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  • The Euro – the Beginning, the Middle … and the End?

  • The Euro – the Beginning, the Middle … and the End?

    E D I T E D B Y P H I L I P B O O T H

    w i t h c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r o m

    p h i l i p b o o t h

    f r a n c i s c o c a b r i l l o

    j ua n e . c a s t a ñ e d a

    j o h n c h o w n

    j a m i e d a n n h a u s e r

    k e v i n d o w d

    k a t j a h e n g s t e r m a n n

    b o d o h e r z o g

    a n d r e w l i l i c o

    pa t r i c k m i n f o r d

    n e i l r e c o r d

    p e d r o s c h wa r t z

    The Institute of Economic Affairs

  • First published in Great Britain in 2013 by The Institute of Economic Affairs

    2 Lord North Street Westminster

    London sw1p 3lb in association with Profile Books Ltd

    The mission of the Institute of Economic Affairs is to improve public understanding of the fundamental institutions of a free society, with particular reference to the role of

    markets in solving economic and social problems.

    Copyright © The Institute of Economic Affairs 2013

    The moral right of the authors has been asserted.

    All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright

    owner and the publisher of this book.

    A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    ISBN 978 0 255 36680 9 eISBN 978 0 255 36683 0

    Many IEA publications are translated into languages other than English or are reprinted. Permission to translate or to reprint should be sought from the Director General at the

    address above.

    Typeset in Stone by MacGuru Ltd

    Printed and bound in Britain by Hobbs the Printers

  • The authors 9 Foreword 14 Summary 17 List of tables and figures 20

    1 Introduction 25 Philip Booth The euro: the beginning, the middle and … the end? 25 The beginning 26 The middle 31 … and the end? 33 References 38

    2 Britain and the euro zone – a triumph of economics over politics 39 Patrick Minford The euro project and the UK’s national interest 39 The case for the euro and the UK’s decision not to join 39 The euro zone in the light of events 44 The evolution of the EU during this crisis and its effect

    on the UK 47 Conclusions 50 References 50



  • 3 the euro – the story of a suboptimal currency area 52 Jamie Dannhauser Introduction 52 The theory of optimal currency areas 56 EMU as an optimal currency area in practice – fact

    or fiction? 61 Concluding remarks 78 References 80

    4 Lessons from monetary history 83 John Chown Introduction 83 Past monetary unions and how they ended 85 Precursors of EMU 89 Secondary and inflation-proof currencies 92 Other compromise solutions 94 General conclusion – and the future? 100 References 105

    5 Better off in? 106 Andrew Lilico Are balance of payments ‘imbalances’ an issue in

    themselves, or are they symptoms of other issues? 106 To what extent are competitiveness differentials

    sustainable within a currency union? 108 Internal versus external devaluations 112 What has been the past currency experience of euro

    members when addressing deficit and debt issues? 116 A fiscal transfer union, but not a debt union 118 Conclusion 121

  • 6 saving monetary union? A market solution for the orderly suspension of Greece 123 Pedro Schwartz with Francisco Cabrillo and Juan E. Castaneda Why is the euro failing? 124 Two lessons from the past 128 The chaotic euro zone non-exit strategy 132 Parallel currencies and transition problems 133 The proposed monetary regime 139 Conclusion and wider implications for remaining

    members of the euro zone 143 References 145

    7 Managing the transition – a practical exit strategy 147 Neil Record Introduction 147 Summary of the exit route 147 The plan 148 Effect of euro abandonment on stateless ‘euros’ 155 Exit and transition timetable 157 A German-only back-up plan 162 After the exit 163 Conclusion 166

    8 Where should the euro zone ‘club’ go from here? How a return to credible and enforceable rules will sustain the monetary union 169 Bodo Herzog and Katja Hengstermann Sustained economic governance: back to the roots! 169 EMU’s performance and a theory of optimal rules 171 Creating sustainable rules for EMU 174 The lack of enforcement of rules 177 Enforcing enforceable rules 180

  • Conclusion 189 References 190

    9 Back to the future: a free banking solution for the euro zone 194 Kevin Dowd Historical record of free banking 197 Monetary standard 199 Abolition of central banking, financial regulation

    and state support 201 Sound accounting standards 203 Strong governance and extended liability 204 Fiscal reform 205 Unrealistic? 207 References 208

    About the IeA 210

  • 9

    Philip Booth

    Philip Booth is Editorial and Programme Director of the Institute of Economic Affairs and Professor of Insurance and Risk Management at Cass Business School, City University. He has written extensively on regulation, social insurance and Catholic social teaching. He is a fellow of the Institute of Actuaries and of the Royal Statistical Society and deputy editor of Economic Affairs. He has also advised the Bank of England on financial stability issues (1998–2002) and has been a visiting fellow at Blackfriars Hall, Oxford University (2010–11). Philip Booth was also extensively involved in the development of actuarial science and investment and finance education in central and eastern Europe in the post-communist period.

    Francisco cabrillo

    Francisco Cabrillo is Professor of Economics at Complutense University, Madrid. A law and economics scholar, Professor Cabrillo has written extensively on regulation, courts, legal origins and economic develop- ment and the institutions of the European Union. He is author (with S. Fitzpatrick) of The Economics of Courts and Litigation (Edward Elgar, 2008).

    Juan e. castañeda

    Juan Castañeda is a Doctor of Economics (2003) and has been a lecturer

    ABout tHe AutHors

  • t h e e u r o – t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e m i d d l e … a n d t h e e n d ?


    in economics at the University of Buckingham since 2012. He was a visiting researcher at Cass Business School (2004–05) and a former lecturer at UNED university (1998–2012). He has experience researching in monetary policy and central banking. He is the editor of the blog ‘’.

    John chown

    John Chown read economics at Cambridge, winning the Adam Smith Prize for an essay on fixed versus floating exchange rates. He went on to make his career in international tax through his own firm, as a co-founder of the Institute for Fiscal Studies and as a policy adviser to governments on the taxation of currency and capital markets. Tax apart, he wrote A History of Money and A History of Monetary Unions and is now a regular contributor to Central Banking.

    Jamie Dannhauser

    Jamie Dannhauser joined Lombard Street Research (LSR) in September 2006 after completing his studies at Trinity College, Cambridge, and the Judge Business School, Cambridge. He is currently the senior UK econo- mist at LSR, but also contributes extensively to the firm’s coverage of the euro area, developed-world monetary policy and global macroeconomic trends more generally. For much of the crisis, he has been heading up coverage of Europe’s periphery economies. Representing the company, Jamie has written articles for the Wall Street Journal, the Financial Times and Financial World. He is a member of the Institute of Economic Affairs’ Shadow Monetary Policy Committee.

    Kevin Dowd

    Kevin Dowd is Professor of Finance and Economics at Durham Business School. He has written extensively on free banking, central banking and

  • a b o u t t h e a u t h o r s


    bank regulation, monetary economics, financial risk management and pensions. His books include Private Money: The Path to Monetary Stability (IEA Hobart Paper 112, recently reissued as an e-publication), Laissez-Faire Banking (Routledge, 1992), Competition and Finance: A Reinterpretation of Financial and Monetary Economics (Macmillan, 1996) and, most recently (with Martin Hutchinson), Alchemists of Loss: How Government Finance and Government Intervention Crashed the Financial System (Wiley, 2010).

    Katja Hengstermann

    Katja Hengstermann (MBA) was a research assistant at the Institute of Finance and Economics at ESB Business School. She was also a student in International Business (IB) at ESB Business School and Portland State University. Since 2013, Ms Hengstermann has been working as a profes- sional consultant.

    Bodo Herzog

    Dr Bodo Herzog is Professor of Economics and director of the Institute of Finance and Economics at ESB Business School, Reutlingen Univer- sity. He was visiting professor at Portland State University, California State University and International University Macedonia, and research fell