegentsDiploma

    2

    2

    Grade 8 AttendanceGroups

    Grade 8 ELA/Math Test ScoreGroups

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    College ReadinessBy Grade 8 Attendance and Test Score Groups

    12

    2.5

    9.4

    22.6

    0.13.7

    26.8

    3.4

    15.7

    34.5

    0.5

    8.1

    40.9

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    = 95% Bottom 20% Middle 60% Top 20%

    PercentCollegeReady

    2

    2

    Grade 8 AttendanceGroups

    Grade 8 ELA/Math Test ScoreGroups

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    Progress on Closing Gaps,But Significant Differences Remain

    13

    Strongest gains among black, Latino, low-income,

    ELL and special education students: Regents diploma receipt more than doubled among black,

    Latino, ELL, and special education students (related services).

    Growth on college readiness fastest for these groups, but lessdramatic than growth on Regents diploma receipt.

    Significant gaps remain: Asian and white students nearly 1.5 times more likely than

    black and Latino students to earn a Regents diploma and 4times more likely to be college ready.

    Approximately 10 percent of entering black and Latino youngmen graduate college ready.

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    Graduating with a Regents DiplomaBy Race and Gender

    14

    64.6

    28.7 30.1

    62.0

    54.1

    23.0 21.4

    55.7

    84.9

    55.7 57.1

    80.8

    76.6

    47.6 48.1

    73.4

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    Asian Hispanic Black White Asian Hispanic Black White

    R

    egentsDiplomaRate

    2

    2

    Young Women Young Men

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    College ReadinessBy Race and Gender

    15

    37.4

    7.1 7.1

    27.8 28.4

    5.3 3.9

    24.8

    57.0

    13.3 12.2

    44.747.9

    10.58.2

    39.5

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    Asian Hispanic Black White Asian Hispanic Black White

    C

    ollegeReadinessRate

    20

    20

    Young Women Young Men

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    Graduating with a Regents DiplomaBy Demographic Groups

    16

    43.5

    14.0

    44.1

    32.3

    37.835.0

    38.0

    21.6

    38.4

    9.5

    68.7

    34.4

    65.5

    57.3

    61.9

    57.861.2

    44.1

    62.7

    27.8

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    At Age Overage HigherSES

    LowerSES

    English NotEnglish

    Non-ELL

    ELL NotSpedial

    Ed.

    SpecialEd.

    R

    egentsDiplomaRate

    20

    20

    NotSpecial

    Ed

    SpecialEd

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    College ReadinessBy Demographic Groups

    17

    16.1

    4.2

    18.6

    10.5

    15.7

    11.014.0

    6.4

    14.2

    1.5

    26.5

    6.9

    27.4

    18.9

    25.2

    18.1

    22.6

    8.9

    23.0

    3.7

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    At Age Overage HigherSES

    LowerSES

    English NotEnglish

    Non-ELL

    ELL NotSpedial

    Ed.

    SpecialEd.

    CollegeReadinessRate

    20

    20

    NotSpecial

    Ed

    SpecialEd

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    Looking Forward18

    Strong evidence from other studies that new, non-

    selective small schools produce substantialimprovement in student outcomes.

    Three-pronged approach to advance high schoolreform agenda: Identify and support students who struggle to reach the

    minimum requirements for a Regents diploma.

    Align performance standards, curricula, and instruction withthe skills that students need to succeed in college.

    Multiple, high-quality pathways that combine academic andcareer development and reach students who do not opt forfour-year college.

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    Open Questions19

    Get beyond the averages: What are the characteristics ofschools that raise achievement andclose gaps?

    Examine impact of policy elements: What is the impactof phasing out low-performing high schools: On students who are enrolled in the schools as they are phase out? On students who would have enrolled had they remained open? On teachers who work in those schools? On communities?

    Closer look at system changes: What is the impact of

    universal and mandatory high school choice: On the distribution and performance of high performing students

    and students with special needs? On the performance of students who are assigned to preferred

    schools vs. less preferred schools?

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    Questions?

    Research Alliance for New York City Schools

    New York University285 Mercer Street, 3rd Floor

    New York, NY 10003

    212-992-7697

    www.ranycs.org

    James [email protected]

    http://www.ranycs.org/mailto:james[email protected]:[email protected]://www.ranycs.org/
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    The Condition of New York City High Schools:Examining Trends and Looking Toward the Future

    TECHNICAL APPENDICES

    James J. Kemple

    May 2013

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    1 THE CONDITION OF NEW YORK CITY HIGH SCHOOL

    A gloss ary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin o n page 1

    Table A-1: Schools Serving First-Time 9thGraders, 1999-2010

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    All schools

    Number of schools 469 212 212 214 235 257 306 335 344 355 376 390 409

    Total 9th-grade enrollment 898,785 72,928 71,587 72,037 75,383 77,555 78,290 78,699 76,362 75,127 73,470 74,759 72,588

    Average 9th-grade enrollment per

    school 247 344 338 337 321 302 256 235 222 212 195 192 178

    Specialized high schools

    Number of schools 9 5 5 5 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9

    Total 9th-grade enrollment 45,198 3,313 3,351 3,359 3,586 3,418 3,595 3,763 4,055 3,898 4,123 4,370 4,367

    Average 9th-grade enrollment per

    school 491 663 670 672 448 427 449 470 451 433 458 486 485

    Continuously operating highschools

    Number of schools 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148

    Total 9th-grade enrollment 596,332 49,238 48,683 49,839 52,105 54,540 54,098 52,255 50,399 49,434 46,528 46,545 42,668

    Average 9th-grade enrollment per

    school 336 333 329 337 352 369 366 353 341 334 314 315 288

    New high schools

    Number of schools 251 0 3 9 31 64 122 153 167 187 213 231 251

    Total 9th-grade enrollment 149,023 0 249 1,273 2,856 7,208 12,960 16,506 17,707 19,283 21,792 23,700 25,489

    Average 9th-grade enrollment per

    school 104 0 83 141 92 113 106 108 106 103 102 103 102

    Phased-out high schools

    Number of schools 40 38 37 35 33 24 17 15 14 9 4 n/a n/a

    Total 9th-grade enrollment 87,092 16,254 15,409 14,018 13,832 9,831 6,083 4,816 3,621 2,337 891 n/a n/a

    Average 9th-grade enrollment per

    school 385 428 417 401 419 410 358 321 259 260 223 n/a n/a

    Junior high schools (grades 7-9)

    Number of schools 21 21 19 17 15 13 11 11 6 2 2 2 1

    Total 9th-grade enrollment 21,140 4,123 3,895 3,548 3,004 2,558 1,554 1,359 580 175 136 144 64

    Average 9th-grade enrollment per

    school 176 196 205 209 200 197 141 124 97 88 68 72 64

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    2

    A glo ssary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin on page 17.

    Table A-2: High School Enrollment Patterns Over Four Years, First-Time 9thGraders, 1999-2010

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 201

    Start of high school year 2

    Enrolled: On track 40.9 28.4 33.1 36.0 33.5 30.4 33.5 35.3 38.9 48.7 55.7 57.7 61

    Enrolled: Off track 52.0 63.2 59.3 55.6 59.0 61.7 58.2 56.7 54.2 45.3 39.1 37.1 33

    Dropped out 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0

    Discharged 6.5 7.7 7.0 7.6 6.9 7.3 7.4 7.3 6.5 5.7 4.9 4.9 4Start of high school year 3

    Enrolled: On track 43.4 32.3 33.8 37.3 38.5 39.2 41.7 43.0 47.0 51.5 56.2 58.1 n

    Enrolled: Off track 43.6 51.6 51.1 47.8 48.3 46.6 43.9 43.6 41.1 38.3 34.7 33.0 n

    Dropped out 2.2 3.6 3.0 2.6 1.7 2.1 2.4 1.9 2.0 1.5 1.3 1.3 n

    Discharged 10.8 12.6 12.1 12.2 11.5 12.0 12.0 11.5 10.0 8.7 7.8 7.6 n

    Start of high school year 4

    Enrolled: On track 44.5 31.9 35.4 39.3 40.5 42.0 44.4 47.3 51.3 54.7 58.5 n/a n

    Enrolled: Off track 35.5 40.7 40.6 39.9 38.7 36.6 35.0 33.1 31.9 30.6 28.2 n/a n

    Dropped out 6.1 11.1 8.5 5.6 5.6 5.9 5.5 5.6 4.8 4.3 4.0 n/a n

    Discharged 13.9 16.3 15.5 15.3 15.2 15.6 15.0 14.0 11.9 10.5 9.3 n/a n

    After year 4

    Graduated NYC high school 50.7 41.2 44.2 45.3 47.3 48.7 52.0 55.3 59.6 61.1 n/a n/a n

    Enrolled in NYC high school 19.5 19.8 23.4 22.4 20.8 20.1 17.8 17.3 16.8 17.3 n/a n/a n

    Dropped out 13.5 20.4 14.7 14.1 13.9 13.4 13.3 11.7 10.2 9.9 n/a n/a n

    Transferred to non-NYC HS 16.4 18.7 17.8 18.2 17.9 17.9 16.9 15.8 13.4 11.7 n/a n/a n

    Number of students 898,785 72,928 71,587 72,037 75,383 77,555 78,290 78,699 76,362 75,127 73,470 74,759 72,5

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    3 THE CONDITION OF NEW YORK CITY HIGH SCHOOL

    A gloss ary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin o n page 1

    Table A-3: Student Outcomes, First-Time 9thGraders, 1999-2010

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Percent of days present

    During 1styear of HS 78.6 n/b 81.1 80.3 83.0 80.3 81.1 80.2 83.0 82.9 81.7 80.8 82.2

    During 2nd

    year of HS 79.4 76.9 77.0 80.0 79.8 79.0 78.1 80.4 81.0 81.1 79.0 80.1 n/a

    During 3rd

    year of HS 76.5 72.5 76.0 76.2 75.7 74.7 77.4 77.6 78.7 77.5 77.5 n/a n/a

    During 4thyear of HS 73.1 72.2 72.2 71.4 70.4 73.0 74.1 74.7 74.3 74.8 n/a n/a n/a

    Credits earned

    During 1styear of HS 11.3 9.9 10.2 10.8 10.6 10.1 11.6 11.9 12.2 12.5 12.5 11.6 11.8

    During 2nd

    year of HS 10.7 8.4 8.7 9.3 9.7 11.4 11.6 11.8 12.0 12.3 10.7 10.9 n/a

    During 3rd

    year of HS 10.5 8.0 8.4 9.2 11.0 11.2 11.5 11.7 12.0 11.0 10.3 n/a n/a

    During 4thyear of HS 9.0 6.7 7.2 9.0 9.2 9.7 9.8 10.1 9.3 9.3 n/a n/a n/a

    Credits earned (HS years 1-4) 42.7 34.0 36.0 39.7 41.9 43.8 46.2 47.3 47.4 46.1 n/a n/a n/a

    Percent of students on-track

    End of 1styear of HS 45.6 33.0 38.1 41.6 38.4 35.1 38.4 40.1 43.3 53.3 56.8 58.8 62.2

    End of 2nd

    year of HS 49.8 38.6 40.2 44.6 45.7 46.7 49.3 50.3 53.6 57.5 57.2 59.0 n/a

    End of 3rd

    year of HS 52.3 39.0 42.8 47.8 49.1 50.9 53.3 56.0 59.1 61.7 59.2 n/a n/a

    Cumulative Regents (HS years 1-4)

    Average number of examspassed at 65+ 4.4 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.9 5.3 n/a n/a n/

    Percent passing math at 80+ 23.2 20.1 18.7 17.5 22.8 23.7 26.2 25.7 27.6 24.9 n/a n/a n/

    Percent passing English at 75+ 38.7 29.5 33.2 36.6 35.6 36.8 38.6 42.8 44.3 49.2 n/a n/a n/

    Four-year graduation rates (as ofOctober)

    Advanced Regents diploma 14.6 n/b n/b 15.9 15.4 16.6 17.8 17.9 18.8 18.9 n/a n/a n/

    Regents diploma 26.3 n/b n/b 20.4 23.3 24.4 27.0 31.3 36.1 40.7 n/a n/a n/

    Local diploma 19.6 n/b n/b 19.1 18.9 18.2 17.8 16.4 13.9 9.6 n/a n/a n/

    College-ready graduates 17.9 n/b n/b 13.2 16.7 17.7 19.8 20.7 22.1 21.3 n/a n/a n/

    Number of Students 787,351 59,311 58,873 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332 73,470 74,759 72,58

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    4

    A glo ssary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin on page 17.

    Table A-4: Grade 8 Performance, First-Time 9thGraders, 1999-2010

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Enrollment status

    Not enrolled in NYC public school 9.4 13.1 9.9 10.3 9.4 9.2 11.3 7.3 6.5 6.5 8.3 9.0 12.5

    Enrolled in NYC public school 90.6 86.9 90.1 89.7 90.6 90.8 88.7 92.7 93.5 93.5 91.7 91.0 87.5

    Attendance

    Data missing 12.1 13.3 12.3 12.7 11.9 11.9 11.4 11.4 10.9 10.8 12.5 13.4 12.7

    Percent of days present 90.9 89.6 90.6 90.5 90.9 91.0 90.9 90.7 90.3 91.0 91.2 91.4 92.1

    Attendance rate: less than 85% 16.0 20.3 15.7 16.0 15.4 15.2 15.8 16.5 18.4 16.5 15.5 14.7 13.1

    Attendance rate: 85%-95% 43.9 44.9 47.2 45.7 48.0 43.9 42.1 43.3 47.9 41.9 40.9 41.9 40.5

    Attendance rate: greater than 95% 40.0 34.7 37.1 38.3 36.4 40.9 42.1 40.1 33.7 41.6 43.7 43.4 46.4

    Citywide ELA/math performance

    Data missing 14.8 20.7 18.7 18.8 17.2 13.3 12.8 12.5 12.0 11.7 13.6 14.6 13.9

    ELA or math in bottom 20% 23.8 24.1 24.1 23.8 23.4 22.7 23.3 23.4 23.9 23.3 24.7 24.7 24.0

    ELA and math in middle 60% 30.0 30.0 28.0 29.3 30.3 32.9 29.4 33.0 31.9 29.9 28.9 29.6 27.8

    ELA or math in top 20% 46.1 45.8 47.8 46.9 46.3 44.5 47.4 43.5 44.2 46.8 46.4 45.7 48.3

    Number of Students 787,351 59,311 58,873 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332 73,470 74,759 72,588

    Continued on next pag

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    5 THE CONDITION OF NEW YORK CITY HIGH SCHOOL

    A gloss ary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin o n page 1

    Table A-4 continued: Grade 8 Performance, First-Time 9thGraders, 1999-2010

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 20

    ELA test scores

    Data missing 19.4 26.4 22.4 22.9 21.0 20.4 20.1 19.7 18.8 14.1 16.1 16.9 Average scaled score 672.4 694.2 690.4 691.7 690.7 689.4 695.0 691.6 643.3 646.9 649.2 655.7 65

    Level 1 8.7 12.2 18.0 17.4 7.8 9.4 6.3 5.7 9.9 6.1 5.0 1.3

    Level 2 50.4 49.0 46.5 46.6 59.5 54.5 54.3 58.2 50.5 48.8 50.1 38.6 4

    Level 3 35.6 31.4 27.8 27.6 25.8 30.5 31.3 30.4 36.5 42.1 42.0 56.9

    Level 4 5.3 7.3 7.6 8.4 6.7 5.4 8.3 5.9 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0

    Met state proficiency standard (level 3-4) 40.9 38.7 35.4 36.1 32.6 36.0 39.5 36.2 39.6 45.1 44.9 60.0 4

    Math test scores

    Data missing 15.8 23.3 20.1 20.3 18.6 14.3 14.0 13.6 12.6 12.2 14.1 14.9

    Average scaled score 683.3 690.0 691.7 691.9 701.8 705.5 712.3 712.7 644.9 651.9 662.0 671.0 67

    Level 1 19.7 42.5 39.0 38.9 27.6 22.2 17.1 15.0 19.5 14.2 7.2 2.2

    Level 2 35.6 32.1 36.0 35.6 39.3 39.6 36.4 40.2 37.9 36.3 30.4 22.7 4

    Level 334.8 20.5 20.9 19.8 25.9 31.5 36.3 37.3 34.1 39.3 48.4 58.9

    Level 4 10.0 5.0 4.0 5.6 7.1 6.9 10.2 7.5 8.6 10.1 14.1 16.2

    Met state proficiency standard (level 3-4) 44.7 25.4 24.9 25.4 33.1 38.3 46.5 44.8 42.6 49.4 62.4 75.0

    Number of students 787,351 59,311 58,873 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332 73,470 74,759 72

    Continued from previous page

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    6

    A glo ssary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin on page 17.

    Table A-5.1: On Track at the End of First Year of High SchoolBy 8th-Grade Performance and Engagement, First-Time 9thGraders, 2001-2007

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007% change:2001-2007

    All first-time 9th

    graders 41.5 41.6 38.4 35.1 38.4 40.1 43.3 53.3 28.1

    Grade 8 enrollment status

    Not enrolled in NYC public school 28.1 26.7 26.0 24.3 35.5 24.2 26.3 33.4 25.1

    Enrolled in NYC public school 42.7 43.3 39.7 36.2 38.8 41.4 44.5 54.7 26.3

    Grade 8 attendance rateData missing 37.4 35.3 34.8 32.3 35.6 35.1 39.6 48.6 37.7

    Less than 85% 13.0 12.1 10.7 8.7 11.4 12.2 15.7 19.9 64.5

    85%-95% 38.1 38.7 35.3 30.8 33.4 36.4 41.5 50.1 29.5

    Greater than 95% 58.8 59.7 55.7 50.4 54.4 57.4 62.4 71.1 19.1

    Grade 8 ELA test performance levels

    Data missing 31.6 29.3 28.9 26.3 29.5 29.3 33.3 43.8 49.5

    Level 1 6.2 7.3 3.4 2.4 3.3 3.8 6.4 16.2 121.9

    Level 2 27.9 33.9 26.5 19.8 21.9 26.0 30.0 37.3 10.0

    Level 3 72.4 73.5 72.3 69.3 67.3 72.8 73.7 77.8 5.9

    Level 4 93.3 92.9 92.6 93.6 91.6 92.9 94.1 95.5 2.8

    Grade 8 math test performance levels

    Data missing 33.6 30.4 30.0 28.6 31.9 32.9 35.9 44.9 47.7

    Level 1 7.9 14.6 8.5 4.5 5.0 5.0 7.8 10.8 -26.0Level 2 29.1 47.4 31.3 21.0 20.4 22.1 27.9 35.1 -25.9

    Level 3 70.4 82.5 72.7 64.6 60.1 65.6 70.7 77.4 -6.2

    Level 4 95.3 97.8 96.0 94.6 92.0 95.2 95.4 96.3 -1.5

    Grade 8 citywide ELA/math performance

    Data missing 34.5 31.5 30.8 29.6 32.4 33.2 37.0 45.9 45.7

    ELA or math in bottom 20% 7.0 7.1 5.9 3.3 5.3 5.5 7.6 14.2 100.0

    ELA and math in middle 60% 30.0 30.2 25.1 20.8 25.0 28.9 33.0 46.4 53.6

    ELA or math in top 20% 69.6 71.0 67.0 63.7 64.8 69.6 71.9 79.2 11.5

    Number of students 448,350 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332

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    7 THE CONDITION OF NEW YORK CITY HIGH SCHOOL

    A gloss ary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin o n page 1

    Table A-5.2: Graduation with Regents DiplomaBy 8th-Grade Performance and Engagement, First-Time 9thGraders, 2001-2007

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007% change:2001-2007

    All first-time 9th

    graders 46.7 36.3 38.8 41.0 44.8 49.3 54.9 59.6 64.2

    Grade 8 enrollment status

    Not enrolled in NYC public school 36.8 22.8 28.2 32.6 43.9 36.9 42.8 48.5 112.7

    Enrolled in NYC public school 47.5 37.8 39.9 41.9 45.0 50.2 55.7 60.4 59.8Grade 8 attendance rate

    Data missing 45.3 31.2 36.2 39.7 44.1 47.9 55.1 60.8 94.9

    Less than 85% 15.7 9.0 9.7 11.7 13.3 16.8 23.5 24.8 175.6

    85%-95% 42.9 32.0 34.8 36.3 39.4 45.4 53.6 56.6 76.9

    Greater than 95% 64.4 54.8 57.2 57.6 62.3 67.3 73.8 76.2 39.1

    Grade 8 ELA test performance levels

    Data missing 40.0 26.8 31.1 34.3 38.6 42.2 49.1 55.8 108.2

    Level 1 8.9 5.0 3.7 4.5 5.5 8.0 14.1 20.4 308.0

    Level 2 34.1 27.1 26.8 28.3 29.7 36.8 43.7 44.8 65.3

    Level 3 74.7 65.9 71.3 71.7 71.6 78.0 81.5 81.4 23.5

    Level 4 92.9 88.1 90.8 92.0 92.2 94.4 96.2 96.1 9.1

    Grade 8 math test performance levels

    Data missing 41.4 27.8 32.6 36.0 39.4 44.7 50.3 56.6 103.6

    Level 1 11.3 9.9 7.9 7.5 7.8 10.3 16.9 18.5 86.9

    Level 2 36.4 39.7 32.3 29.9 28.8 34.2 44.3 45.5 14.6

    Level 3 74.0 76.4 71.5 69.7 67.4 73.7 79.9 79.2 3.7

    Level 4 94.9 94.9 94.3 94.7 92.5 95.4 96.0 96.3 1.5

    Grade 8 citywide ELA/math performance

    Data missing 42.7 28.9 33.8 37.3 40.6 45.7 51.9 58.0 100.7

    ELA or math in bottom 20% 11.1 4.4 5.8 6.1 8.7 11.7 17.3 22.2 404.5

    ELA and math in middle 60% 37.4 23.8 25.7 29.8 34.7 42.1 49.0 53.8 126.1

    ELA or math in top 20% 72.7 63.8 66.2 68.4 70.2 76.1 80.3 82.5 29.3

    Number of students 448,350 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332

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    8

    A glo ssary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin on page 17.

    Table A-5.3: College-Ready GraduatesBy 8th-Grade Performance and Engagement, First-Time 9thGraders, 2001-2007

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007% change:2001-2007

    All first-time 9thgraders 18.9 13.2 16.7 17.7 19.8 20.7 22.1 21.3 61.4

    Grade 8 enrollment status

    Not enrolled in NYC public school 12.2 7.9 10.4 12.1 18.4 11.0 12.8 12.2 54.4

    Enrolled in NYC public school 19.5 13.8 17.3 18.2 20.0 21.4 22.8 21.9 58.7Grade 8 attendance rate

    Data missing 17.6 12.3 16.7 16.9 18.4 17.8 20.8 19.7 60.2

    Less than 85% 3.3 2.6 2.8 3.3 3.4 3.3 4.4 3.4 30.8

    85%-95% 14.2 9.4 12.6 13.4 14.3 15.6 17.7 15.7 67.0

    Greater than 95% 31.3 22.6 27.9 27.9 31.9 34.3 38.6 34.5 52.7

    Grade 8 ELA test performance levels

    Data missing 14.4 9.8 13.5 13.6 15.0 14.6 16.5 17.5 78.6

    Level 1 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.6 1.2 300.0

    Level 2 6.4 4.5 5.8 6.6 6.3 7.6 7.9 5.6 24.4

    Level 3 37.7 25.1 35.9 36.5 36.8 42.8 45.8 39.5 57.4

    Level 4 75.7 61.2 70.6 72.2 74.4 81.5 85.2 83.0 35.6

    Grade 8 math test performance levels

    Data missing 15.9 10.6 14.7 14.9 16.7 16.8 18.7 18.1 70.8

    Level 1 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 -50.0

    Level 2 3.9 5.9 5.4 4.2 3.0 3.2 3.6 2.1 -64.4

    Level 3 34.7 35.7 35.5 34.7 30.4 36.0 40.1 30.7 -14.0

    Level 4 83.2 80.8 79.4 79.5 80.0 87.2 87.7 87.4 8.2

    Grade 8 citywide ELA/math performance

    Data missing 16.3 11.1 15.2 15.6 16.7 16.8 19.3 18.5 66.7

    ELA or math in bottom 20% 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 400.0

    ELA and math in middle 60% 7.4 3.7 5.0 7.3 8.4 9.4 9.2 8.1 118.9

    ELA or math in top 20% 37.2 26.8 33.2 34.9 37.4 41.5 44.1 40.9 52.6

    Number of students 448,350 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332

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    9 THE CONDITION OF NEW YORK CITY HIGH SCHOOL

    A gloss ary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin o n page 1

    Table A-6: Background Characteristics, Cohorts of First-Time 9thGraders, 1999-2010

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Gender

    Young women 50.7 50.8 51.2 51.3 51.3 51.4 51.0 51.1 50.8 50.6 49.9 49.9 49.9

    Young men 49.3 49.2 48.8 48.7 48.7 48.6 49.0 48.9 49.2 49.4 50.1 50.1 50.

    Race/Ethnicity

    Asian 14.9 13.6 14.0 14.3 14.5 14.3 14.5 14.5 14.8 15.2 15.2 16.2 16.8

    Hispanic 37.0 34.6 33.7 34.2 35.0 35.9 37.2 38.0 38.0 39.0 39.0 39.0 39.Black 33.3 34.8 35.1 34.3 34.1 34.3 34.0 33.9 33.5 32.7 32.6 31.3 29.9

    White 14.2 16.7 17.0 16.9 16.1 14.2 13.5 12.9 13.1 12.6 12.5 12.8 13.4

    Other 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.3 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.7

    Age at start of 9th

    grade

    Average age 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.9 14.9

    % at age for start of grade 9 73.5 73.0 74.8 75.6 75.4 75.1 73.8 72.8 73.0 73.5 72.4 71.3 72.0

    % over age for start of grade 9 26.5 27.0 25.2 24.4 24.6 24.9 26.2 27.2 27.0 26.5 27.6 28.7 28.0

    Socio-economic status (grade 8 or 9)

    No poverty indicators 36.1 n/b 32.2 33.6 31.7 39.9 36.1 26.5 28.5 28.5 31.8 34.8 27.

    One or more poverty indicators 63.9 n/b 67.8 66.4 68.3 60.1 63.9 73.5 71.5 71.5 68.2 65.2 72.

    Home language

    English 46.5 47.0 46.9 47.0 47.9 47.9 48.2 46.7 45.4 45.0 44.3 45.9 46.2

    Not English 53.5 53.0 53.1 53.0 52.1 52.1 51.8 53.3 54.6 55.0 55.7 54.1 53.8

    English language learningservices (grade 8 or 9)

    Not a recipient 90.4 88.6 88.8 89.7 90.0 90.5 90.3 91.0 90.6 90.8 91.1 92.5 90.

    Recipient 9.6 11.4 11.2 10.3 10.0 9.5 9.7 9.0 9.4 9.2 8.9 7.5 9.

    Related special educationservices (grade 8 or 9)

    Not a recipient 91.3 92.3 92.7 92.6 92.6 92.4 92.1 92.2 91.5 91.2 89.9 89.1 87.9

    Recipient 8.7 7.7 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.6 7.9 7.8 8.5 8.8 10.1 10.9 12.

    Number of students 787,351 59,311 58,873 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332 73,470 74,759 72,588

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    10

    A glo ssary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin on page 17.

    Table A-7.1: On-Track Rates After First Year of High School By Race and Gender, First-Time 9thGraders, 2001-2007

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007% change:2001-2007

    All first-time 9th

    graders 41.5 41.6 38.4 35.1 38.4 40.1 43.3 53.3 28.1

    GenderYoung women 44.2 44.8 41.0 38.2 40.9 42.9 45.8 55.6 24.1

    Young men 38.7 38.1 35.7 31.8 35.8 37.3 40.8 50.9 33.6

    Race/ethnicity

    Asian 63.4 59.5 58.6 57.0 61.9 63.9 66.9 75.2 26.4

    Hispanic 32.8 32.8 29.3 25.4 29.1 31.6 34.5 46.0 40.2

    Black 32.4 32.2 28.3 25.9 29.2 31.2 34.7 44.9 39.4

    White 63.6 63.2 62.0 58.9 62.0 62.4 64.6 71.6 13.3

    Young women by race/ethnicity

    Asian 67.3 63.8 62.9 62.0 65.6 67.6 69.7 78.5 23.0

    Hispanic 35.2 35.6 31.6 28.1 31.2 34.0 36.9 48.2 35.4

    Black 36.2 36.9 32.0 29.9 32.8 34.8 38.3 48.2 30.6

    White 66.5 66.4 63.9 63.1 64.8 65.8 67.3 73.7 11.0

    Young men by race/ethnicityAsian 59.9 55.5 54.8 52.4 58.5 60.5 64.2 72.2 30.1

    Hispanic 30.2 29.9 26.7 22.5 26.9 29.2 31.9 43.7 46.2

    Black 28.2 26.9 23.9 21.3 25.1 27.2 30.8 41.3 53.5

    White 60.8 60.1 60.1 55.0 59.3 59.1 62.2 69.6 15.8

    Number of students 448,350 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332

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    11 THE CONDITION OF NEW YORK CITY HIGH SCHOOL

    A gloss ary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin o n page 1

    Table A-7.2: Graduation with a Regents Diploma By Race and Gender, First-Time 9thGraders 2001-2007

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007% change:2001-2007

    All first-time 9th

    graders 46.7 36.3 38.8 41.0 44.8 49.3 54.9 59.6 64.2

    Gender

    Young women 50.1 39.4 41.9 44.5 48.4 52.7 58.4 63.3 60.7

    Young men 43.1 33.0 35.5 37.4 41.1 45.6 51.2 55.9 69.4

    Race/ethnicity

    Asian 70.6 59.2 63.5 67.4 70.5 73.0 78.1 80.5 36.0

    Hispanic 36.9 25.9 27.7 30.0 34.8 39.8 46.0 51.8 100.0

    Black 38.4 26.0 29.4 32.0 36.3 42.3 47.7 52.8 103.1

    White 67.1 58.8 60.6 63.1 66.5 69.2 72.9 77.0 31.0

    Young women by race/ethnicity

    Asian 75.9 64.6 69.1 73.5 76.3 77.9 83.0 84.9 31.4

    Hispanic 40.0 28.7 30.5 33.1 37.5 42.8 49.4 55.7 94.1

    Black 42.6 30.1 33.2 36.1 41.1 46.6 52.0 57.1 89.7

    White 70.7 62.0 64.1 67.2 70.0 73.1 76.2 80.8 30.3

    Young men by race/ethnicity

    Asian 65.7 54.1 58.3 61.9 65.3 68.5 73.5 76.6 41.6

    Hispanic 33.6 23.0 24.8 26.7 31.8 36.7 42.4 47.6 107.0

    Black 33.6 21.4 24.9 27.1 30.9 37.4 43.0 48.1 124.8

    White 63.6 55.7 57.2 59.2 63.1 65.3 69.9 73.4 31.8

    Number of students 566,534 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332

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    12

    A glo ssary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin on page 17.

    Table A-7.3: College-Ready Graduates by Race and Gender, First-Time 9thGraders, 2001-2007

    9th

    -grade cohort

    % change:2001-2007

    All years 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

    All first-time 9th

    graders 18.9 13.2 16.7 17.7 19.8 20.7 22.1 21.3 61.4

    Gender

    Young women 20.7 14.6 17.9 19.5 22.2 22.5 24.3 22.9 56.8

    Young men 17.0 11.8 15.4 15.8 17.4 18.7 19.9 19.6 66.1

    Race/ethnicity

    Asian 44.7 32.7 38.0 41.3 45.7 49.1 51.9 52.2 59.6

    Hispanic 10.3 6.3 8.6 9.7 11.2 11.7 12.2 11.9 88.9

    Black 9.6 5.6 8.1 9.1 10.5 11.1 12.1 10.3 83.9

    White 37.2 26.3 33.4 34.1 39.4 40.6 43.1 42.0 59.7

    Young women by race/ethnicity

    Asian 49.4 37.4 41.2 45.9 52.0 53.7 56.7 57.0 52.4

    Hispanic 11.6 7.1 9.7 11.2 12.7 13.0 13.7 13.3 87.3

    Black 11.7 7.1 9.7 11.3 13.1 13.3 14.6 12.2 71.8

    White 40.0 27.8 34.8 36.8 43.1 43.7 47.4 44.7 60.8

    Young men by race/ethnicity

    Asian 40.4 28.4 35.1 37.1 40.0 44.8 47.4 47.9 68.7

    Hispanic 9.0 5.3 7.4 8.2 9.6 10.4 10.8 10.5 98.1

    Black 7.3 3.9 6.2 6.7 7.7 8.7 9.2 8.2 110.3

    White 34.5 24.8 31.9 31.5 35.8 37.6 39.3 39.5 59.3

    Number of students 448,350 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332

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    13 THE CONDITION OF NEW YORK CITY HIGH SCHOOL

    A gloss ary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin o n page 1

    Table A-8.1: On Track After First Year of High School by Other Demographics, First-Time 9thGraders, 2001-2007

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007% change:2001-2007

    All first-time 9th

    graders 41.5 41.6 38.4 35.1 38.4 40.1 43.3 53.3 28.1

    Age at start of grade 9

    At age for start of grade 9 49.3 48.9 45.7 42.0 46.2 48.0 51.6 62.0 26.8

    Over age for start of grade 9 19.3 18.8 16.2 14.1 16.5 19.1 20.9 29.1 54.8

    Socio-economic status (grade 8 or 9)

    No poverty indicators 47.4 48.0 46.6 41.9 44.6 45.2 47.9 57.1 19.0

    One or more poverty indicators 38.6 38.3 34.6 30.5 34.9 38.3 41.5 51.7 35.0

    Home language

    English 43.0 42.7 40.1 36.2 39.5 41.6 44.8 55.4 29.7

    Not English 40.3 40.6 36.9 34.0 37.4 38.8 42.0 51.6 27.1

    English language learning services (grade 8 or 9)

    Not a recipient 43.4 43.7 40.3 37.0 40.2 42.0 45.2 55.0 25.9

    Recipient 23.7 23.4 21.6 17.1 21.4 21.6 24.7 35.9 53.4

    Related special education services (grade 8 or 9)Not a recipient 43.9 43.8 40.6 37.3 40.7 42.4 45.9 56.1 28.1

    Recipient 13.8 12.9 10.9 7.9 11.7 13.2 15.5 23.9 85.3

    Number of students 448,350 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332

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    14

    A glo ssary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin on page 17.

    Table A-8.2: Graduation with a Regents Diploma by Other Demographics, First-Time 9thGraders, 2001-2007

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All years 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007% change:2001-2007

    All first-time 9th

    graders 46.7 36.3 38.8 41.0 44.8 49.3 54.9 59.6 64.2

    Age at start of grade 9

    At age for start of grade 9 55.0 43.5 46.4 48.7 53.5 58.1 64.0 68.7 57.9

    Over age for start of grade 9 22.8 14.0 15.4 17.8 20.5 25.7 30.2 34.4 145.7

    Socio-economic status (grade 8 or 9)

    No poverty indicators 53.4 44.1 47.5 48.5 51.6 55.1 60.1 65.5 48.5

    One or more poverty indicators 43.3 32.3 34.7 36.1 41.0 47.1 52.8 57.3 77.4

    Home language

    English 48.5 37.8 40.5 42.7 46.8 50.9 56.8 61.9 63.8

    Not English 45.1 35.0 37.2 39.6 43.0 47.8 53.2 57.8 65.1

    English language learning services (grade 8 or 9)

    Not a recipient 48.3 38.0 40.4 42.8 46.4 50.9 56.3 61.2 61.1

    Recipient 31.4 21.6 23.8 24.6 30.4 32.8 40.7 44.1 104.2

    Related special education services (grade 8 or 9)

    Not a recipient 49.2 38.4 40.9 43.4 47.3 51.7 57.7 62.7 63.3

    Recipient 17.7 9.5 11.2 12.8 16.2 20.4 24.5 27.8 192.6

    Number of students 566,534 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332

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    15 THE CONDITION OF NEW YORK CITY HIGH SCHOOL

    A gloss ary of terms is on page 16. Table notes begin o n page 1

    Table A-8.3: College-Ready Graduates by Other Demographics, First Time 9thGraders, 2001-2007

    9th

    -grade cohort

    All Years 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007% Change:2001-2007

    All first-time 9th

    graders 18.9 13.2 16.7 17.7 19.8 20.7 22.1 21.3 61.4

    Age at start of grade 9At age for start of grade 9 23.4 16.1 20.5 21.7 24.8 25.8 27.6 26.5 64.6

    Over age for start of grade 9 6.0 4.2 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.9 7.1 6.9 64.3

    Socio-economic status (grade 8 or 9)

    No poverty indicators 24.6 18.6 23.8 22.7 25.1 25.9 27.6 27.4 47.3

    One or more poverty indicators 16.2 10.5 13.3 14.3 16.8 18.8 19.9 18.9 80.0

    Home language

    English 21.9 15.7 18.9 20.1 22.7 23.9 25.7 25.2 60.5

    Not English 16.3 11.0 14.6 15.5 17.1 17.8 19.2 18.1 64.5

    English language learning services (grade 8 or 9)

    Not a recipient 20.0 14.0 17.6 18.7 20.9 21.9 23.5 22.6 61.4

    Recipient 8.2 6.4 8.0 7.5 9.3 8.3 8.9 8.9 39.1

    Related special education services (grade 8 or 9)

    Not a recipient 20.3 14.2 17.8 18.9 21.2 22.1 23.8 23.0 62.0

    Recipient 2.9 1.5 2.4 2.4 3.1 3.5 3.7 3.7 146.7

    Number of students 448,350 58,908 61,906 63,709 65,055 66,299 66,141 66,332

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    16

    Glossary

    First-time 9th

    graderStudent was actively enrolled in a New York City school as a 9 thgrader in either the Fall or Spring semester of a givenschool year and was not enrolled in a New York City school in any high school grade (9-12) at any time during any

    previous year.

    On-track indicatorsStart of high school year 2 (Table A-2) and end of 1styear of HS (Table A-3):

    Student earned 10 or more course credits and passed at least one Regents Examinations with a 65 or higherduring the first year of high school.

    Start of high school year 3 (Table A-2) and end of 2ndyear of HS (Table A-3):Student earned 22 or more course credits and passed at least two Regents Examinations with a 65 or higherduring the first two years of high school.

    Start of high school year 4 (Table A-2) and end of 3rdyear of HS (Table A-3):Student earned 33 or more course credits and passed at least three Regents Examinations with a 65 or higherduring the first three years of high school.

    Some on-track students left the NYC high school system between years. This explains the discrepancy between tablesA-2 and A-3 for on-track rates at the end of a given year and the start of the following year.

    For a detailed analysis of on-track indicators for New York City schools, see Kemple, Segeritz, and Stephenson(2013). The paper shows a strong relationship between the start of high school year 2/end of 1 styear of high schoolon-track indicator and graduating with a Regents diploma that is consistent over more than a decade.

    Diploma type

    During the period covered in this paper, the New York State Education Department (NYSED) increased therequirements for a Regents Diploma and phased out the use of Local diplomas. See New York City Department ofEducation (2012), Summary of NYSED Regulation 100.5 and Chancellors Regulation A-501 and New York State

    Education Department (2012), General Education and Diploma Requirements.

    Regents Diploma:As of 2011, the New York State Regents Diploma requires that students earn a minimum of 44 course credits(one for each semester-long class that a student passes) and pass a minimum of five end-of-course RegentsExaminations with a score of 65 or higher.

    Advanced Regents Diploma:Requires a score of 65 or higher for all five end-of-course Regents Examinations included in the RegentsDiploma, plus an additional Regents Examination in a science and in a language other than English.

    Local Diploma:The Local Diploma does not require passing scores on Regents Examinations. Beginning in 2012, students mustearn a Regents Diploma to graduate from high school in New York State.

    College readyStudent earned a Regents Diploma or an Advanced Regents Diploma and passed at least one math Regentsexamination with a score of 80 or higher and passed at least one English Regents examination with a score of 75 orhigher. This indicator is consistent with the NYSED Aspirational Performance Measure. See New York StateEducation Department, (2011), Public School District Total Cohort Aspirational Performance Measure (APM):2007 Total Cohort as of June 2011.

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    17 THE CONDITION OF NEW YORK CITY HIGH SCHOOLS

    DropoutsDropouts include students who left the New York City School system and have no documentation of enrolling inanother school district. Dropouts are included in all calculations presented in this paper.

    TransfersTransfers include students who left the New York City School system and have documentation of enrolling in another

    school district. Unless otherwise noted (Tables A-1 and A-2), the analyses presented in this paper do not includestudents who transferred outside the New York City school system.

    Table Notes

    General Table Notes

    Source: Research Alliance calculations from data archive compiled from New York City Department of Education(DOE) administrative records systems.

    Throughout this paper, graduation rates are calculated using criteria that are consistent with the NYSED and NYCDOE. Graduates include those who earned a local diploma or a New York State Regents Diploma. Like the NYSED

    and DOE calculations, graduates include those who earned diplomas over the summer following scheduledgraduation. For example, graduation rates for students who began high school in September 2005 reflect thepercentage of these students who earned a diploma as of October 2009. Students who receive a GED or IEPcertificate are considered non-graduates. Unless otherwise noted (Tables A-1 and A-2), students who transferredoutside the New York City school system are not included in the calculation of graduation rates.

    Unlike the NYSED and NYC DOE, the analyses in this paper do not include students who transferred into a NewYork City high school after their 9thgrade year. As a result, the graduation rates reported in this paper are differentfrom those reported by the NYSED and DOE. On average, including students who initially enrolled after the 9thgrade results in graduation rates that are 4-5 percentage points lower than those reported in this paper.

    Rounding may result in slight discrepancies when calculating sums or differences.

    n/a denotes that data are not available due to the end of the follow-up period in 2010-2011. For example, becausethe follow-up period ended in 2011, graduation data are not available for students who entered high school in 2009or 2010 (and are scheduled to graduate in 2013 and 2014, respectively).

    n/b denotes that data are not available due to missing or incomplete information in the source files. For example,attendance data files were incomplete for the 1999-2000 school year, resulting in large numbers of missing 9th-gradeattendance rates for students who entered high school in 1999.

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    18

    Table A-1

    Specialized high schools:A group of selective public schools, for which admission is determined solely by scores on the Specialized HighSchool Admissions Test (SHSAT), with the exception of the Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Artand Performing Arts, which bases admission on student auditions or artistic portfolios.

    Continuously operating high schools:High schools that existed in 1999 and remained open through 2011.

    New high schools:New high schools that opened and remained open through 2011.

    Phased-out high schools:Includes 38 schools that were open in 1999 and then phased out before 2010, in addition to 2 schools that wereopened after 1999 and then subsequently phased out.

    Junior high schools:Schools serving only grades 7-9.

    The sample of schools includes public general education high schools, career technical high schools, and junior highschools in New York City that admitted 15 or more first-time 9th-grade students in a given year between 1999 and2010. The sample does not include transfer high schools, GED programs, special education high schools, or charter

    high schools that may have admitted first-time 9th graders. The sample does not include five schools that appear tohave enrolled only one cohort of students between 2002 and 2007.

    The sample of students includes all first-time 9thgraders, including those who subsequently transferred to schoolsoutside the system

    Table A-2

    Calculations presented in this table include all students who enrolled in a New York City high school as a first-time 9thgrader, including those who subsequently transferred to schools outside the system.

    Enrollment and on-track status for the start of HS Years 2-4 are identified for the start of each year followingstudents 9th-grade year regardless of their grade-level progression. For example, start of HS year 3 refers to astudents enrollment three years following the start of the 9th-grade year, regardless of whether they were promotedto the 11thgrade or were retained in a grade at some point after the 9th-grade year.

    After Year 4 refers to a students status at the end of four years following initial enrollment as a first-time 9thgrader.This includes the summer following schedule high school graduation. For example, for students who began highschool in September 2005, the calculations reflect that status as of October 2009.

    Table A-3

    On-track status for the end of HS Year 2 and HS Year 3 are identified for the end of each year following students 9th-grade year regardless of their grade-level progression. For example, end of year 3 refers to the end of the third yearfollowing the 9th-grade year, regardless of whether the student was promoted to the 11thgrade or was retained in agrade at some point after the 9th-grade year.

    Percent of Days Present is calculated as the total number of days present divided by 180 days (the total number ofdays in the school year). Students who drop out of high school are included in these calculations and are counted asnot present after the dropout date.

    Graduation and college-ready percentages are not presented for the 1999 and 2000 cohorts because data on diplomatypes for these cohorts are incomplete and not reliable.

    Table A-4

    ELA or math in bottom 20%:Students grade 8 ELA or math assessment scale score was in the bottom 20thpercentile of scores of first-time 9thgraders from that cohort and the students grade 8 math or ELA assessment scale score,respectively, was not above the 50thpercentile of scores of first-time 9thgraders from that cohort.

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    19 THE CONDITION OF NEW YORK CITY HIGH SCHOOLS

    ELA and math in middle 60%Students grade 8 ELA and math assessment scale scores were between the bottom top 20thpercentile andthe top 20thpercentile of scores of first-time 9thgraders in that cohort.

    ELA or math in top 20%:Students grade 8 ELA or math assessment scale score was in the top 20 thpercentile of scores of first-time 9thgraders in that cohort and grade 8 math or ELA assessment scale score, respectively, was not below the 50thpercentile of scores of first-time 9thgraders in that cohort.

    Table A-5.1, A-5.2, and A-5.3

    Refer to notes for Table A-4 above.

    Table A-6

    Overage for start of grade 9:Student was age 15 or higher as of December 31 of the year in which the student first entered 9 thgrade.

    Socio-economic status (grade 8 or 9):Students school records indicate eligibility for free or reduced price lunch in grade 8 or grade 9 or that the

    student provided documentation to DOE of eligible for Federal public assistance or that the student attended aschool in which all students were provided with the option of a free or reduced price lunch.

    Home language:Students school records indicate that a language other than English is spoken at home.

    English language learning services (grade 8 or 9):Students school records indicate a referral for any English language learning services in grade 8 or grade 9.

    Related special education services (grade 8 or 9):Student school records include Individual Education Plans (IEPs) for learning or behavioral disabilities that can beaccommodated in regular education classrooms. Students in self-contained special education classes or enrolled

    in District 75 schools are not included in the analyses presented in this paper.

    Table A-7.1, A-7.2, and A-7.3

    Refer to notes for Table A-6 above.

    Table A-8.1, A-8.2, and A-8.3

    Refer to notes for Table A-6 above.

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