the english language (ppt portfolio)
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- 1. English as a word has different meanings:-People from England-English language-It is Germanic in origin-Approximately a half of its words derive from French andLatin
- 2. Irish and Scottish English are varieties of Englishinfluenced by the Celtic languages.
- 3. Roman Empire ruled much of Europe until 476.
- 4. LATIN Influence on ENGLISH and GERMANIC.Words as:-wall Were borrowed from Latin-kitchen into Germanic (and through-wine Germanic into English)-mil-street Its influence continues through Medieval and Renaissance times, through the catholic church, Humanism and Renaissance.English starts when the Germanic tribes and theirlanguages reach the British Isles (449)
- 5. The word ENGLISHderives from theAngles.
- 6. Started as a Germanic dialect spoken in small part of England, nowadays itis spoken by over a billion people all over the world.-English has adopted -approximately a half of thewords from other vocabulary of English comes fromlanguages French and Latin
- 7. Differences on three levels: Caedmons Hymn:SoundsWordsSentences-Hefaen Heaven (no leter v) -English has 25 consonants, other-uard guard (u is pronounced differently) languages have-Lack of grammatical words as of, the, and we different quantities.-OE sentence (1) contains less words than the -The most unusualmodern one (this additional words have a consonant is the thgrammatical function) (It represents 2 different sounds)-There are many differences!
- 8. English syllable -One of the functions of the language is tostructure is indicate who does what to whomCOMPLEX Languages differ in how they mark theseThere are words as: functions through: a) Endings on the verbs and nounsStrikes and split b) Word order and grammatical words (prepositions and pronouns)3 consonants at the c) Old English- synthetic/Modern E.Analyticbeginning Have almost no endings they-In Spanish we adapt use word order and grammatical words to mark thethe sound sk to elements functionesk as in School to -Whereas many languages of the Americas have:ESchool Prefixes on the verb and the verb can represent an entire sentence Navajo nanisht has 3 prefixes and a stem (na-ni-she-t) arround yo I carried
- 9. VARIETIES They are different, even though they are English in their grammarsExternal changes: Internal changes:-Language contact (between -occur when speakers stop using endingsspeakers of different languages) (or inflections) and start to rely on words such as of, for, the and have.-Innovations by speakers -more predictable-issues of political or social -Change a vowel or a consonant:identity Old English hamhome-Unpredictable skip ship-have to do with social, -prepositions start being used to introduceeconomic, geographical, political, sentences.and historical reasons.
- 10. Prescriptive rules:-Are taught in school-include dont split infinitives and dont end sentences with a preposition.-Are based on Latin, on logic, or on an attempt to conserve an older stage of the language.-Internal changes can be markers of identity.e.g.: eh as a marker of identity in Canada.
- 11. OLD ENGLISH (OE) 450 - 1150 H 8th and 10the century the Scandinavians J influenced on the Latin words: grammar. Year 450, Germanic Abbot Some words such as: -egg, keel, leg, ill, add, dialects pushed out Altar bask, call, crave, screech and thriveCeltic Languages to the periphery, e.g. Wales hymn
- 12. Words such us:Judge,government,authority
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