the early and high middle ages. middle ages ï• early middle ages ï• 5th to 10th...

Download The Early and High Middle Ages. Middle Ages ï• Early Middle Ages ï• 5th to 10th centuries ï• Dark Ages ï• Period of disorder and decline ï• High Middle Ages

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  • The Early and High Middle Ages
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  • Middle Ages Early Middle Ages 5th to 10th centuries Dark Ages Period of disorder and decline High Middle Ages 11th to 14th centuries Advanced toward higher level of civilization
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  • Dark Ages Germanic invasions helped bring decline of civilization Trade & industry Merchants feared robbers and pirates Roman roads deteriorated Unemployed to rural areas Learning & culture Concerned with staying alive Destroyed Roman places of learning
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  • Dark Ages Decline of strong central govt. Germanic kingdoms weak Rulers generally failed to provide protection, justice and order German kingdoms lacked: Power to control large territories Infrastructure Rules of succession to throne
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  • Byzantine Empire Origin Western Rome fell Eastern Rome lasted until 1453 Middle Eastern and Greek cultural characteristics
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  • Byzantine History Greatest extent under Justinian Expanded across Africa to Spain Wanted to restore Roman Empire Over time lost from west back to east 1453-Constantinople fell to Ottoman Turks
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  • Byzantine Life Autocratic government Emperor was Gods earthly representative Dominated Byzantine (Greek Orthodox) Church Eastern Christianity Patriarch chosen by & subservient to emperor Converted Russians & Balkans to eastern Christianity In 1054 Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches separated
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  • Byzantine Life Rich through trade & industry Constantinople Paved, lit streets Recreational facilities Parks/playgrounds Museums Libraries Schools
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  • Byzantine Contributions Codified Roman law Preserved Greek culture Spoke Greek Stimulated revival of learning Fostered architecture & art Combined Greco-Roman and Persian features Adorned with mosaics Buffer for western Europe by taking hit from eastern invaders
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  • Roman Catholic Church Most powerful institution in medieval western Europe Modeled after Romes government Pope--supreme leader Cardinals--chief advisors Bishops--head religious districts Priests--direct local communities
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  • RCCs Religious Role Taught: Importance of sacraments Faith, good works, and church membership for salvation Used excommunication against those who violated Church laws Held inquisitions to uncover heretics
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  • RCCs Economic Role Monks farmed Considerable income from its: Lands (30% of western Europe) Gifts (especially through oblation) Taxes (10% tithe) Prohibited usury
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  • RCCs Cultural Role Promoted learning by maintaining schools Copied ancient books and manuscripts, preserving classical culture
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  • RCCs Political Role Governed Papal States in Italy Developed canon law based on Roman law Had its own courts Claimed supremacy over civil government
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  • Frankish Kingdom Clovis created powerful kingdom (5 th century) Subdued other Germanic tribes in Gaul Converted Franks to Catholic Christianity, gaining support of: Pope Gauls large Christian population
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  • Frankish Kingdom Merovingian dynasty His incompetent descendants ruled for more than 200 years Do-Nothing Kings Power passed to powerful noble, Mayor of the Palace
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  • Frankish Kingdom Carolingian dynasty Charles Martel Defeated Moors at Tours (732) Pepin At fathers death, became Mayor of the Palace Removed last Do-Nothing King Charlemagne got throne in 768
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  • Charlemagne 768-814 Increased power of Catholic Church Ended Lombard threat to Papal States Converted pagan peoples to Catholicism
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  • Charlemagne Empire= most of western Europe
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  • Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans (800) Crowned by Pope Leo III in Rome Government Empire divided into provinces Each ruled by noble Monitored by missi dominici Temporarily halted shift of power from central government to nobles
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  • Education under Charlemagne Charlemagne valued education Established schools in monasteries and cathedrals Encouraged collecting and copying of Latin manuscripts
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  • Education under Charlemagne Created Carolingian miniscule (small letters)
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  • Breakup of Charlemagnes Empire Treaty of Verdun divided empire among 3 grandsons Louis Eastern/modern Germany Charles Western/modern France Lothar Central/modern Italy
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  • Differed from Roman Empire Rome Centered around Mediterranean Endured many centuries Charlemagne Encompassed mainly central and western Europe Crumbled at Charlemagnes death
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  • New Invasions (9th-11th centuries) Vikings to coastal/ river cities
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  • New Invasions (9th-11th centuries) Magyars from Asia to Hungary to Western Europe Arabs to Southern France/Italy
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  • New Invasions (9th-11th centuries) Normans invaded Britain from France Led to development of new relationship... feudalism
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  • Why Feudalism? Attacks from outsiders Weakness of central governments German rulers gave landed estates to important nobles in return for military assistance
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  • Feudalism Defined Social system Rigid class distinctions Static (unchanging) way of life Political system Local government Local military defense Economic system Self-sufficient agricultural manors
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  • Feudal Society Determined by birth, not work Feudal social pyramid King Nominally owned all land Controlled only his estates Powerful lords Got fiefs from king Pledged military service
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  • Feudal Society Feudal social pyramid (contd) Lesser lords Got fiefs from powerful lord Pledged military service Knights Most numerous nobles Serfs--peasants
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  • Feudal Economy Self-sufficient agricultural manor Serfs bound to land Low agricultural output Serfs given scattered strips of land Wooden plows and crude sickles Three-field system
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  • Feudal Economy Disappearance of trade Manors became more self-sufficient Commerce unsafe Heavy taxes imposed by nobles on goods transported across their domains
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  • Civil/Religious Struggles On basis of 2 crownings, RCC asserted that popes may dethrone and crown emperors Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans in 800 Upon his death title was unused Pope John XII crowned Otto I emperor in 962, beginning Holy Roman Empire
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  • Civil/Religious Struggles Civil rulers and popes claimed right to appoint RCC officials Rulers gave fiefs to RCC officials Popes gave religious authority Concordat of Worms (1122): Popes appoint Church officials Rulers could continue to give fiefs (allowing them to have some say over selections)
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  • Civil/Religious Struggles Archbishop of Canterbury struggle (1206-1215) John rejected popes choice for A/C Pope excommunicated John and ordered him deposed This forced John to: Accept popes choice Acknowledge pope as his lord Nobles had him sign Magna Carta
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  • Revival of Trade/Towns End of barbarian invasions Crusades increased European demand for Eastern luxuries Growth of well-located towns Towns provided facilities for: Storage Marketing Production of goods
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  • Revival of Trade/Towns Rise of bourgeoisie (middle class) New economic class grew with: Increased trade Growth of towns Consisted of professional people: Merchants Shopkeepers Bankers
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  • Leading Medieval Centers In Italy Cities on Italian seacoast Venice Genoa Pisa Naples Advantages Mediterranean location Commercial tradition
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  • Leading Medieval Centers In Belgium Cities in province of Flanders Bruges Ghent Flemish cities at crossroads of trade routes from northern Europe to Italy
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  • Leading Medieval Centers In Northern Germany Cities: Bremen Hamburg Lubeck Controlled trade in Baltic and North seas In 1200s became Hanseatic League
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  • Craft Guilds Activities Economic Dealt with production issues Established standards/prices Educational Regulated training/advancement Political and social, similar to: Modern labor unions Political parties Mutual aid societies
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  • Crusades (1095-1291) Byzantine emperor appealed to RCC for aid against Moslem Turks 4 major crusades failed to recapture Jerusalem Turks had it until after WWI
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  • Political Effects of Crusades Strengthened kings/central governments by: Weakening nobility Stimulating trade Trade needs central authority offering law and order Rising merchant class supported kings
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