the french revolution and napoleonic era

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world history French Revolution

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  • 1. Chapter 19 The FrenchRevolution

2. The Estates First Estate clergy Population in France Second Estate 1st 0.50%Estatenoble families2nd 1.50%Estate Third Estate 3rdeveryone else Estate bourgeoisie peasant farmers **Overwhelmingmajority98% 3. Louis XVI and the Estates General First Estate clergy Second Estate noble families Third Estate everyone else bourgeoisie peasant farmers **Overwhelming majority 4. Louis XVI Bourbon dynasty Weak, indecisive incompetent Marie Antoinette Vain, unintelligent Austrian Let them eatcake! 5. Tennis CourtOathAngered, 3rd Estatedeclares themselvesa National Assemblyon June 17, 1789They meet on anearby tennis courtand vow to remainuntil a Constitutionwas established(by Jacques LouisDavid) 6. Kings nervous asks 1st and 2nd estate to join them andwrite a constitution together 7. No Dice Storming of theBastille July 14, 1789 peasants sweepthrough and attacknobility and feudalinstitutions 8. The Declaration of the Rights of Man August National Assemblywrites a document torecognize natural rights,include a lot of Rousseau widely copied anddistributed across Europe National Assemblyabolishes the fedual systemand declares freedom ofworship, breaking from theCath Ch. 9. King and his family takento Paris so the 3rd EstateRevolutionaries can keephim out of the way National Assemblyestablishes the nation-state as the source of allsovereignty or politicalauthority 10. National Assemblyratified a new constitution Sets up constitutionalmonarchy Issues? Those who wanted to abolish the monarchy felt cheated, those who wanted to retain the feudal structure felt betrayed Not everyone is happy. 11. Marie Antionette sisterof the Emperor of Austria Austria and Prussiainvade France French revolutionarieshold them back French leaders meet,new constitution Convention new rulingbody abolishedmonarchy, proclaimedFrance a republic 12. Dun, dun, dun. Jacobins lead the Convention Imprison royal family Behead king for treason in 1793 13. Marie is killed in October 14. Reign of Terror Prussia and Austria regroup Britain and Spain join in Convention worried aboutforeign threats Throw out constitution, AGAIN, Committee of Public Safety led by Maximilien Robespierre an all-powerful enforcer ofthe revolution Murders any withantirevolutionary tendanciesGuillotine: between 18,000 and 40,000 peoplewere executed during the Reign of Terror 15. Robespierre Controls anarchy Beheads tens ofthousands of Frenchcitizens Creates strongnational military 16. Symbols of France Tricolor red, white, blue Le Marsellaise national anthem Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite Viva la nation! Long live the nation! 17. Guillotine forRobespierre New constitution,1795 Directory in charge(five man gvt) builds up the military 18. Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparteoverthrows theDirectory in 1799 Legitimizes actionswith popular vote Declares himself theFirst Consul under thenew constitution (the FOURTH newconstitution) 19. Improving life Domestic Reforms Agriculture, infrastructure, and public education Works things out with the Cath. Ch. Napoleonic Codes 1804 recognized equality ofFrench citizens Big step for human rights law But not very good for women or children 20. Emperor Crowns himself emperor in 1804 Literally crowns himself, shows he owes his throne tono one but himself 21. Building an EmpireValued rapid movementsand effective use of largearmies New plan for every battle Presence worth 40,000troops The Grand Empire annexes areas of France, the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany Dissolves the HRE Creates 38-member Confederation of the Rhine Cuts Prussia in half; turnsold Poland into the Duchyof Warsaw Controls Europe by placingrelatives and friends onthrones of conquerednations 22. Sold Louisiana land to theUSA 1. Money to fund his army 2. So Britain couldntaccess the Mississippi Failed to acquire Britain Battle of Trafalgar Led by Br. AdmiralHoratio Nelson Napoleon turns hissights to Russia 23. Effects of Nationalism France has new found sense of nationalism Nationalism tremendous pride and devotion in and to your country But, nationalism in conquered countries inspires revolts against France, too Spain loses holdings in the Americas b/c colonies revolt against Spains weakened control 24. Russia In 1812 Napoleoninvades Russia with600,000 Frenchsoldiers Scorched Earth Policy General Winter Gives up in October Only 100,000 survive 25. Coalition Against Napoleon Russia, Britain, Austria, Sweden and Prussia become allies to take out Napoleon 1813 Battle of the Nations at Leipzig Napoleon is defeated 26. Exiled Napoleon abdicated Victors exile him to Elba Recognize Louis XVIII asking of France (brother ofLouis XVI) Restoration not a smooth one King accepts NapoleonicCode and honors landsettlements But, people nervous and fearoppression 27. He returns! Napoleon escapes island exile andreturns! Soldiers flock to him Citizens cheer, king flees, March 1815, Napoleon reenters Paris 28. The Final Showdown June 18, 1815 opposing armies meet head to head in Waterloo,Belgium Br Duke of Wellington; Pr. General Blucher Lead the attack and crush France(Wellington at Waterloo) 29. This time it really is the end Napoleon forced to abdicate again Exiled on St. Helenano more Napoleon 30. Fixing Europe The Congress of Vienna 1814 to 1815 The principal negotiatorswere: Austria -- Prince Klemons vonMetternich Prussia -- King FrederickWilliam III Russia -- Czar Alexander I Great Britain -- Castlereagh France -- Prince Talleyrand 31. Work to restore order to EuropeCongress of Vienna Recognize balance of power 5 nation-states Austria, Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, and France Gain power at expense of smaller states Austria took some Italian territories Russia took most of Poland Britain added territories in Asia and the W. Hemisphere Prussia took Rhine River land in W. Germany Create Kingdom of Netherlands by joining Belgium and Luxembourg together with Holland 32. Congress of Vienna cont. Return to Status Quo Restored old monarchies of Europe Bourbons on throne in France and Spain Holy Roman Empire Reduced from 300+ independent states to 39 separate German states Established a stable Europe which tried to prevent war Very successful; peace in Europe for the next 100 years Conservative; Tried to prevent domestic change inEurope 33. Fini

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