the french revolution begins! unit 5: the french revolution & napoleonic era (1789-1815)
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- THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS! Unit 5: The French Revolution & Napoleonic Era (1789-1815)
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- Frances Old Regime In the 1770s France s people were divided up into three large social classes called estates. The first two estates had privileges like access to high offices and tax exemptions. 1 st Estate The Clergy or Roman Catholic Church owned 10% of the land & paid 2% of its income in taxes to the government. 2 nd Estate The rich nobles 2% of the population, owned 20% of the land, & paid almost no taxes. Did not like Enlightenment!
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- The Largest Estate The 3 rd Estate 3 rd Estate 97% of the population. It was divided into three groups: The Bourgeoisie Middle class bankers, business owners, merchants, artists & pros. They were educated, but even though many were as rich as nobles, but they paid high taxes & had no privileges. Urban Workers laborers, trades people, apprentices, and servants low wages Peasants 80% of Frances 26 million people. Paid income in tithes to the Church and taxes to the king. They resented the church & nobles.
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- The Forces of Change Enlightenment Ideas Rousseau, Voltaire, & American Revolution 3 rd Estate wanted equality, liberty, and democracy Comte DAntraigues said, the People is the foundation of the State. The 3 rd Estate was fed up with the Old Order!
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- Economic Troubles Tax burden of 1780s = hard to do business in France although production & trade were up. Cost of Living up due to crop failures. 1789 Price of bread doubled! King Louis XVI inherited debt, but also French-Indian War and American Revolution doubled the debt 1786 Bankers refused to loan the king more money. Louis XVI was very weak.
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- Marie Antoinette The Queen added to his problems. Madame Deficit was unpopular as an Austrian Queen Spent lots of $$$ on gowns, jewels, gifts, & playing cards ($1.5 million in a year!) She angered the silk industry because she wore lose cotton dresses.
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- The Estates-General May 5, 1789 the first meeting of all 3 estates in 175 years at Versailles Instead of cutting spending he wanted to tax the nobility & the Estates-General had to approve it. This meeting will be the dawn of the Revolution!
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- Exit Slip Background Causes of the French Revolution 1. Which estate was made up of the nobility and paid no taxes to the French government? a. 1 st Estateb. 2 nd Estatec. 3 rd Estate 2. Which estate was made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church? a. 1 st Estateb. 2 nd Estatec. 3 rd Estate 3. Bourgeoisie means _____ in French. a. Servant b. Peasantc. Middle Class 4. What issue led King Louis XVI to call a meeting of the Estates General in May 1789? a. he wanted a divorce b. he wanted a war c. he wanted to tax the nobility
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- The Dawn of the Revolution The Estates General had always been ran by the 1 st 2 Estates b/c each estate had 1 vote since medieval times Bourgeoisie- all meet together with each delegate = 1 vote = Enlightenment 3 rd Estate = 1 st + 2 nd Estate numbers-wise Louis XVI sided with the nobles & wanted old rules
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- The National Assembly 3 rd Estate was helped by Emanuel-Joseph Sieyes (clergyman) who suggested 3 rd Estate become a National Assembly and pass reforms for all the people of France and end the absolute monarchy. June 17, 1789 it was declared 1 st act of revolution; but Louis XVI had other ideas & locked them out of their meeting room!
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- The Tennis Court Oath June 20, 1789 The 3 rd Estate crashed through a door to an indoor tennis court. Tennis Court Oath a pledge to stay until an new constitution had been written. Soon after, some nobles and clergy joined them. Louis XVI panicked & put a mercenary army of Swiss guards to surround the palace.
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- Storming the Bastille! Paris Rumors flew would the king used the military to crush the Assembly; would citizens be massacred? People took up arms to defend Paris and stormed the Bastille on July 14, 1789 looking for weapons & 100 were killed. Today, July 14 is a national holiday similar to the 4 th of July in the U.S.
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- The Great Fear! June August 1789 The panic spread from Paris to the country side as rumors that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants. Ironically, the peasants became outlaws and terrorized the nobles with farm tools & torches in what was called the Great Fear or la Grande Peur. They broke into manners & destroyed paperwork that bound them to the land & often burned their houses.
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- The Parisian Bread Riots October 1789 1000s of women in Paris marched on Versailles in protest of high bread prices. They demanded the National Assembly do something about it. Next they turned anger on the King and Queen. They broke into the palace, killed some guards, & forced the king, family, & servants to return to Paris. They would never return and the monarchy was finished.
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- Exit Slip The Dawn of the Revolution 1. T or F: King Louis XVI supported the formation of the National Assembly. 2. T or F: After the Tennis Court Oath, some nobles and clergy joined the 3 rd Estate. 3. T or F: Today, the French celebrate Bastille Day similarly to how we celebrate July 4 th. 4. T or F: After the Parisian Bread Riots, King Louis XVI and his family never left the Versailles Palace again.
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