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for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra
in English Letters
for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra
in English Letters
I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been
previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that,
to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material
previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the
text of the undergraduate thesis.
March 2, 2021
There is no parent should ever burry their child.
-King Theoden, Lord of The Ring: The Two Towers, 2002
I dedicate my work to my mother, father, brothers, friends, and the lectures.
I give my gratitude to the Almighty God, my family, mother, father,
brothers and also not forget to mention my friends and my Academic Advisor,
Mrs. Enny, you all have been encouraging me to finish this work. Also, to my
supportive and beloved Thesis Advisors Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka and Ms. Ose
who have been supportive throughout my college days, I give all my thanks.
Mother, Father thank you for not getting tired and keeping up with my
nonsenses. I will be the great daughter I promised you I will be. Please keep
praying for me, hoping me be the greater person for you and our family. Thank
you for always be there for me despite all odds we have. Thank you for making
me believe in myself again and thank you for loving me when I started to not
be loving myself.
My friends, thank you for the laughter, for the joy, for the togetherness. I
am sorry if I cannot go to meet you. I miss you guys and thank you for everything.
Mrs. Enny, thank you for the chance, the good scores, and the patient that you
have given to me all these years.
Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka and Ms. Ose, I would like to express my
deepest gratitude for always be patient with me, guiding me to pass the difficulties
through this complicated process. Thank you for all your hard-work in supporting
my work, hope all the best for you.
TITLE PAGE ......................................................................................................... ii
APPROVAL PAGE .............................................................................................. iii
MOTTO PAGE .....................................................................................................vii
A. Review of Related Studies .............................................................................6 B. Review of Related Theories ......................................................................... 11
1. Theory of Character and Characterization ........................................ 11 2. Theory of Conflict ........................................................................... 13
3. Theory of Social Influence ............................................................... 15 C. Theoretical Framework ............................................................................... 17
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ..................................................................... 20
CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS.................................................................................. 24
A. Quasimodo’s Characteristics in the Movie Hunchback of Notre Dame ........ 24
1. Orphaned ......................................................................................... 25 2. Isolated ............................................................................................ 26
3. Physically Deformed........................................................................ 27 4. Strong .............................................................................................. 28
7. Brave and Heroic ............................................................................. 32
B. The Conflicts Faced by Quasimodo against Himself and Other Characters .. 33
1. Internal Conflict............................................................................... 34
2. External Conflict.............................................................................. 39
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ............................................................................ 55
Figure 1.2.0 Frollo demands Quasimodo must be locked away....................................27
Figure 1.3.0 Quasimodo is humiliated for being ugly ..................................................28
Figure 1.3.1 Ugly Quasimodo converse with the gargoyle ...........................................29 Figure 1.4.0 Strong Quasimodo I ................................................................................30
Figure 1.4.1 Strong Quasimodo II ...............................................................................30 Figure 1.4.2 Strong Quasimodo III ..............................................................................31
Figure 1.7.0 Quasimodo helps Esmeralda to escape ....................................................32
Figure 1.7.1 Quasimodo is called as a hero by the people ............................................35
Figure 2.1.1 Quasimodo witnesses Esmeralda kissing Phoebus ...................................37 Figure 2.1.2 Frollo attempts to kill Esmeralda while Quasimodo is saving her ............41
Figure 2.2.2 Quasimodo is assaulted in public .............................................................43
Figure 2.2.3 Quasimodo and Pheobus are captured by the Gypsies ..............................44
Alintya R., Vella Sofia (2021). The Development of Quasimodo’s Social
Behavior caused by Other Characters and His Conflicts in Disney’s
Hunchback of Notre Dame (2020). Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Sanata Dharma.
This research’s discussion focuses on a character named Quasimodo and his
conflict with other characters in the movie. The object of the study is an animated
movie version by Disney with the title The Hunchback of Notre Dame. The
research breaks down Quasimodo’s characteristics and how he deals with conflict
which at end change his social behaviors to other characters in the movie.
The objectives elaborated in this research are first, to find out the portrayal of
the character Quasimodo within the story, and then to analyze the kinds of conflicts
that are faced by Quasimodo. From the first and second objectives it will reveal
how to understand the influence of the other character’s presences and conflicts
toward Quasimodo’s social behavior throughout the movie.
The method used in this research is library research with the approach of
Social Psychological which is applied to understand the change in social behaviors
and characters of Quasimodo which are influenced by the presence of other
characters. To breakdown the objectives, the secondary resources which applied as
supporting theories are the theory of character and characterization by Murphy,
taken from his book Understanding the Unseen which is used to analyze
Quasimodo’s characteristics. The second is theory of conflicts by Kenney which
he explains in his book How to Analyze Fiction is applied to explain the conflicts
faced by Quasimodo. The last is theory of social Influence by Hogg and Vaughan
about Social Psychology which is taken from their book with the title Social
The content of the analysis part discuses Quasimodo’s portrayal as an
orphaned and isolated character which although he is physically deformed and
appears like a monster, he is very strong, kind and obedient to other characters.
He is a character that at first, is terrifying to others but then become a brave hero
that saves so many people. He has to deal with the conflicts with his own heart
and other people, hurt and deceived by his trusted master, but the he realizes he
can manage to stand and overcome all those odds because he is strong, and he has
to protect the person he loves.
Keywords: Quasimodo, Social Psychological, Conflicts, Social Influence
Alintya R., Vella Sofia (2021). The Development of Quasimodo’s Social
Behavior caused by Other Characters and Their Conflicts in Disney’s Hunchback of Notre Dame (2020). Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma.
Penilitian ini berfokus terhadap seorang karakter bernama Quasimodo dan
konfliknya dengan karakter lain di dalam film. Objek dalam penilitian ini adalah
sebuah film animasi versi Disney dengan judul The Hunchback of Notre Dame.
Penelitian ini membongkar karakteristik Quasimodo dan bagaimana dia
menghadapi konflik yang mana berujung pada perubahan sifat sosialnya kepada
karakter lain di film.
menganalisa macam-macam konflik yang dihadapi Quasimodo. Dari objektif
pertama dan kedua akan menguak bagaimana memahami pengaruh kehadiran
karakter lain dan konflik terhadap sifat sosial Quasimodo selama di film.
Metode yang digunakan dalam penilitian ini adalah studi pustaka dengan
menggunakan pendekatan psikologi-sosial yang diaplikasikan untuk memahami
perubahan dalam sifat sosial serta karakter Quasimodo yang dipengaruhi oleh
keberadaan karakter lain. Untuk membongkar objektifnya, sumber kedua yang
digunakan sebagai teori pendukung adalah teori karakter dan karakteristik oleh
Murphy yang diambil dari bukunya, Understanding the Unseen. Teori kedua
adalah teori konflik oleh Kenney yang dijelaskan dalam bukunya How to Analyze
Fiction, digunakan untuk menjelaskan konflik yang dihadapi Quasimodo. Teori
terakhir yang digunakan adalah teori pengaruh sosial oleh Hogg dan Vaughan
tentang psikologi-sosial yang diambil dari buku mereka dengan judul Social
Bagian analisa membahas gambaran Quasimodo sebagai seorang yatim-
piatu dan terisolir, meski secara fisik cacat dan terlihat seperti monster, dia sangat
kuat, baik, dan penurut terhadap karakter lain. Dia adalah karakter yang ditakuti
oleh semua orang diawal cerita namun menjadi pahlawan pemberani yang
menyelamatkan banyak orang pada akhirnya. Tidak mudah baginya untuk diterima
orang- orang. Dia harus berhadapan dengan konflik dengan hatinya, orang lain,
dan dilukai dan dikhianati oleh Frollo, namun dia sadar dia mampu mampu
mengahadapi dan melampaui itu semua karena dia kuat dan dia harus melindungi
orang yang dia cinta.
A. Background of The Study
In our life and its development, society has a special and huge impact in
shaping individuals’ character and it reflects in the way they behave or act and
think. MacIver and Page defined society as “a web of relations, a complex system
of usages and procedures, of authority and mutual aid of many groupings and
divisions, of control of human behavior and of liberties” (1987, p.25). We live in
the middle of society which consists of multiple individuals with and their
complexity. Together we engage in a social relationship and interactions.
In a society itself, the interactions between one individual to others happen in
various form. However, the major forms that distinguish the types themselves are
beneficiary interaction which categorize as positive relationship exchange, and the
very opposite of it, negative social exchanges (Rook, 1990). This phenomenon of
negative interaction is one of the problems highlighted in this research.
It is our nature as human being to be social creature. Socialization and social
interaction is something we cannot deny. By having social interaction, we send
and receive contacts as result or reflex of other people’s doing. By sending
reflexes, we are influenced by the interaction. The influence can be a mere one-
time type of thing, but if the interactions are intense and impactful, the influence
can also modify our habit including our behavior as well as our mind set.
According to Petty and Wegener (1986, p.227), social influence means the
change in individual behavior, opinion, or emotions resulting from what other
people do or feel. The important element of social influence is any other person’s
activities that shape and modify our attitudes. Based on this statement, the
researcher analyzes the influence a society has and how they manage to impact an
individual’s character. To help in understanding the whole analysis of Quasimodo’s
characters and his social influence, the object that is used is a movie and script of
a Disney adaptation animated movie entitled The Hunchback of Notre Dame
directed by directors Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise and written by screenwriter
Tab Murphy and his team. The movie itself is produced based on the novel with
the same title written by Victor Hugo. The character that is analyzed is the
Hunchback himself, or as he is named Quasimodo, in how he deals with conflicts
in society and the abusive treatments he received. The researcher focuses on the
dialogue and script that are presented in the movie.
Quasimodo, as later be told in the story, receives vile treatments and abuses
by most people around him. Quasimodo himself is not by any means
unproblematic in a sense that he does nothing wrong. There are some conflicts
happen surround him which he too is involved. Those conflicts and bad treatments
generate various responses from Quasimodo himself, and these facts are the things
the researcher aim to breakdown.
To conduct the research, the researcher applies social psychological approach
which focuses in an individual’s social behaviors which are influenced by other
characters and the interactions among them. The applied approach covers the
frameworks as well. Furthermore, by using the theory of character and
characterization, as well as the theory of social interaction, the researcher focuses
on how the character of Quasimodo is portrayed, what conflicts faced by him, and
finds out whether there is any influence from society or any other characters
towards him.
This phenomenon is worth to be observed because at the end, people can
understand the reasons behind why Quasimodo managed to act differently to
certain people in certain situations and by so, the viewers are able to perceive the
points and value of this movie. Furthermore, to be talking about the topic of
society and their influences, it is common for people to apply a social
psychological approach since it assists on analyzing how a human by nature is
social being and the society, he or she lives in hold a fair amount of influence
toward his or her character’s quality. This limitation of the approach allows
researcher to analyze the characters, his conflicts, and the influences he gets based
on how he is presented and.
B. Problems Formulation
The research problems that we analyze are formulated as:
1. How is the character of Quasimodo portrayed in the movie Hunchback
of Notre Dame?
2. What are Quasimodo’s conflicts against himself and other characters?
3. How do the other characters’ presences and conflicts develop
Quasimodo’s social behavior?
C. Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are generated based on the research questions or
the research problems. This research paper discusses three points of objectives.
First, is to find out the portrayal of the character Quasimodo within the story, and
second is to analyze the kinds of conflicts that are faced by Quasimodo against
other characters, and last is to understand the influence of the other character’s
presences and conflicts toward Quasimodo’s social behavior throughout the movie.
D. Definition of Terms
In order to avoid misunderstanding and misconception within the research
context, it is important to provide the definitions for some terms such as first, the
term of ‘society’. Georg Simmel considered society to be an association of free
individuals, and said that it could not be studied in the same way as the physical
world, i.e. sociology is more than the discovery of natural laws that govern human
interaction. "For Simmel, society is made up of the interactions between and
among individuals and the sociologist should study the patterns and forms of
these associations, rather than quest after social laws" (Farganis, pp. 133). This
statement emphasizes on social interaction starts from the individual and small
group level, and viewing the study of these interactions as the primary task of
sociology makes Simmel's approach different from that of the classical writers,
especially Marx and Durkheim which focus on societal class and status.
The second is the term of ‘conflict’ in this thesis’ context is based on Wellek
and Warren (1949, pp.38- 41) which state that conflict is determined as peak stage
of contradictions development in the relations between individuals, groups of
individuals, social environment as a whole; this stage is characterized by
appearance of contradicting interests, aims, positions of subjects of interaction.
The conflicts might be hidden and obvious, but they always have a common
ground, which is the absence of compromise and sometimes-even dialogue
between and among the parties to a dispute. Conflicts can also occur if there is no
agreement between one ego and another ego. In real life, most people often avoid
any conflict. However, in the world of literature, conflict is needed even arguably
important to support the content of the story.
The last is ‘social influence’. Social influence has been defined as the ‘process
whereby attitudes and behavior are influenced by the real or imagined presence of
other people’ (Hogg & Vaughan, 2011, p. 236). Other definition given by
McGlynn in his book Montana Tech defines social influence as the results of
interactions among individuals, normally within the same species, that are usually
beneficial to one or more of the individuals (McGlynn, 1984).
A. Review of Related Studies
To help the researcher understand the topics and focus, there are five studies
with related topics, works or even approaches. The first is an article journal by
Deutsch and Gerrard (1955) with the title A Study of Normative and Informational
Social Influence upon Individual Judgment. The journal article is conducted as the
part of social psychological research project that focuses on the psychological
change as the result of social influence. The writers of the study state that, “The
conduction demonstrated that individual psychological processes are subject to
social influences.” They also state what differ them with other researchers as said,
“Most investigators, however, have not distinguished among different kinds of
social influences; rather, they have carelessly used the term "group" influence to
characterize the impact of many different kinds of social factors. In fact, a review
of the major experiments” (2005, p. 2).
The journal article is written as the outcome of direct observation towards one
hundred and one students of University of New York to see the distinct differences
of social influence when they are engaging in usual social interaction. The
varieties of the experiment are given in form of tests to see the reaction and
process of adaptation when they are grouped to solve some group tasks. The result
of this experiments is shown the social influences that happened are categorized in
two, which are normative which means the influence to conform with the positive
obtained from another as evidence about reality.
The difference between this journal article and the main research paper that
need to be highlighted is the approach or concept. The journal article applies
sociological approach which the direct observation and sets of variables is needed
to retrieve the hypothesis which is needed to draw the analysis. This approach is
very uncommon and rarely applied in literary research due to the lack of
observable materials, which is necessary in sociological research, because the
objects that are used is not a real society. In literature, the common social- based
approach is Sociological Criticism which focuses on the culture, ideology, and
background of the author. However, the main research does not focus on those
Sociological materials, it focuses more on the fictional society without any
variables or tests. However, this journal article covers the important topic related
to the main research which is Social Influence. This journal article uses Cialdini
and Goldstein’s social influence theory as the main reference, and also the topic of
social influence’s process by Kelman which is also used by the main research.
This journal article helps the conduction of the main paper as it provides
information related to social influence and all the aspects that involved or
influenced. The research will apply the identification of Social Influences and its
process with this journal article as the reference and guideline in solving the last
research question. In the end, the final conclusion shows whether social theory is
applicable toward fictional characteristic or not.
The next work is an academic research paper by Othmani (2014) entitled The
Underestimated Male: An Analysis of the other in the Disney Adaptations of the
Hunchback of the Notre-Dame and Frankeinstein or the Modern Prometheus
which uses Disney animated version of Hunchback of Notre Dame.
This study discusses the differences of Disney’s characters’ adaptation genre
from their original novels. The highlighted problem is about how the male
characters are presented in the original versions versus how their characters rebuilt
in the Disney movies. In the research paper, Othmani highlights certain
characteristics of Quasimodo in a contrast quality which explains why Quasimodo
is seen as a monster. The statement says, “The externality or deformity of the
Other distances him from all human ties; eventually the Other transforms from an
animalistic male to a monster. Though this transformation serves to shock and
even offend characters, the Other as a male monster must harbor traces of
humanity”. This matter is brought in several elaborations in the ongoing research,
thus, make this reference research paper important to the ongoing research.
One of the ongoing research objectives is to break down Quasimodo’s
characteristics, from the reference, the researcher can learn Quasimodo’s character
as an underestimated male from different angles. In the reference research the
writer mentioned the reason why Quasimodo is underestimated which is strongly
connected to the topic that is discussed in the ongoing initial research.
The third research reference is Alienation and Class Struggle in Victor Hugo’s
Les Miserables: A Marxist Study by Laurencius (2018). The research uses the
work from the same author and it discusses how people of low-class struggle
alienated due to their inferiority and the existence of vivid class division around
that time and place. In-depth, it breaks down the characterization of the characters
as how they are seen in a social class by the capitalist, then what kind of alienation
suffered by the characters, and lastly how the lower class fight back to oppose the
oppression done by the upper-class society. The paper uses Marxist literary
criticism as the approach as the concept of class divisions, focusing on
conflicts among individuals and classes. The topic of discussion helps to
understand the social conflicts which is discussed in this research.
Later in the initial research, the researcher also encounters the class and role
(in society) differences that have a contribution to the change of behavior and
character of Quasimodo. The related study elaborates deeper on how social
statuses plays role in alienation and segregation which also results oppression just
like what happen with Quasimodo. The researcher says that, "Alienation shows
how the proletarians suffer from the oppression, social discrimination, injustice of
the law and exhausting labor from their social background" (Laurentius, 2018).
Although not necessarily only because of his social status, his position in society
is told to be lower than Frollo and the puritan’s class. This reference helps us to
see how class division is implied within the story and how it actually triggers
conflicts. The societal conflicts determine the behaviors done by the characters
from the movie, especially the main focus: Quasimodo.
The fourth research is called A Study of Quasimodo’s Inferiority Complex as
Seen in Victor Hugos’s the Hunchback of Notre Dame by Binawan that was
published in 2005. This study is about the character Quasimodo who suffers in
inferiority complex or overly low self-esteem. He sees himself as a lowly creature,
not even a human being after a series of bad things happen to him and how the
environment works around him. The research problems discussed in this research
are how Quasimodo is portrayed, then how severe the inferiority complex that is
suffered by him and last is what are the causes of the inferiority complex. In the
research’s abstract, the researcher claims that, “Quasimodo deals with
psychological issue which in known as inferiority complex because of how other
people treat and see him” (Binawan, 2005). This claim is parallel with the ongoing
research which analyzes how Quasimodo sees himself as the result of the
treatments he receives since he was little.
This related research helps us to understand the wrong and negative treatments
received by Quasimodo have a relation to the causes and effects of his inferiority
complex and low self-esteem. Although this research applies different approaches
from the initial research, the focus is still the same which is Quasimodo. Those
different approaches are going to give the readers different feel from different
point of views provided by each researcher.
The last related research is written by Kristiyani (2000) goes by the title A
Priest’s Motives of Killing: A Psychological Analysis of the Character of Claude
Frollo in Victor Hugo’s The Hunchback of Notre-Dame. This research focuses on
a character named Claude Frollo, one of the influential side characters and his
existence is essential in every scene he is on. This research is conducted by using
the method of library research which mainly conducted based on in-depth theories
and existed descriptive materials with the outcome as to support or oppose the
theories by providing analysis accordingly, and focused on social conditions of
society in Paris at the time being. The highlighted objective of this research is
Frollo’s characteristics and what the circumstances make him wanted to kill
Phoebus and Esmeralda.
This research is functioned as the reference in elaborating the main research’s
last objective which is to analyze the ‘society’ as to how Frollo is a prominent part
of the society that the initial research discussed a lot. This paper mainly discusses
about Frollo as one of the representations of ‘society’ also behaves accordingly
towards Quasimodo, and later we can see how influential he is to the whole
character being of a protagonist character which is Quasimodo.
B. Review of Related Theories
1. Theory of Character and Characterization
The first research problem is to find out what Quasimodo personalities are. To
achieve that, we need to understand how he is built as a character that in the end
determines his action in society. Hence, what ‘character’ actually means is every
character has their own features and traits that make them different from others.
According to Gill (1995, p. 127), “A character is someone in a literary work who
has some sort of identity (it need not be a strong one), an identity which is made
up by appearance, conversation, action, name and (possibly) thoughts going on in
the head.” A character is one of the important points in literature. A character has
an identity to show the audience by their appearance, conversation, action, and
other things that are presented by the author to represents the message or the
concept of the story. How a character portrayed and presented depends on the aim
of the author, plot or even the role of the character itself. Therefore, it is not rare
to find a character development due to the change of role or even plot.
Barnet’s theory of characters and characterization mentions that a character
means a figure that appears in a literary work such as novel, poetry, and drama
(1988, p. 96). While Abrams states that,
“Normally, a story consists of several characters one or more of these
characters. One or more of this character appears as the main or primary
character. Character is people who are appeared in narrative prose or novel
and it is interpreted by the readers as a person who has moral quality and
certain tendency such as being expressed in what they say and what they do”
(1982, pp. 158).
In additions, the characters in a novel are portrayed differently, sometimes
they are described, but it is not a rare thing that we have to interpret and conclude
their characteristics based on what other characters said and thought, or by what
the specific things those characters did. In some story, the reader even has to
analyze based on the quality implied by the author with or without mediums.
After understanding the concept of a character, the researcher breakdowns
Quasimodo’s characterization by applying the method of determining a character
and theory of character and characterization from Murphy as what he writes on his
book entitled Understanding the Unseen. In the book, Murphy describes nine
ways to identify a character. First is by personal description which most and
commonly describe the appearance of the character, for example the physical
traits like eye color and complexion, or the character’s ways to do something like
the way one dresses, walks, and eats. The second way is by how they seen by
others, which rely on the other characters’ way of seeing that particular character
for what he or she is. The third is by the character’s speech or how one talks or
utters. The fourth is based on the author’s information about the character’s past
life. The fifth is based on the conversation of other characters that imply or
directly describe one particular character. The sixth is based on the reaction done
by that character as the result or reflexes of certain things or situation. The
seventh is based on the direct comment from the author (without any medium in
form of other characters). The eighth is based on the character’s thought or way of
thinking provided by the author within the story. The last is by the mannerism the
character own, such as how they behave in the story (Murphy, 1972, pp. 161-173).
The theory is that there are numerous diverse devices falling under the category
of indirect characterization, but all of them share the same quality which is they
all show or display, rather than tell. In addition, they are encrypted in various
depths of the discourse or story they may run through the whole story or appear
just once, and quite often, they work together to create a complex blend of
characteristic features. The basic list comprises action, speech, external appearance
and environment (Punday, 2003, pp. 15-23).
2. Theory of Conflict
From the book written by Petrie and Boggs entitled The Art of Watching
Films (2012), the researcher takes two points to be highlighted which is essential
and related to this research. The first is the theory about conflict in a movie. Both
writers conclude that conflict is the mainspring of every story, whether it be told
on the printed page, on the stage, or on the screen. It is the element that really
captures our interest, heightens the intensity of our experience, quickens our
pulses, and challenges our minds (p.47).
In the book, the writers mention some major conflicts which are primarily
physical, such as a fistfight or a shootout in a western or action movie such as
Fuqua’s Magnificent Seven (2016) or the series of Marvel Comic Universe. Others
are almost completely psychological, as are seen in Shyamalan’s Sixth Sense
(1999) or Fincher’s psychological crime film entitled Se7en (1995). In other films,
however, the conflict has both physical and psychological dimensions, and
determining where one stops and the other begins is often difficult. It is perhaps
simpler and more meaningful to classify major conflicts under the broad headings
of external and internal (Petrie and Boggs, 2012, p. 48).
In its simplest form as what the researcher uses, an external conflict may
consist of a personal and individual struggle between the central character and
another character. The same statement by Kenney (1996, pp. 23) says that he
identifies a conflict based on its origins which are internal and external. Internal
conflict is a conflict happens between a person and him or herself and is the result
of self-convicted problems. Internal conflict usually shown in form of mental war
or struggle in the character’s conflicted mind. This kind of conflict is what usually
called psychological conflict.
Kenney also states that an external conflict is a struggle between a character
and an outside force. For examples, of a certain character may faces or exposes to
several types of outside forces, that do not come from his or her self. Types of
external conflict such as: man versus man, man versus nature, man versus society,
and man versus technology (1966, p.19).
3. Theory of Social Influence
Social Influence belongs to the study of social psychology, which is defined
as the study that focuses on how people’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors are
influenced by other people (Gergen, 1973). The term of social influence itself has
been mentioned in a great number of social analysts since many years ago. Kelman
(1958) says that, “Social influence theorizes that people are motivated to adopt
attitudes of relevant reference groups to the extent that the group identity is salient
and desirable”. This statement is also supported by Hogg and Vaughan. They
define that, “social influence has been defined as the 'process whereby attitudes
and. behavior is influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people”
(2011, p. 236). In addition, they distinguish three major forms of social
influences which are compliance, conformity and obedience.
Agreeing with other psychologists, Hogg and Vaughan support the
categorization. They elaborate the definitions and characteristics of compliance,
conformity and obedience. Compliance is defined as a particular kind of response
to a particular kind of communication for example is a request. Conformity is the
act of changing one’s behavior to match the responses of others (Cialdini &
Goldstein, 2004, p. 606); and obedience is a behavior change produced by the
commands of an authority.
Cialdini and Goldstein (2004, p. 607) mainly describe that there are three
major kinds of influences happen in a dynamic situation in everyday life of human
being. Compliance happens when someone accepts and agrees to the influence
given by other people and they do it as a form of understanding, willingness, or
agreement with full consent. For example, when A asks or borrows B some
money and B accept the request and give the money. There is no compulsion or
authority involved in this type of influence. However, compliance is also not
necessarily claimed as absolute social influence and change in attitude, but also
the basic initial form and the beginning of agreements, agreeing with what it is
mentioned in Cialdini and Goldstein’s research as ‘Kelman’s Varieties’ which
explains the process of attitude change in Social Influence. The process of social
influence happens in three steps which are compliance or in this context is defined
as the initial respond towards other’s action, Identification which means the
changing of behavior or the adaptation towards others, and the last is
internalization which means the process of acceptance towards others’ norm or
rules. Internalization is not always in form of positive agreement; it can be in form
of disagreement or even rejection.
Conformity is a type of influence where someone changes their behavior to
adapt and be in one agreement to the surrounding. Conformity is divided into two,
informational and normative. Informational happens when someone rely on the
others as sources of information for example when someone goes to a doctor and
takes queue number as what other people do because it is the common procedure.
Normative is when there is pressure needed in order to match and blend with
others. For example, in a party, everybody dresses up as what it appropriates, and
someone does that in order to impress or get approval to blend with the crowd
(2004, p. 609).
Lastly, is Obedience or a change of behavior in response of an authorized
person’s request or command. For example, when a police officer asks a driver to
blow the alcohol indicator tool and he or she have to comply because a police
officer have authority as a part of the job (2004, p. 610).
In the same scope and categories as compliance, conformity and obedience,
Cialdini and Goldstein also mention negative social influence. Negative here
means the outcome or the behavior change is the opposite of what other people
do. Meaning somebody does not shift their behavior to match and adapt to the
situation and the people, but he or she contrast their action (2004, p.620). The
kind of negative social influence that is highlighted in this research is called
reactant or anti-conformity which means that the process of adaptation is a result
of pressures from other and not a form of self- acceptance.
C. Theoretical Framework
After formulating the research problems and collecting the applicable theories,
the researcher uses those theories in analyzing and solving t he research
problems. The first theory which is the theory of character and characterization is
applied to analyze the first research question about how Quasimodo is portrayed
in the movie. By understanding the concept of character, we can conclude what
the true characteristics are owned by Quasimodo from beginning to the end of the
story and how he developed certain characteristics.
As it is mentioned in the related theory, the method of determining a character
that is applied to this research is the theory of characterization by Murphy which
identifies characteristics of a character through nine points, which are: personal
descriptions, as seen by others, speech, past life, conversation of others, reactions,
direct comment, thoughts, and mannerisms.
Second theory which is theory of conflicts is used to help the researcher to
solve the second research question, which are related to conflicts as a character.
The theory of conflicts by Kenney divides the main conflict based on the origin
which is internal and external. External conflict itself has several sub categories
which are man versus man, man versus nature, man versus society, and man
versus technology. By the help from this theory, researcher categorized the
conflicts involving Quasimodo.
The third and last theory which is used is social influence theory. This theory
functions as the guide in answering the last research question which is how other
characters socially influence Quasimodo’s changes in behaviors. Answering the
question is aimed to understand the influences of other characters’ presence as
parts of society towards Quasimodo’s social behaviors which then make him
shifts and adjusts his behavior to be fitted with certain characters he interacts with.
The changes in his behaviors happen in specific ways and along with it, the initial
signs of each change and outcome also comes in obvious distinct ways.
By the limitation of the research method which gives the context and
objectifies the object as the only source of data to be analyzed, this research
applies social influence theory to answer the last research question on identifying
the kinds of social influences done by Quasimodo and also the processes, the
causes and the results of those influences. The materials are collected through
library research in order to understand the theories which fit the social
psychological approach, and social theory acts as the guide in filling up the
checklists of what to find in analyzing the object of this study in certain way.
This combination of methods in analyzation, treats the ‘society’ and
‘individuals’ in the story as the main observed object as if they are real life human
beings engaging in a real social life which have certain social roles. Thus, this part
sought to fulfil the aim of the research paper which is to determine the social
behaviors’ development in Quasimodo’s characters towards other characters.
A. Object of the Study
The object of the study is Disney animated movie and its script with title The
Hunchback of Notre Dame directed by directors Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise
and written by screenwriter Tab Murphy and his team. The animated movie itself
is an adaptation of a movie with the same title directed by William Dieterle
released in 1939, which is also the adaptation of a Goth French novel by Victor
Hugo goes by the original title Notre Dame de Paris, the story sets in Paris by the
early 1480s. The story itself is about Quasimodo, the deformed bell ringer of
Notre Dame Cathedral. His name means 'half made' given by his adoptive father,
Judge Claude Frollo.
The movie sets in Paris at year of 1482, with the background of Notre Dame
Cathedral and the people around it and Quasimodo as the main protagonist and
the focus of the story. He is pictured as an isolated lonely unusual-looking man
named Quasimodo the story tells how he lives his life surrounded by people who
laugh at him, fear him, enslave him, but also love him for what he is. Quasimodo
was saved by the Archdeacon when he was a baby. His mother was a gipsy who
was killed. He is taken under care of Judge Claud Frollo, a self-righteous and
somewhat merciless Minister of Justice and a man who killed Quasimodo’s
mother. He locks Quasimodo from the people inside the Cathedral and appoints
him to be the bell ringer.
Quasimodo has no friend but only three animated gargoyles named Victor,
Hugo, and Laverne but it changes when he meets Esmeralda, gipsy girl who
performs on street of Paris, and Phoebus a captain of guard serving Frollo. The
four characters involve in complicated situations. Quasimodo, Phoebus and Frollo
awed by Esmeralda’s beauty, kindness and spirit. The conflicts happen throughout
the story as Frollo being the antagonist is against Esmeralda and other gypsies.
Quasimodo and Phoebus feel dilemma whether to obey their master or save their
love. At the end, Quasimodo and Phoebus get united to save Esmeralda from
being publicly executed by Frollo. The fight ends when Frollo dies, and
Quasimodo lets Esmeralda be with Phoebus and remains as their dearly loved
This study is conducted by applying social psychological approach which
focused on the behavior of an individual, it may also group, influenced by the
presence and behavior of others. The definition of the social psychology is a
concept of psychological analyzation which focused on the influence of the society
creating perception towards an individual behavior. Even though social
psychology is a subcategory on the field of psychology, social psychology is one
of the broadest and most complex of all subcategories.
Uldall supports the idea of social psychology stated by Gordon Allport which
highlights the relation of social environment to someone’s psychological
characters. In his book, he defines that social psychology is about understanding
the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals that are influenced by the
actual, imagined, or implied the presence of the human being (Uldall, 2013, p.
1047). It is safe to conclude that the essence of social psychology is the
understanding of how each person’s individual behavior is influenced by the
social environment which that behavior takes place.
Another researcher, Charles A. Ellwood, states that social psychology is the
study of the individual’s psychological origin which is involved in the
development, structure, and functioning social groups. Individual behavior is
influenced by the development of those social groups” (Ellwood, 1924, p. 9). In
other words, individual behavior influenced by the society is the indication of the
existence of social psychology. As this study is focused on how the individual
behavior changes because of its surroundings, this approach is the most suitable to
assist the writer analysis later on.
C. Method of the Study
To collect the data and compose the analysis, the method that is used is library
research method. The method is used to analyze the object of this research which
is a literary work in form of a movie with scripts attached or subtitles. The guiding
references and supporting data that is used are taken from reference books,
journals, and online articles. In addition, this research also uses two kinds of data,
primary and secondary. The primary data is the object, which is the movie and the
subtitles. The secondary data are in forms of journals, theses, and articles which
help to analyze and solve the research questions. Later on, throughout the analysis
part, the supporting evidences are included accordingly. The researcher puts
dialogues’ parts which support the explanations, and pictures or screenshots of the
scenes which cannot be supported only by dialogue or there is no dialogue
In conducting the research, after deciding the topic and problem, researcher
continued by treating the object as a main source to elaborate the objectives.
While the researcher was doing the reading process, researcher focused on the
characters and their interactions in several situations that need to be highlighted
and pointed out. After finding the raw data, the researcher analyzed the data to
answer the questions. In this part, the guiding theories and supporting references
helped the researcher stick to the points.
The first question, about the characteristics of Quasimodo, was necessary to
be answered first in order to be able to answer the last question, so that the
researcher was able to see the real impact and influence that the conflicts and
society gave to Quasimodo. The last step to do was the researcher concluded the
whole points based on the analysis and the end point to see whether the research
questions are solved or not.
With all the methods and process of gathering materials from various sources
of theories, the researcher is able to conduct the analysis to answer the research
questions. The first research question to be discussed is to elaborate Quasimodo’s
initial characteristics with the guiding theory of Character and Characterization
from Murphy (1972). The second research question is answered based on the
theory of Conflict by Kenney (1966). And the last research question applied all
theories above and the addition of a Social Psychological- related theory that
discusses about social influence and behavioral change by Hogg and Vaughan
A. Quasimodo’s Characteristics in the Movie Hunchback of Notre Dame
Kenney (1966) explains that aside from conflicts, characterization is often
listed as one of the fundamental and important elements of a fiction. It refers to
the way an author creates and manipulates the characters in the work to explicate
his or her theme. Characterization is an image toward the characters based on time
or its characters which could be known from the physiological, psychological and
sociological features. Through characters as the doers and the vehicles, the element
of a literary works like plot and setting have chances to develop. To understand
the story more, it is very important for the readers or audiences to
understand the characters in the story.
In the movie The Hunchback of Notre Dame, through Quasimodo as the main
vehicle of the story the audiences are able to get the information about what
actually the story is about and what the conflicts- resolutions are. These are the
reasons why breaking down the characterizations of Quasimodo is important. To
help understanding this, Murphy’s nine ways to identify a character’s
characteristics is the most complete and thorough method. From Murphy’s theories,
the researcher choses five points as the guide to find out Quasimodo’s
characteristics. Those five points are including personal descriptions about
Quasimodo through the visualization as seen in the movie, how he is as seen by
others which supported by the other characters’ dialogue about Quasimodo, past
life, thoughts, and last is manners or behaviors.
1. Orphaned
In the story, it is shown at the beginning how his gypsy parents are busted and
run away from the Frollo and his soldiers. His father is then taken and imprisoned
while his mother is killed by Frollo for protecting Quasimodo. Frollo intention
was actually to kill Quasimodo after seeing how he appears to be; however, the
Archdeacon stops him.
Despite the hatred toward the gypsies, eventually Frollo raised him inside the
Cathedral and makes him the bell ringer of Notre Dame. Throughout the story, the
relationship which initially means such adoptive father and son kind of connection,
turns into master and slave relationship. Frollo’s task from the archdeacon to
raise Quasimodo as a son is neglected because Frollo never does what a father
supposed to do.
Figure 1.1.0 Frollo is told to raise the child
In the story it is told that the Archdeacon witnesses Frollo killed Quasimodo’s
mother and also about to throw baby Quasimodo into the well. The Archdeacon
then tells Frollo that he could tell lies but the Notre Dame was watching him, and
demands Frollo raising Quasimodo as how he raises his own child (pict. 1.0), the
dialogue goes as bellow,
FROLLO. What must I do?
ARCHDEACON. Care for the child, raise it as your own. FROLLO. What? I'm to be saddled with this misshapen…
(Dialogue timeline mark 3:10).
With the demand from the archdeacon, Frollo agrees upon raising the child
with condition of the child must live in the church for nobody eyes to see.
Quasimodo then lives his life knowing Frollo as his master, his only human
companion, and his adoptive father.
2. Isolated
Quasimodo knows no one except Frollo. He is unfamiliar with human
companionship and instead he interacts with three gargoyles of the cathedral:
Victor, Hugo and Laverne. To deal with his loneliness, he makes a diorama with
the miniature all of people in Paris.
Figure 1.2.0 Frollo demands that Quasimodo must be locked away
His isolation has to do with the fact that Frollo does not want a monstrous
Gypsy wanders around the city. Frollo demands the Archdeacon to let Quasimodo
live in the Cathedral, at the far highest tower where nobody can see him. He has
no one but himself and the stone- made Gargoyles which Frollo says how similar
they (the Gargoyles) and Quasimodo are.
Although Quasimodo is used to be isolated, he cannot deny that he really
wants to go outside and meet people. At 7:09 frame shows how he talks to a bird,
encourages it to fly as he says:
QUASIMODO. You sure? Good day to try. Why, if I picked a day to
fly, oh, this would be it! The Festival of Fools!
It will be fun--the jugglers, and music, and dancing...
QUASIMODO.Go on! Nobody wants to be cooped up here forever!
(Dialogue timeline mark 7:09).
Contradictory to what he is doing, Quasimodo lives in isolation from the
world with no direct interactions from human being except Frollo who constantly
visits during meal time. However, the visits’ purpose is never more than to give
foul doctrines of how degraded Quasimodo is in front of people’s eyes.
3. Physically Deformed
Quasimodo be called a monstrous creature for a reason. It is in fact the reason
why he be called an unholy incarnation of devil by Frollo at the time he first saw
Quasimodo when he was just a baby. Frollo even refers Quasimodo as an unholy
demon he shall send back to hell where he belongs, a foul creature and a misshapen
thing. Frollo is also the one who gave the cruel name meant as ‘half- formed’
which is why the poor man is called Quasimodo.
Living to his name, Quasimodo is given the title as pope of fools, awarded as
the ugliest person in Paris the first time he showed himself at public. He was
thrown with food and junks, and was tied and mocked by everyone who comes to
the festival. He is humiliated by people around him especially Frollo and the
people who comes to the Cathedral as they refer him as the monster of Notre
Quasimodo has apparent and distinct features resulting the humiliation and
isolation. He has a very big lump on his back, it is so heavy that makes him
always leans forward and unable to stand upright, hence he is called the-
hunchback. He has unsymmetrical eyes and big teeth that stand out and make him
look inhuman.
Figure 1.3.2 Ugly Quasimodo converse with the gargoyle
Although Quasimodo is aware that he is ugly, Frollo constantly reminds him
how displeasing for eyes Quasimodo is which seems to be a lot worse, he makes
Quasimodo shouts the words “I am ugly” from his own lips repeating after the
older man. The dialogue between the two characters at timeline starts with Frollo
saying “I am the only one who look at you with no fear” implies that Frollo has to
make Quasimodo understand how hideous and terrifying looking he is, the dialogue
goes as:
FROLLO. Out there, they'll revile you as a monster
QUASIMODO. I am a monster FROLLO. Out there, they will hate with scorn and jeer
QUASIMODO. Only a monster
Stay in here
FROLLO. Do as i say. Obey and stay in here.
QUASIMODO. I'll stay in here.
(Dialogue timeline mark 12:36- 13:04).
Frollo enchants the derogatory doctrine towards Quasimodo as if he makes
himself loud and clear for Quasimodo to know. Those remarks spoken by Frollo
make Quasimodo believe how displeasing for the eyes he appears to others.
4. Strong
Quasimodo is able to ring the bells of Notre Dame for a reason. Despite his
monstrous appearance, he is also gifted with a very strong body no one can defeat.
Quasimodo is seen in the movie several times, jumping and leaping from one
level to upper and lower levels of Notre Dame with ease, with just himself when
he is about to leave his sanctuary to go and see the festival.
Quasimodo’s strong physics keeps being showed, when he helps Esmeralda
out from the Cathedral after being chased by Frollo, he holds Esmeralda in an
arm, while hanging and swinging from pole to pole with just an arm. He is also
able to break chains entangle himself to the gigantic pillars of Notre Dame, and
single handedly lift Phoebus off the ground without any difficulties.
Figure 1.4.0 Figure 1.4.1
Figure 1.4.2
The figures above show how strong Quasimodo is. However, despite being
inhumanely strong, he never does commit violence to other people. He uses his
strength only when he needs to, he uses it to save Esmeralda and the people from
Frollo and his devious schemes.
5. Kind Hearted
Quasimodo is one of the examples why people should not judge a book by the
cover. Quasimodo as said earlier, appears hideous, ugly and monstrous. However,
Esmeralda, the only human befriends him, wonders about him. She says:
ESMERALDA. How could such a cruel man have raised someone like you?
(Dialogue timeline mark 40:00).
She implies that Frollo is a cruel man, and it is impossible he raised a kind
and gentle man like Quasimodo. Quasimodo is also very gentle and humane with
helpless creatures like animals. As seen in the beginning of the movie, he
encourages a bird to fly with such a soft manner. He also saves Esmeralda’s goat,
Djali, when he is about to be hurt by the guards.
In the story, it is told that Quasimodo has developed feeling towards
Esmeralda who treats him like a human being. He knows the feeling is not mutual
and that Esmeralda loves Phoebus. When he is accidentally confronted by Phoebus,
Quasimodo can very easily hurt Phoebus but he does not do that despite being
rival in pursuing Esmeralda. He even helps Phoebus when he was injured and
almost being killed by Frollo to arrest Esmeralda.
6. Obedient
When Frollo killed Quasimodo’s mother, the Archdeacon ask Frollo to raise
Quasimodo s if he was Frollo’s own child. However, throughout the whole mo vie
not even once Quasimodo addresses him as a father. Quasimodo calls him
‘Master’. Not even ‘Judge’ as how other people call, but ‘Master’ as if
Quasimodo is even lower than common people around him.
Quasimodo is entitled to pay Frollo back for raising and protecting him.
Frollo never told him the truth that his own mother was killed by Frollo. Frollo
tells him how he saved and took him in after his mother dumped him. Being
brainwashed on how heroic Frollo is for him, he obeys everything Frollo asks and
commands, even if he does not want it. He is treated like a vermin and slave, yet
he never complains because in his eyes Frollo is his savior.
In the dialogue starts with Frollo being furious after Quasimodo mentioned
‘Festival’. Having the idea that Quasimodo thinks about going to the festival, he
bombards Quasimodo with the fact on how Frollo is the only one who can stand
him, the one who dress him, educate him and give him food. Frollo also says “Do
as I say. Obey, and stay here”. Frollo does not even bother to put it in a nice way,
he simply commands and obliges Quasimodo to just stay put and never go out.
In several other cases, Esmeralda the Gypsy also asks Quasimodo to help her.
This fact is actually very different from what he faces with Frollo, because
Quasimodo really likes Esmeralda. He develops a sense that he will always help
Esmeralda to do everything she ask. Quasimodo do that because he loves her not
only because she saved him from being bullied in public, because through
Esmeralda, he learns what friend is actually meant, he learns how to be confident
and not to believe everything Frollo says about himself and other people. His
dialogue with Esmeralda gets him when he told her about his master who tells him
he is a monster, and the Gypsies who are bad and evil.
ESMERALDA. Monster lines. Not a single one. Now you look at me. Do you
think I’m evil?
QUASIMODO. No, no, no! You are kind, and good, and- ESMERALDA. -and a gypsy. And maybe Frollo’s wrong about both of us.
(Dialogue timeline mark 42:02-11).
Quasimodo later believes that Esmeralda means no harm to him. He can see
the kindness and sincerity that Esmeralda gives. For the first time he gains a
human friend, and he begins to doubt Frollo accusation that all Gypsies are bad.
7. Brave and Heroic
Although Quasimodo is very much obedient and afraid of Frollo, there are
several cases when he snaps to collect all his bravery to go against Frollo. The
first example is when Esmeralda asks for sanctuary to the Cathedral and manages
to find Quasimodo there. Quasimodo feels he needs to help her because she
previously helped Quasimodo to. He knows Frollo basically hunts Esmeralda, yet
he still helps her out from Notre Dame.
Figure 1.7.0 Quasimodo helps Esmeralda to escape
The next is when Quasimodo and Phoebus look for the Gypsies’ hideout to
save them from being captured by Frollo. This part of the movie is the beginning
that build the climax. The climax itself shows where Esmeralda is accused of
being a witch and about to be burnt alive in public. Quasimodo, cannot bear
seeing her dying, able to breaks free from chain and throws himself into the fire.
Quasimodo risks his life to save her and everybody else, but it is too late and
Esmeralda is not moving at all. However, Quasimodo does not know that
Esmeralda is in fact, alive. Quasimodo is confronted by Frollo who intends to kill
him after setting out the whole city in fire. Frollo then confesses he killed
Quasimodo’s mother and he never loves Quasimodo nor thinks of him as a sone.
They both fight and Frollo falls down from height, eventually dies.
This is the part when Quasimodo believes that Frollo is evil and it is a good
decision to end his evilness. Quasimodo saves Esmeralda and all people from
Frollo’s dictatorshipp.
Figure 1.7.1 Quasimodo is called as a hero by the people
Everyone in the city cheer for him and call him hero for saving their lives and
the city from the catastrophe set by Frollo and his devious followers. Quasimodo,
being even a bigger hero, lets Esmeralda to be with Phoebus and gives up on his
own feeling when he realizes that both are meant to be together. Quasimodo saves
everyone’s’ lives, including the people of Paris who threw junks and humiliated
B. The Conflicts Faced by Quasimodo against Himself and Other
In common literary works, conflicts are categorized as the essential elements
as they build and evolve to become what we call the climax of the stories.
Conflicts are provided as matters to depict emotional arising so that the readers or
audience can experience them. Conflict, just as in the real world or in fictional
world, is something cannot be avoided because interaction is involved.
Similar with common human relationship in general which is prone to conflict
and disagreements, in a fiction where there are many characters engage in
various interactions is also full of conflicts. Conflict is ignited when there are
differences or disagreements between characters. Disagreements instigated
conflicts in the common forms are varied from social, interests, even politics
which depend on the genre or the aim of the authors. The upheaval although most
likely happens amongst characters, it also highly possible that an individual
character experiences inner struggles or conflicts. This phenomenon is what
Kenney (1966) means by internal conflict.
1. Internal Conflict
Internal conflict as mentioned earlier, is an inner battle happens within the
character’s oneself. This kind of conflict is also called man versus man conflict
(Kenney,1966). The war inside a character happens when a certain character
experiences confusion, bewilderment, uncertainty or indecisive choices or beliefs.
The causes also can be varied and triggered by external conflicts, such as who to
choose sides in a fight, who should be believed when two premises are announced,
and so on so forth.
In Quasimodo’s cases, internal and external conflicts he experiences are
related and influenced one to others. This has something to do with how he owns
himself and how he believes or obeys other characters. The conflicts that happen
surround him are mostly the manifestation of indecisiveness whether he has to
stay loyal to Frollo, or fight for what he really wants.
In the beginning of the movie, Quasimodo and his Gargoyle friends are talking
about the Festival of Fools. The Gargoyles know how he really wants to watch the
festival. In the dialogue starts from 08:10, both Victor and Hugo
encourage him to watch with them. But they all see him hesitating. Laverne
senses the doubt and asks him what is wrong, which to it he answers that he does
not feel like watching the festival. Then, she asks whether he ever think about
going to the festival directly, and thus is answered by Quasimodo saying “But I'd
never fit in down there. I'm not...normal.” which answer actually does answer the
question: he wants to go, but he does not think he can go.
The Gargoyles manage to convince Quasimodo to go undercover so nobody
can actually see him. He gets the way to get out and go to the festival however it
all comes down crushed the moment Frollo appears and he knows Quasimodo is
thinking about going to the festival. Frollo destroys his dream by talking about
how Quasimodo was heartlessly abandoned yet Frollo raises him as his own child.
Frollo manipulates him to believe that Quasimodo is ungrateful for how he replies
the kindness with betrayal. Frollo manipulates him into thinking he does not know
how cruel the outside world like Frollo does. Once again, Quasimodo hesitates.
He is torn between what he wants and what Frollo’s commands him to.
This hesitance exists because Quasimodo knows the facts that he is isolated
because of the way he looks. He is being casted away by Fro llo in order to not be
seen by anyone because of how monstrous he looks. Quasimodo thinks the festival
is something that normal human being celebrating. By seeing himself as
somebody who is not- normal, dispute his desire to go. He does not want to
disobey, yet he says “what I’d give, and what I’d want for just to live one day out
there” and eventually, at the end, he decides to go against Frollo’s order for him
to stay concealed inside the Cathedral, and just go.
This conflict is what previously said to be related by external conflict. The
meeting point lies when Frollo appears as a character that withholds opposite
wants in form of contradictory ideas that Quasimodo ought to obey. The conflict
of interest between the two characters resulted in Quasimodo’s inner struggles.
The inner conflicts of wants and wills also happen whenever Quasimodo faces
this love interest and her love interest. Esmeralda is portrayed as strong, righteous
and beautiful woman. However, in Quasimodo’s eyes, she is far much more than
that. Rather than seeing her for the appearance, Quasimodo chooses the adjectives
that describe Esmeralda in a non-visual way, such as kind hearted, good, a
heaven’s light and very different with other Gypsies that he defines as very evil.
Quasimodo grows very fond of her, because she is the first ever person to smile at
him, save him from being humiliated in public, and the first person that tell him
he is not a monster and has no single quality of a monster.
Quasimodo’s fondness toward Esmeralda is stronger of a friendship. He adores
her but unfortunately the feeling is not mutual. She cherishes him as only a friend
as she begins to like Phoebus who she thinks very different from other soldiers.
When Phoebus gets injured from fighting against Frollo, Esmeralda asks
Quasimodo to help her hides him. Conflicted, Quasimodo hesitates to help because
he knows she likes Phoebus and Quasimodo likes her, but he cannot refuse to
help someone he loves. Quasimodo thinks at least Esmeralda likes him too,
however his thought is proven false when he sees her kisses Phoebus. He feels
dejected and down. He sees the woman he likes kissing other man. Thus,
makes him realizes it is impossible for her to love someone like himself, someone
he claims himself as “no face as hideous as my face, was ever meant for heaven's
light though I might wish with all my might”.
Figure 2.1.1 Quasimodo witnesses Esmeralda kissing Phoebus
Quasimodo is broken hearted, projected in the figure above, that shows he
tears the Ace heart card given by Esmeralda into two pieces. However, at the end
of the days, despites being hurt by the unrequited love, Quasimodo has no heart to
break his promise to Esmeralda that he would hide Phoebus safely from Frollo.
Same thing goes when Phoebus asks Quasimodo to join him saving Esmeralda
and other Gypies.
Quasimodo at first says “I cannot” then it makes Phoebus questions his
friendship with Esmeralda. He keeps reasoning how Frollo is his master and he
cannot disobey his order. However, then he remembers Frollo’s word that a Gypsy
is incapable of loving, just like his mother and he snaps to Phoebus by saying “She
already has her knight in shining armor, and it's not me. Frollo was right. Frollo
was right about everything”. At this point, it is not his obedience that is being
questioned; Quasimodo is jealous. He thinks Esmeralda does not
need a man like him, but then a ‘quarrel’ between Phoebus and Quasimodo puts
him back to his sense and priority which is to save Esmeralda.
Throughout the entire movie, the internal conflicts that Quasimodo faces
comes from his lack of confidence in the way he looks. Being criticized for his
whole life does aware him of how he appears. However, the biggest influence
comes from Frollo who raised him since he was practically a new born. Frollo has
the biggest role in shaping Quasimodo’s behavior including the way he acts, the
way he thinks and the way he talks.
Frollo hates Gypsies. Quasimodo was one of them. Unlike what he claims
and what Quasimodo believes; that Frollo loves him like his own child, he despises
Quasimodo. Frollo taught him that Gypsies are evil, just like his mother who left
him. That is why he gets conflicted when he knows how Esmeralda treats him is
totally the opposite of what Frollo let him know. The hate Frollo has toward
Quasimodo that is a Gypsy is so intense that he taught him alphabets in bad and
negatives way. He uses the negative derogatory words that stands for the
alphabets, for example, A for abomination (red. Disgusting act), B for blasphemy
(red. Act of insulting towards sacred things), D for damnations (red. State of
being damned with punishment) and more. He also makes Quasimodo says it with
his own mouth. Just to reminds him; he is nothing but what he said.
The self-derogating way of teaching done by Frollo has formed Quasimodo to
become a man with too much of self-consciousness, low self-esteem, and a content
insecurity. It makes him always scared to decide anything, like wanting to go the
festival but he cannot because he does not look normal, or hesitating
whether he should go out but he cannot because he is ugly. The fact that
Quasimodo is actually locked up inside the cathedral, no one ever sees him, yet he
is capable to call himself ugly is a vivid prove on how Frollo really plants the
word ‘ugly’ in every inch of Quasimodo’s life.
2. External Conflict
Other than internal conflict than happens inside one’s mind, there is also
external conflict which means the conflict that happens between characters. It can
be in form of individual versus individual, individual versus group, or group
versus group. The bigger the number of participants, the bigger conflicts are
plausible to happen. External conflict, to differ with internal conflict, happens
with outside force. External conflict is something that cannot be avoided when
there are many characters have interactions. Literary-wise, conflict helps the plot
to build from beginning, to climax, then down to resolution (Tennyson, 1967, pp.
14). However, to be highlighted here, is the individual-centric external conflicts,
which according to Kenney is divided into four, but the researcher takes two out
of the four (minus Man versus Technology and Man versus Nature).
In the movie, conflicts between man versus other(s) happen several times.
With the climax on Quasimodo versus Frollo. this has something to do with the
different interests and values both men have. In this part of discussion, the conflicts
to be paid attention to is centralized on Quasimodo.
a. Man versus Man
Man versus man conflict means the central of the conflict is two people with
differences in ideas. The ideas can be social, political, even religion. The conflict
also can result in various outputs, such as emotional, verbal and even physical. In
a literary work with roles that are divided into protagonist and antagonist, this
type of conflict is unavoidable. Just like in modern literary when a super hero
fights the villain, the conflict Quasimodo an Frollo have, is like a knight against
his nemesis.
In the movie, Quasimodo is presented as the protagonist, despite the
repetitious acclaims on how he looks like a monster. In the previous research
question about Quasimodo’s characteristics, Quasimodo has qualities that a
superhero has. He is strong, heroic, and kind hearted. A truly amiable character
who is wrongly judged because of the way he emerges in the eyes of other people.
On the other way, Frollo is shown as a man working for the justice. He is
very formidable, fearsome, authoritative and self-centric. He has all qualities of a
tyrant. He finds Gypsies are threats to society and revolting people, no matter how
they actually do no wrong. He has aim to destroy every single Gypsy and the
people who help them. One particular Gypsy he both hates and desires is
Esmeralda. He hunts her all around places and burns the whole city to find her.
The hunt does not end well as he infuriates Quasimodo by hurting Esmeralda and
this is where the conflict between Frollo and Quasimodo is started.
Quasimodo finds out that Frollo had killed Esmeralda. While he is still
mourning and crying about losing her, Frollo sees a chance to kill Quasimodo to,
but end up failed as Quasimodo notice him. The two ends up fighting each other
physically. In the middle of the fight, both find out that Esmeralda is actually still
alive. This, angers Frollo more, and Quasimodo has to both fight and protect
himself and Esmeralda. Being strong and brave as he is, the fight ends with
Quasimodo successfully defends and protects himself and Esmeralda, while Frollo
fall into an open fire.
Figure 2.1.2 Frollo attempts to kill Esmeralda while Quasimodo is saving her
Quasimodo has always been an obedient slave to Frollo. He is borderline
between being grateful having been saved so he complies Frollo, or being afraid
of Frollo’s power so he obeys the man. Quasimodo does everything Frollo
commands him to. However, he loses it all because of love. Although in the end
Quasimodo is not getting together with his love, the sacrifices and bravery t hat he
does are all showing how pure hearted he is compared to Frollo’s self-acclaimed
righteousness as the reasons of the wrong doings he has done.
b. Man versus Society
It is mentioned earlier in the first part of this chapter that Quasimodo lives in
a solitude with no human companion. The reason of Quasimodo’s solitary life is
his appearance. Frollo wants nobody ever see the misshapen creature he raised
since a baby. The truth is not that Frollo cares the safety or comfort of his people,
more like he is ashamed to admit he is an adoptive father of an ugly deformed
Gypsy and he wants to remain oblivious to the fact that he killed Quasimodo’s
mother in front of the Archdeacon. Frollo wants to keep the secrets as the way
they are so he put Quasimodo behind closed door, yet there is no actual explanation
by the movie how people know who Quasimodo is despite Frollo’s effort to
hide him.
Quasimodo makes first appearance in public when he decides to come to the
festival. Quasimodo believes it is fine form him as a citizen to come and join the
festival as how everybody else do, however it is not the case seeing by how the
public’s reactions. He ends up being shoved around, publicly tortured and
humiliated because he is ugly and deemed not worthy to come in public. This
conflict shows just how the difference of idea of being a free human may harm
other individual or people.
The people know he is the bell ringer, this is a known fact provided by the
film maker just as how they show Frollo’s job as the Judge assigned by the
ministry. Quasimodo faces the people in a timid and meek demeanor. He at the
end, regrets ignoring his master’s order to stay hidden and this makes him more
dependent and obey his master more. This makes him believes that Frollo’s
existence is truly to save and protect Quasimodo from the mean people and
societal judgement.
Quasimodo is a figure that every group of people dislike. The groups having
relatively close or remote interactions with him are the church goers, the society
surrounds the Cathedral, which is the highlighted major conflict, and the remain-
hidden Gypsies. The hunchback and the three different groups of society have
serious problematic interactions. However, to be called ‘interactions’ required
certain responses from Quasimodo, but it is not remotely closed to that term. The-
more proper way to describe are bullying, humiliations, and shamming and all
have sort of different reasons too.
The first man versus society conflict happens between Quasimodo against the
citizens or people surrounding the Cathedral. The conflicts are in form of both
physical and non-physical conflicts. The people who at that time come to celebrate
The Festival of Fools physically assault Quasimodo by throwing thrash and
vegetables and also bind him into a wheel cart. Quasimodo is surely a physically
strong character, however to have a bunch of people attack him at the same time,
his resistance turns futile. Non-physical assaults are also suffered by
Quasimodo. As if throwing and binding him are not sufficient, the people also call
him all bad names.
Figure 2.2.2 Quasimodo is assaulted in public
The next two man versus society conflicts are Quasimodo versus the church
people and Quasimodo versus the Gypsies, are categorized as minor because they
do not give major influence to the plot and show important points that support
Quasimodo’s characterizations. The church people criticize Quasimodo who comes
to get Esmeralda. They show expressions of disdain and repulse, even one
of the men harshly questions him “What are you doing down here!?! Haven't you
caused enough trouble already?”. This part shows how contradictive their status as
people of God with the ways they treat other human being despite Quasimodo
spends his entire isolated life as the bell ringer for the people of church.
The last man versus society conflict happen between Quasimodo and the
Gypsies. This is actually just a misunderstanding that happens because the Gypsies
are hiding themselves from Frollo and everybody in Paris. When they find out
that Quasimodo and Phoebus, which they still think is working under Frollo, find
their shelter, they are terrified and enraged. They are afraid to be caught and
imprisoned, so they capture them and plan to hang them in front of the other
Gypsies. Luckily, Esmeralda manages to come and stop them from getting
Figure 2.2.3 Quasimodo and Pheobus are captured by the Gypsies
The Gypsies later find out that Quasimodo and Phoebus come to warn them
that Frollo knows their hiding place and ask them to run away. However, in the
end the Gypsies are captured. Frollo, all the way knows that Quasimodo will
come to the Gypsies’ hiding place, so he and the guards follow Quasimodo and
Phoebus. Although the conflict is minor, this is actually just the beginning of the
C. The other Characters’ Presence and which Develop Quasimodo’s Social
Social influence as it has been elaborated in the second chapter, defined as the
behavioral change done by an individual or group as the effect of someone’s
existence. Mavrodiev, Tessone and Schweitzer discuss in their scientific reports
that the intention of this change is to adapt, adjust, or blend with the condition
created by the particular figure. Changes in behavior is a common process in
society because it plays an important function for a society to grow and maintain
its stability (2013, p. 4).
Every society is ruled by certain figures that involve and form regulations or
norms that everyone in that inner circle of society ought to obey and accept in
order to form a harmonized condition. When the people in a society fail to adjust
themselves, it is usually due to several reasons including differences in idea and
interest, inability to change due to their social or psychological condition, and the
judgments towards other individual beings (Mavrodiev, Tessone and Schweitzer,
2013, p.5). Individual who succeeds through social influence and its processes,
changes in habits, behaviors, and sometimes even mindsets or psychological
characters if those induced behaviors happen in impactful and frequent times.
Those changes show how someone or society have strong influence to someone
that they affect how other individual behaves.
Social Influence happens in a series of process. Just like the process of
physical adaptation that takes time and stages, social behavior and attitude change
also happens in observable steps. Previously mentioned above, Kelman categorized
the process of attitude or behavior change into three steps, which is also known
as Kelman’s Variations. Kelman’s variations consist of Compliance,
Identification, and Internalization (Kelman, 1958, p. 52).
Gibson (2017), agreeing with Hogg and Vaughan, stated that social influence
is related and affected by the presence of another individual. Social psychologists
agree that social influence is distinguished between three forms of social
influence which are compliance, conformity and obedience. In the movie itself
where it is one person-centric and Quasimodo entitled as that ‘one person’, there
can be seen clearly how the character is visualized, how he involved in interactions
and conflicts, and even how he survives and resolves the conflicts.
Just like how the previous questions are answers based on the reality on how
the movie is presented, there is strong connection between Quasimodo’s behavior,
his upbringings, and the way he acts and roles in every conflict to the social
influence he gets from other characters. Social influence can be defined as a
change of behavior because of the existence of other individuals. Previously
mentioned, there are three major influences that happen in society. Between the
three, conformity is the only soci