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The Frick Collection Report

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  • The Frick Collection Report

  • The Frick Collection Report

    On view in the Living Hall, this magnificent Mantel Clock (Pendule de cheminée), c. ‒, has a movement and dialsigned by Thuret and a case by André-Charles Boulle. The clock case is made of hardwoods veneered with intricate and symmetrical marquetry designs composed of tortoiseshell and metal, the hallmark of Boulle furniture, and decorated with gilt-bronze mounts. It wasbequeathed to The Frick Collection by Winthrop Edey in .

  • The Frick Collection Board of Trustees

    Henry Clay Frick II

    Helen Clay Chace

    Howard Phipps, Jr.

    L. F. Boker Doyle

    Paul G. Pennoyer, Jr.

    Margot C. Bogert

    I. Townsend Burden III

    Walter J. P. Curley

    Emily T. Frick

    Nicholas H. J. Hall, ex officio

    Enid A. Haupt

    Melvin R. Seiden

    Board of Trustees Council of The Frick Collection Report of the President Report of the Director Curatorial Exhibitions & Lectures Publications Concerts Frick Art Reference Library Public Affairs, Development & Communications Gifts during

    Fellows of The Frick Collection Associates of the Frick Art Reference Library Sustaining Friends Corporate Members Young Fellows Steering Committee Fête Galante Committee

    Financial Statements Staff Credits

    ContentsCouncil of The Frick CollectionNicholas H. J. Hall, ChairmanJoseph L. Koerner, Vice ChairmanJulian AgnewMrs. Russell B. AitkenJean A. BonnaW. Mark BradyJonathan BrownChristopher BurgeMrs. William Stratton Clark Peter DuchinMauro A. HerlitzkaDiane Allen NixonRichard E. OldenburgPaul G. Pennoyer, Jr.Samuel Sachs II, ex officioMelvin R. SeidenDeirdre C. Stam

  • that have received critical and popular acclaim overthe last two decades. The debt that the trustees andthe institution owe to Clay is immeasurable. He haspaved the way for the next generation of the familyand their fellow trustees to continue the steady andthoughtful development of this institution. Thus it iswith enormous gratitude and pride that I assume myresponsibilities as president of The Frick Collection. Ican think of no greater honor or challenge than todedicate myself to the preservation and animation ofthis remarkable house, collection, and library. I amconfident that with the help and encouragement ofmy wonderful colleagues on the Board, and the superbstaff, The Frick Collection will continue to prosper.

    I am happy to report that we are off to a verygood start. From an operational perspective, wasa banner year. Our attendance hit yet another recordhigh with , visitors, and the accompanyingfinancials show an operating surplus of ,,..While we continue to spend substantially in excess ofthat for capital repair and renovation, our cash flowhas remained positive, and we are optimistic that ourfundraising will allow this important work to con-tinue unabated in the years to come. We have nearlycompleted re-roofing the building, have begun theexterior stonework and shutter and window restora-tion, and have completed the renovation of theLibrary offices.

    Two of the most significant initiatives for arelargely unseen by the general public, and yet they holdgreat promise for the future of this institution. Thefirst is our successful application to the Internal Rev-enue Service for termination as a private operatingfoundation and the approval of our status as a publiccharity. This rather arcane-sounding change reflectsour commitment to be responsive to our public andearn its support. We are determined to involve abroader community in every aspect of our programs,development, and governance. Inherent in that resolveis the recognition that we must turn increasingly toour members and donors, old and new, for the finan-cial support necessary to achieve our goals for the

    future. Your help is sincerely sought and deeplyappreciated.

    The second initiative is the launching of our firstformal strategic planning process. This excitingendeavor has prompted a thoughtful review of ourmission, values, and objectives and is already provid-ing clarity concerning the standards we seek to pre-serve, even as we work to chart the course fortomorrow. I look forward, a year from now, to report-ing in depth on these initiatives, and I am confidentthat the fruits of these efforts already will be evidentin the way we conduct our programs and services.

    I cannot close this report without words of grati-tude to some of the persons who have helped makethis a special year. My thanks again, above all, to myuncle, Clay Frick, who has assumed the title of chair-man. Thanks also to the trustees and to our wonder-ful staff, under the imaginative and tireless leadershipof Sam Sachs. The Council of The Frick Collectionhas been a continued source of wisdom and encour-agement, as well. I am extremely grateful to PatrickGerschel, who steps down from the chairmanship ofthat body after two years, for his friendship, spirit,and generosity. Finally, my special thanks to one ofthis city’s leading lights, a generous donor to TheFrick Collection, the honoree of the Fête Galante, and amentor of mine for many years, Brooke Astor.

    The signs of a new vitality at The Frick Collection inrecent years, and particularly in , have been plenti-ful. Our heightened visibility in the community as wellas in the press, engaging exhibitions such as The MedievalHousebook, and fanciful evenings such as the enormouslysuccessful Fête Galante are all signs of renewal for aninstitution that some had regarded as unchanging andrather staid. In truth, the Collection has been evolvingsteadily since its founding more than eighty years ago;yet by staying true to the vision of Henry Clay Frick,we have been able to guide change and maintain theCollection’s essence. Knowing what to preserve andwhat to open to innovation in a museum that isbeloved by so many for its time-honored traditions isone of the greatest challenges that we face—and we areever mindful of the balancing act that is crucial to oursuccess.

    One aspect of the Collection that has been steadfastsince the death of Mr. Frick in is the seriousnesswith which his descendents have taken the obligation ofpreserving his legacy. The responsibility to lead haspassed successively to his wife, Adelaide H. C. Frick; tohis son, Childs Frick; and, in , to his grandson, Dr.Henry Clay Frick II. Uncle Clay, as I have called himall my life, has served as a trustee of this institutionwith passion and dedication for a total of forty-sevenyears.

    During his thirty-five-year tenure as president, he hasoverseen accomplishments that are far too numerous tolist, but surely the highlights would include workingwith four distinguished directors, the appointment ofthe Collection’s first curator, the acquisition of suchnotable works of art as Jean-Antoine Watteau’s The Por-tal of Valenciennes, a percent net increase in the valueof our endowment, the creation of the Friends and Fel-lows membership programs, the second expansion ofthe building in the s, the incorporation of theFrick Art Reference Library in the s (and our firstsuccessful fund drive to raise million to sustain it),the publication of the first eight volumes of The FrickCollection: An Illustrated Catalogue (as well as many otherpublications), and a roster of extraordinary exhibitions

    Report ofthe President

    Helen Clay Chace ,

    Helen Clay Chace and Samuel Sachs II, Director

  • no less than three single-painting loan shows that, bythemselves or in conjunction with works of our own,enabled us to highlight a special aspect of the Collec-tion. With François-Hubert Drouais’s portrait Madamede Pompadour from the National Gallery, London, wewere able to put one of the glories of eighteenth-century French painting on public view in the UnitedStates for the first time. This was followed, in thesummer, by Manet’s The Dead Toreador and The Bull-fight: Fragments of a Lost Salon Painting Reunited, whichbrought together from The Frick Collection and theNational Gallery of Art, Washington, the two extantpieces of Edouard Manet’s monumental painting.This was the first time the two pieces of this workhad been together since Edouard Manet cut the paint-ing apart in his studio following its disastrous recep-tion at the Salon of . The exhibition gave rise tosuccessful collaborations with numerous scholars andwith the conservators of the National Gallery, whohelped to lead a fascinating colloquium dedicated tothe on-going riddle concerning the original appear-ance of Manet’s canvas. Finally, from the Metropoli-tan Museum of Art, came Constable’s SalisburyCathedral: Two Versions Reunited, which helped elucidatethe artist’s working style by offering two closelyrelated views of the same beloved subject.

    By the end of the year, The Frick Collection wasfeaturing no fewer than four special exhibitions simul-taneously—far more than we had ever profferedbefore. The popularity of these shows was enormous,both with the public and with the press. While thiscontributed to our admission and bookshop revenue,the viewing experience was less than optimal at certaintimes. It was a good lesson and one that we havetaken to heart—even to the extent of recently declin-ing a first-rank Impressionist exhibition for fear thatit would undermine the ambience as well as the capac-ities of the institution.

    Our revitalized lecture and education programs andthe annual symposium for graduate students in con-junction with the Institute of Fine Arts of New YorkUniversity challenged our busy curatorial staff to set

    lections. I should like to express a particular note ofappreciation to Director Pierre Théberge and DeputyDirector and Chief Curator Colin B. Bailey for theirassistance.

    Following quickly on the heels of the aforemen-tioned exhibition was The Medieval Housebook, a rareopportunity to view a remarkable manuscript while itwas temporarily unbound and in sheets to enable afacsimile edition. We were extremely fortunate to beable to step in to retain a New York venue for thisexhibition, once destined for the MetropolitanMuseum of Art, and we are doubly grateful thatTimothy Husband, Curator, Medieval Art and TheCloisters, was able to organize the show for us andwrite the catalogue for the exhibition. Our thanks aswell to Count Waldburg-Wolfegg for his willingnessto have The Frick Collection as a venue, and to theNational Gallery of Art, Washington, for their helpin organizing the exhibition.

    Autumn brought the opening of an exquisite selec-tion of eighteenth-century French drawings fromNorth American collections in Watteau and His World:French Drawings from to , a brilliant show guestcurated by Alan Wintermute for the American Feder-ation of Arts. In November, we had the enormousgood fortune to offer Velázquez in New York Museums,another first, which brought together six truly remark-able paintings. We are grateful to the MetropolitanMuseum of Art for its willingness to loan suchimportant works, and especially to the Hispanic Soci-ety of America, which, since , had not lent any ofits old master works to another institution. Specialthanks go also to Drs. Jonathan Brown and MarcusBurke for their insightful catalogue essays, and espe-cially to Melvin R. Seiden, for his generous supportin underwriting the publication.

    Finally, in recognition of the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the birth of Henry Clay Frick,on December , we opened a small show featuringthe seldom-shown drawings in the Collection thatwere acquired by Mr. Frick during his lifetime.

    Interspersed with all of this exhibition activity were

    As I look back at , I am struck by the progressthat we have made in increasing our accessibility, out-reach, and collaboration with other institutions. It is ayear that will be remembered for our record numberof visitors and exhibitions, our greatly expandedinvolvement with teachers and students, and ourunprecedented bookshop sales. I am happy I can nolonger say that The Frick Collection is one of NewYork’s best kept secrets. Around the city, around thecountry, and around the world, the word is out. Weare proud to make the artistic and intellectual richesof this extraordinary institution available to anincreasingly diverse public, and we are dedicated tomaking the experience of visiting the Collection—whether in the galleries, in the Library, or through ourwebsite—the finest it can be.

    Nearly three hundred thousand visitors shared themagic of The Frick Collection in , creating linesdown the block on many weekend afternoons. For thefirst time, we were forced to confront the notion thatit is possible to have too much of a good thing. Wemust be mindful that there is a limit not only to thenumber of visitors the building can physically holdbut to how many it can comfortably serve while pre-serving the tranquil ambience that is so much a partof the experience of visiting the Frick.

    Our exhibition program brought an enormouslywide spectrum of first-quality works of art to theCollection and created opportunities to collaboratewith a number of outside curators and institutions.Victorian Fairy Painting, which closed in January, was byfar the most broadly popular exhibition we havemounted. Discussed in detail last year, the success ofthat exhibition provided momentum that seemed onlyto build in the months that followed.

    The next full-scale exhibition of the year was Frenchand English Drawings of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuriesfrom the National Gallery of Canada, which broughtanother relatively unknown but extraordinary collec-tion to New York. This was the first of two collabo-rations with our neighbors to the north, who havebeen extremely generous with their time and their col-

    Report ofthe Director

    Samuel Sachs II

  • pay for the renovation of the staff offices, and com-plete the retrospective conversion of the card catalogin order to provide comprehensive electronic access toour books, journals, and catalogs. This contribution,coming as it does on top of more than . million insupport from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation,makes this family second only to the Fricks in thedepth of its support for this institution.

    A less well known benefactor, except among clockcollectors, was Winthrop K. Edey. His astute eye,encyclopedic knowledge of the field, and acquisitivenature were virtually unrivaled and played an impor-tant role at The Frick Collection for many years,beginning with his curating of one of the Collection’searliest loan exhibitions, French Clocks in North AmericanCollections, in . A year before his death, Kelly Edeymade an inter vivos gift to the Frick of his entire watchand clock collection. He later bequeathed much ofthe remainder of his estate, including his remarkabletown house, library, and diaries, along with funds toendow the care of his collection and to ensure thedisplay and further acquisition of clocks. His generos-ity and vision provide the first large-scale addition tothe collection in more than thirty-five years, and weare deeply indebted to him. Kelly’s family, and espe-cially his sister and executor, Beatrice Phear, have beenextremely helpful to us at a very difficult time forthem. We are deeply grateful to the entire Edey family.

    The staff of The Frick Collection and Art Refer-ence Library continues to meet the challenges of anincreasingly active institution, and we have beenobliged in some cases to add staff to meet our newprogrammatic needs. Several staff members deserveparticular mention for the special contribution theyhave made to the institution this past year. My formerassistant, Amy Herman, has moved to the CuratorialDepartment, assuming primary responsibility formanaging our Education Program. Assisted by AshleyThomas, she has been a tireless advocate for the roleof students and teachers in our programs. DennisSweeney, Manager of Operations, came to us mid-

    and reach ambitious goals for the year. As discussedfurther on in this report, our targeted outreach toschools has continued to expand, and it remains a pri-mary commitment for the institution. For the thirdyear, this program was underwritten by the HoraceW. Goldsmith Foundation, which clearly shares ourdedication to enriching the educational experience ofNew York’s students.

    Ensconced primarily in beautifully and ergonomi-cally redesigned quarters on the sixth floor of theFrick Art Reference Library, the Library staff hasbeen extremely active developing our resources andmaking them increasingly accessible to the public.The generous support of the Eugene V. and Claire E.Thaw Charitable Trust, in particular, has enabled usto put records of the Library’s unparalleled auctionsale catalog collection into SCIPIO, the internationalauction sale catalog database, for the first time. Suchcontinued expansion of our electronic resources ismaking on-line research more efficient and user-friendly.

    At the same time, the gifts to the Library of severalpersonal collections have helped to enlarge our bookand catalog holdings beyond the scope that our acquisition funds would normally permit. We arecommitted to maintaining the primary strengths ofour research collections, and, when possible, even toexpanding them in ways that complement theresources of the Collection. In particular, it is ourhope to develop our reference holdings in relation tothe decorative arts, so that we may provide a morecomprehensive resource to outside researchers as wellas to our curatorial staff.

    Last year also marked the passing of two impor-tant benefactors of the Collection whose vision, gen-erosity, and influence will be felt for generations tocome. Paul Mellon, perhaps the single most impor-tant patron of the arts in the second half of this cen-tury, whose father Andrew had a life-long friendshipwith Henry Clay Frick, will be remembered here forhis bequest to the Frick Art Reference Library. Thesefunds will add a million dollars to the endowment,

    year, following an impressive career as an officer in theU.S. Army, where he ran a variety of medical installa-tions. He has traded doctors for curators and patientsfor paintings and has easily made the transition tocivilian life, bringing the best practices in facility man-agement to the Collection. Finally, Daniel Vincent,Associate Manager of Development, has come to usfrom the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, and hasbrought with him an expertise in developing member-ship that we expect will pay enormous dividends here.Already his imaginative approach to building member-ship and his dedication to serving the needs of thesesupporters has helped us to rethink and improve ourprograms, and I am confident that they will flourishunder his watchful eye.

    This discussion of the staff would not be completewithout the bittersweet announcement that EdgarMunhall, curator of The Frick Collection for thirty-four years, retired at the end of . It is impossibleto overstate the contribution that Edgar has made tothis institution. His stature as a leading authority oneighteenth-century France, his encyclopedic knowl-edge of the collections and of the fine and decorativearts generally, and his vast stores of information onthe Frick family and its history made him an unparal-leled resource for this institution. The Frick Collec-tion has benefited immeasurably from his impeccablestandards, which have been a benchmark for the fourdirectors who have had the privilege of working withhim. His elegant writing and engaging lecturing stylehave been a model for the curatorial staff, which hehas helped to shape. His warmth, wit, and wisdomshall be a lasting legacy, and for that I must convey amost sincere and heartfelt thank-you from everyone atthe Collection.

    As a postscript, I am pleased to say that we neednot say goodbye entirely to Edgar, as even in hisretirement, he is hard at work on an exhibition ofGreuze drawings, which the Collection will be pleasedto present in in partnership with the J. PaulGetty Museum.

    Another member of the staff who will be sorely

    missed is Sveteslao “Nikki” Hlopoff. As the Collec-tion’s conservator for thirty-five years, Nikki broughthis sharp eye and nimble fingers to bear on many ofthe Frick’s treasures. To appreciate fully the wonder ofhis craft, I encourage you to stand in front of theBoulle clock, now on view in the Living Hall; earlierthis year Nikki completely disassembled and reassem-bled it after thorough cleaning and repair—handi-work indeed!

    In closing, a final word of thanks to the thousandsof supporters who participate each year in the life ofThe Frick Collection and help to sustain this extraor-dinary institution. The Frick has been blessed in itshistory by leadership from a family whose progenitorgave New York one of its most beloved institutions. Irevel in the good fortune of having Helen Clay Chaceavailable to us at this seminal moment of transitionfollowing the astonishing leadership for over thirty-five years of her uncle, Dr. Henry Clay Frick II. Mrs.Chace will now take us into the new millennium withall the challenges that that implies. Her training isimpeccable and her devotion unquestioned; we couldnot be more fortunate or more grateful.

    Edgar Munhall, curator of The Frick Collection from through (with Dylan)

  • Curatorial

    François-Hubert Drouais (‒), Madame de Pompadour,‒, oil on canvas, National Gallery, London

    The Frick Collection houses over eleven hundredworks of art from the Renaissance to the late nine-teenth century, including paintings, sculpture, workson paper, and objects of decorative art. Throughacquisitions, publications, exhibitions, conservationprojects, lectures and symposia for scholars and thegeneral public, as well as educational programs foryoung people, the curatorial staff works to maintainand develop its collections, preserve this historic site,and fulfill the founder’s aim of “encouraging anddeveloping the study of the fine arts, and . . . advanc-ing the general knowledge of kindred subjects.”

    With four loan exhibitions and four small in-houseexhibitions, as well as an increase in the number ofpublications, programs, and loans of works of art toother institutions, the last year of the twentieth cen-tury was the most productive ever for the CuratorialDepartment. The year also saw the most importantaddition to the permanent collection in decades in theWinthrop Edey bequest of over three dozen time-pieces. In addition, a book based on the ArtPhoneAcoustiguide Audio Tour, The Frick Collection/A Tour,written by Edgar Munhall and others, was publishedin English, French, and German, becoming an imme-diate “best-seller” in the Museum Shop.

    These activities marked the culmination of EdgarMunhall’s thirty-four-year career as curator of theCollection, a turning point in the history of thedepartment. Mr. Munhall was honored throughoutthe fall with a series of lectures given by his friendsand associates and generously underwritten by FrickCouncil member and longtime supporter of the Col-lection Diane Allen Nixon. The series culminated in afarewell lecture by the honoree on January , followedby a celebratory dinner.

    The Winthrop Edey Horological Bequest

    Celebrated clock collector and longtime friendWinthrop Edey (‒) bequeathed to The FrickCollection thirty-eight clocks and watches ranging in

  • well as examples of stained glass and illuminatedbooks, selected by Dr. Husband, were displayed toshow the context in which the Housebook Masterworked and his influence. A group of drypoints fromthe Rijksmusuem by the Master of the AmsterdamCabinet (the Housebook Master) was shown in theCollection’s Cabinet, highlighting the artist’s masteryin this medium. In the accompanying catalogue, Dr.Husband argued that the Housebook was a workshopproduction in which only a few select pages could beattributed to the Master himself, while other distincthands could now be identified. In conjunction withthe exhibition, the staff of the Frick Art ReferenceLibrary displayed facsimiles of manuscripts from itsholdings. The exhibition was designed by StephenSaitas and coordinated for the Collection by SusanGrace Galassi. Appealing to drawing and print spe-cialists and to the public alike, The Medieval Housebookreceived extensive press coverage. Holland Cotterreferred to the show as a “major event,” and a “must-see this spring” in a note in the New York Times onMay , while in her lengthy review of the exhibitionin the Times on June , Grace Glueck noted, “. . . thehousebook has long stirred intense interest. To see itis a rare treat.”

    The second of its single-painting loan exhibitions,Manet’s The Dead Toreador and The Bullfight: Fragmentsof a Lost Salon Painting Reunited, organized by SusanGrace Galassi, was held at the same time as the House-book exhibition. London-based independent scholarand Manet expert Juliet Wilson-Bareau served as advi-sor to the project. This display brought together, forthe first time since they left Manet’s studio, two frag-ments of one of the painter’s early works, Incident in aBullfight, shown at the Paris Salon in . The paint-ing was cut apart by Manet himself, who later devel-oped the fragments into independent works. The DeadToreador, the bottom section, lent by the NationalGallery of Art, Washington, was shown in the EastGallery alongside the Collection’s The Bullfight, a sec-tion from the upper right-hand corner. Related printsby Manet, lent by the Arthur Ross Foundation in

    ton, Constable, Flaxman, Hogarth, Palmer, andTurner. Most of these drawings were exhibited inNew York for the first time. In his review in the NewYork Times on March , John Russell recommended the exhibition to “anyone who wants to experience the peculiar spell that unfamiliar drawings can haveupon us.”

    In another of the Collection’s series of single-painting loan exhibitions, the celebrated portrait ofMadame de Pompadour by François-Hubert Drouais,from the National Gallery in London, was displayedin the East Gallery from January to April . Thislife-size image of the famous mistress of Louis XVand patroness of the arts, completed just after herdeath in , had never before been exhibited in theUnited States. The painting was displayed with artworks and decorative objects of the period from TheFrick Collection, including a remarkable Sèvres porce-lain pots-pourris myrte; canvases by Chardin, Greuze, andNattier; and Drouais’s familiar portrait The Comte andChevalier de Choiseul as Savoyards. The installation wasorganized by Edgar Munhall, who also wrote theaccompanying illustrated brochure.

    Through the initiative of the director, a rare manu-script known as the Medieval Housebook, ownedsince the seventeenth century by the counts of Wald-burg Wolfegg and temporarily unbound for the pur-pose of making a facsimile edition, was thecenterpiece of our major spring exhibition, TheMedieval Housebook: A View of Fifteenth-Century Life. Acompendium of secular texts presenting a fancifulview of life in a princely court, the Housebook haslong been the subject of scholarly debate as to howmany hands were involved in its production. Orga-nized for The Frick Collection by Timothy B. Hus-band, curator at the Cloisters, the show was presentedin the special exhibition galleries and the Cabinetfrom May through July . Along with the pen-and-ink illustrations and a selection of text pagesfrom the Housebook that formed the nucleus of theexhibition, engraved works on related themes byDürer, Schongauer, and other artists of the period, as

    date from the mid-sixteenth through the mid-nine-teenth century. Included are works by such masters asPierre de Fobis, Hans Koch, Pierre Norry, JosephKnibb, George Graham, André-Charles Boulle, andAbraham-Louis Breguet. Mr. Edey also left his exten-sive photo archive, library, and records concerning hiscollection, as well as a generous endowment for main-taining his bequest and adding to it. The most spec-tacular of these pieces is a magnificent mantel clockof about ‒ that has a movement and dialsigned by Thuret and a case attributed to André-Charles Boulle. The case, which is made of hard-woods veneered with intricate marquetry designs oftortoiseshell and metal, is decorated with gilt-bronzemounts. One of the most unusual of the timepieces,the Desk Watch Deux Styles, which displays the tradi-tional twenty-four-hour system on one side and thedecimal ten-hour system instituted by the Revolution-ary government in on the other side, has beendisplayed throughout the year in the Garden Court.Also included in the bequest was Mr. Edey’s multi-volume diary chronicling life in New York during thesecond half of the twentieth century. A memorial cel-ebration of the life of Winthrop Edey was held at theCollection on March . The Board of Trustees for-mally accepted Mr. Edey’s proposed gift on October, .


    The exhibition French and English Drawings of the Eighteenthand Nineteenth Centuries from the National Gallery of Canadawas organized by Charles Ryskamp, former director ofThe Frick Collection, in consultation with EdgarMunhall, curator, and Colin B. Bailey, chief curator ofthe National Gallery. Displayed in the special exhibi-tion galleries and the Cabinet, the sixty-seven draw-ings offered a sampling of the National Gallery ofCanada’s holdings in two major areas. Sheets by Frag-onard, Watteau, Greuze, Delacroix, Courbet, Boucher,and Degas were included, as well as works by Boning-

    Master of the Genre and Tournament Pages, “Castle of Desire” fromthe Medieval Housebook (fol. r), c. ‒, pen, ink, gold, andcolored washes on vellum, Collection of the Counts of WaldburgWolfegg

  • New York, French books on Spanish art of theperiod selected by Lydia Dufour of the Frick Art Ref-erence Library, and technical photographs were shownin a vitrine near the paintings, set up with the help ofLibrary conservation staff Jerilyn Davis and DonSwanson. Two of the Collection’s portraits by Goyaflanked the Manet pair. The side-by-side display ofthe fragments of the Incident in a Bullfight generated agreat deal of discussion among Manet scholars andconservators. A booklet accompanying the exhibitionpresented new research on the relation of the twofragments to each other. Illustrated with computer-enhanced images and diagrams, the publicationincluded an introductory essay by Susan Grace Galassialong with contributions by paintings conservatorAnn Hoenigswald of the National Gallery of Art,Washington, and Manet scholars Malcolm Park ofNew South Wales, Australia, and Juliet Wilson-Bareau of London. The publication was funded inpart through a grant from the Samuel H. Kress Foundation.

    The second half of the year was particularly rich inexhibitions, with four shows running concurrentlyover the holidays. The season began in Septemberwith the third of our single-loan exhibitions, Consta-ble’s Salisbury Cathedral: Two Versions Reunited, whichbrought together the Collection’s finished oil paintingof with its full-scale oil sketch of the previousyear from the Metropolitan Museum of Art—thepenultimate and final version of a series of six paint-ings. The pair hung on either side of the fireplace inthe Collection’s Library, and was accompanied by anillustrated brochure written by Susan Grace Galassi.

    Our major fall exhibition, Watteau and His World:French Drawings from to , coordinated for TheFrick Collection by Edgar Munhall, opened on Octo-ber . Alan Wintermute, Vice-President and SeniorSpecialist, Old Master Paintings, Christie’s, was guestcurator of the exhibition, which was organized by theAmerican Federation of Arts and supported in partby the Florence Gould Foundation. This comprehen-sive survey of the drawings of Jean-Antoine Watteau

    Antoine Watteau (‒), A Seated Woman Turning tothe Left, c. , red, black, and white chalks on beige paper, privatecollection

    Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (‒), King Philip IV of Spain, , oil on canvas, The Frick Collection

  • November in reference to the six paintings byDiego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez that wereassembled from local museums in the Collection’sOval Room to mark the four hundredth anniversaryof the master’s birth. Dr. Jonathan Brown, Carroll and Milton Petrie Professor of Fine Arts at the Institute of Fine Arts and renowned Velázquezscholar, organized this exhibition in collaborationwith the Hispanic Society of America. Marcus Burke,curator of paintings at the Hispanic Society, was co-author with Brown of the accompanying catalogue,which was generously underwritten with a gift fromMelvin R. Seiden. Three works lent from the Hispanic Society—Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke ofOlivares; Portrait of a Little Girl; and Camillo Astalli, knownas Cardinal Pamphili—and the portaits Juan de Pareja andMaría Theresa, Infanta of Spain from the MetropolitanMuseum of Art were installed by Edgar Munhall withThe Frick Collection’s portrait King Philip IV of Spain.The show brought together various types of works,from official court portraits to an unfinished paintingof an unknown girl, that spanned the range ofVelázquez’s oeuvre. H.R.H. the Infanta Elena ofSpain and H.E. Don Jaime de Marichalar, theDuchess and Duke of Lugo, attended the opening ofthe exhibition. Covered widely in the local and inter-national press, the show was a runaway popular suc-cess, drawing some , visitors; to accommodatethe crowds, the show was extended by two weeks.

    Henry Clay Frick as a Collector of Drawings, on view inthe Cabinet from December through the end ofJanuary , was organized by Susan Grace Galassito mark the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary ofthe founder’s birth on December , . Focusingattention on a lesser-known aspect of Henry ClayFrick’s broad collecting interests, the ten sheets ondisplay in the show, by Rembrandt, Gainsborough,Gardner, and Whistler, were acquired by Mr. Frickbetween and and are the only drawings thathe bequeathed to the public as an integral part of hiscollection.

    and some of his leading contemporaries includedsixty-five sheets lent from public and private collec-tions in North America. The core of thirty-five draw-ings by Watteau himself demonstrated the range andevolution of his work in various graphic media. Theremaining drawings were by his forebears and contem-poraries and later followers of his work, with sheetsby Lancret, Boucher, Gillot, Liotard, and Portail. Theaccompanying catalogue by Alan Wintermute, withcontributions by Pierre Rosenberg, Margaret MorganGrasselli, and Colin B. Bailey, was supported in partby the Samuel H. Kress Foundation. New York Timescritic John Russell remarked in his very laudatoryreview of October , “In its new exhibition…TheFrick Collection has struck gold.”

    “There are no small shows, only small artists,”noted Holland Cotter in the New York Times on


    Through a new policy instituted in , works fromthe Collection acquired after the death of the mu-seum’s founder, Henry Clay Frick—and therefore notsubject to the no-lending clause of his will—are nowpermitted to be loaned to exhibitions. During thesummer, Monet’s Vétheuil in Winter was shown at theBrooklyn Museum of Art in the exhibition Effets deNeige: Impressionists in Winter. In the fall our two paint-ings by Chardin, Still Life with Plums and Lady with aBird-Organ, were sent to the exhibition Chardin, whichopened at the Grand Palais in Paris and then traveled

    to Dusseldorf, London, and the MetropolitanMuseum of Art in New York. After a year’s absence,the Comtesse d’Haussonville returned to the Collection inearly January and was reinstalled in the North Hall.During its tour as part of the acclaimed exhibitionPortraits by Ingres: Image of an Epoch, held at the NationalGallery, London; the National Gallery of Art, Wash-ington; and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, theComtesse was prominently featured on posters and inbrochures and advertisements for the exhibition. Theabsence of this key painting provided the opportunityto show works from the Collection not normally onview, such as Davin-Mirvault’s Portrait of a Violinist andPater’s The Village Orchestra and Procession of Italian Come-dians, which were displayed in the North Hall.

    Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (‒), Portrait of a Little Girl, c. ‒, oil on canvas, The Hispanic Society ofAmerica

    Associate Curator Susan Grace Galassi (right) and Manet scholar JulietWilson-Bareau (left) led the discussion at the colloquium on the reunitedManet paintings The Dead Toreador, , Widener Collection,National Gallery of Art, Washington, and The Bullfight, , TheFrick Collection. Inset: A computer reconstruction of the second version—the Salon version—of Edouard Manet’s Incident in a Bullfight, asproposed by Ann Hoenigswald, paintings conservator at the NationalGallery of Art, Washington.

  • Scholarship

    Manet ColloquiumOn June , Ann Hoenigswald, paintings conservatorfrom the National Gallery of Art, Washington, andSusan Grace Galassi hosted a colloquium in connec-tion with the concurrent exhibition Manet’s The DeadToreador and The Bullfight: Fragments of a Lost SalonPainting Reunited. This day-long event, funded by a gen-erous grant from the Arthur Ross Foundation,brought together twenty-six conservators and art his-torians familiar with Manet’s cut canvases. X-radi-ographs were set up on light tables in the East Galleryalongside the paintings, and computer-enhancedimages were presented on monitors. Short presenta-tions were given by Professor Theodore Reff ofColumbia University, Ann Hoenigswald, bullfightexpert Stanley Conrad, and Manet scholars Juliet Wilson-Bareau and Malcolm Park. Most of the daywas spent in open discussion among the participants,drawing from both scientific evidence and scholarship.

    Watteau SymposiumWatteau and His World: French Drawings from to ,co-sponsored by the American Federation of Arts andThe Frick Collection, was held at the Collection onNovember . The four speakers—Alan Wintermute,Vice-President and Senior Specialist, Old MasterPaintings, Christie’s, and guest curator of the exhibi-tion; Thomas Crow, Chair, Department of the His-tory of Art, Yale University; Marjorie Shelley,Sherman Fairchild Conservator in Charge of Workson Paper and Photographs, The MetropolitanMuseum of Art; and Robert Darnton, Shelby CullomDavis Professor of European History, Princeton Uni-versity—addressed a variety of art historical and con-servation issues concerning the art of Watteau and hiscircle. The symposium, which was attended by sev-enty-five people, was made possible by the generoussupport of the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Foundation,Christie’s, and the Samuel H. Kress Foundation.

    Gallery Talks for Graduate StudentsTalks for graduate students in art history were heldon two Mondays during the Velázquez exhibition.Professor Gridley McKim Smith of Bryn Mawr Col-lege, a Velázquez expert, spoke to doctoral studentsfrom her department, and Dr. Marcus Burke, co-orga-nizer with Dr. Jonathan Brown of the exhibition,spoke to students from the Institute of Fine Arts. Dr.Burke brought with him the Hispanic Society’s eigh-teenth-century copy of Juan de Pareja to compare withthe original, sparking animated discussion.

    Symposium on the History of ArtThe fifty-ninth annual symposium sponsored by TheFrick Collection and the Institute of Fine Arts, NewYork University, was held on April and . Each ofthe fourteen participating northeastern academicinstitutions sent one graduate student in art history toshare his or her original research.

    The symposium began on Friday afternoon withsix talks at the Institute. The session was followed bya dinner honoring speakers and faculty advisors at thehome of Samuel and Beth Sachs, co-hosted by Dr.James McCredie, director of the Institute of FineArts. The Saturday morning and afternoon sessionswere held at the Collection, with a buffet lunch in theGarden Court and a reception at the Frick Art Refer-ence Library in the late afternoon. Topics rangedwidely from Byzantine images in a fourteenth-centuryicon to Ghiberti’s Shrine of Saint Zenobius to Picabiaand the African Burial Ground in New York City.

    ConservationSveteslao (“Nikki”) Hlopoff, conservator at TheFrick Collection for thirty-five years, announced hisretirement at the end of the year. He served as a con-sultant for the Collection with enormous grace andskill, and the condition of the decorative art collec-tions is a lasting testament to his care and affectionfor each and every object. His last major treatmentwas on the mantel clock by André-Charles Boulle,part of the Winthrop Edey bequest. He completed

    his service by giving a public lecture, “Notes from a Conservator’s Diary.” We all wish him well andthank him for his extraordinary service to The FrickCollection.

    Conservation work was completed at the TextileConservation Laboratory at the Cathedral of St. Johnthe Divine in New York City on two of the Collec-tion’s eighteenth-century Brussels tapestries designedby Peter van den Hecke, The Arrival of Dancers at theWedding of Camacho and Sancho Panza’s Departure for the Isleof Barataria. The tapestries, a bequest from ChildsFrick, are to be exhibited for the first time in theautumn of and will hang in the Music Room.

    Adrian Anderson, senior galleries technician, andWilliam Irvine, from the curatorial maintenance staff,in addition to their many daily duties, conducted anumber of much-needed gallery renovation and

    restoration projects, refurbishing the corbels in theEast Gallery, the pocket doors in the auditorium, thedoors, locks, handles and window brasses on the firstfloor, and the surfaces of the fireplaces. Head electri-cian Wilfred Maldonado rewired the chandelier andwall lights in the Boucher Room. The lighting in theFragonard Room was improved by the use of differentbulbs.


    In the third year of a generous three-year grant fromthe Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation, the EducationProgram expanded its outreach to twenty-four NewYork City public schools. In the ‒ school year,forty-two classes—approximately public school

    Fifth-grade class from P. S. in Manhattan in the West Gallery.

  • students—participated in the Collection’s EducationProgram. The goal of the program is to help middleschool and high school students to develop their per-ceptual and analytical skills through close observationand group discussion of masterpieces of Europeanpainting, sculpture, and decorative art. The programalso introduces students to the concept of a collectionand links it with their own experiences of acquiringand preserving the objects they love.

    In the past year, the Education Program has grownnot only in the number of participants but also in therange of services available to teachers, teaching artists,and students. This year we have worked closely with anumber of partner schools to tailor our program tothe classroom teachers’ interests and curricula.

    New collaborations were developed under the aegisof Project Arts, New York City’s initiative to inte-grate arts education into the city’s public school sys-tem. In March, New York City Project Arts coordin-ators, led by Sharon Dunn, special assistant to thechancellor of education, met at the Collection.

    One such collaboration began last spring withtwenty-five fifth-grade teachers from District ,which encompasses Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn, andsurrounding neighborhoods. As part of this year-longprogram, fifth-grade students designed and con-structed their own exhibitions in their classrooms,modeling their roles in the project on those of actualmuseum personnel. This ongoing partnership is over-seen by Education Coordinator Amy Herman.

    Last spring, the Collection also participated in anongoing Project Arts program entitled the RembrandtProject. Thirty teachers of grades four through eightfrom District in Glendale, Queens, attended a staffdevelopment session focusing on the three Rembrandtpaintings in The Frick Collection along with worksby other Dutch seventeenth-century masters. Thisinnovative teaching project conducts extensive teachertraining sessions in New York City art museums and provides curriculum development and classroomresources specifically focusing on the work ofRembrandt.

    Continuing the collaboration with the Board ofEducation, The Frick Collection offered teacher train-ing courses for public school teachers in the fall,spring, and summer.

    Education staff also led teacher training sessionsfor teachers from Edward B. Shallow IntermediateSchool in Bensonhurst, Brooklyn, another of the insti-tution’s partner schools. As part of the curriculum ofthe Renaissance Project, a mini-school within Shallow,teachers integrated objects in The Frick Collectioninto every academic subject taught at the school. Astaff development session was also conducted forteaching artists from DreamYard, an organization thatprovides outreach to inner-city schools through thevisual, performing, and literary arts.

    Our Education Program continued to serve teach-ers and students throughout the city during the sum-mer months. As part of a collaboration between NewYork City’s Bilingual Education Program and ProjectArts, students from P.S. in the South Bronx madefour trips to study objects in the Collection as part oftheir summer-long projects. The Collection alsooffered teacher training to participants in a summerlong course, “Workshop in Curriculum MaterialsDevelopment: Artists and Museum Collections in theClassroom,” given by Lehman College Art Gallery ofthe City University of New York.

    Susan Grace Galassi, associate curator, continues tooversee the Education Program. Amy Herman hasconcluded her first year as education coordinator,working with teachers and community school districtarts coordinators, as well as writing grants for supportof the Education Program and its projects. AshleyThomas, continuing in her role as educational liaison,conducted classroom visits before and after eachschool group’s museum visit.

    A student’s rendition of Lady Peel by Sir Thomas Lawrence, paintedon the art history timeline created by the sixth grade at Edward B. Shal-low Intermediate School, Bensonhurt, Brooklyn.

    Fifth-grade student from P. S. in Brooklyn sketching a Chinese porcelain vase in the Dining Room gallery.

  • Exhibitions

    Victorian Fairy PaintingOctober , –January , (catalogue)

    Drouais’ Portrait of Madame de Pompadour from the NationalGallery, LondonJanuary –April , (brochure)

    French and English Drawings of the Eighteenth and NineteenthCenturies from the National Gallery of CanadaFebruary –April , (catalogue)

    The Medieval Housebook: A View of Fifteenth-Century LifeMay –July , (catalogue)

    Manet’s The Dead Toreador and The Bullfight: Fragmentsof a Lost Salon Painting ReunitedMay –August , (booklet)

    Constable’s Salisbury Cathedral: Two Versions ReunitedSeptember –December , (brochure)

    Watteau and His World: French Drawing from to October , –January , (catalogue)

    Velázquez in New York MuseumsNovember , –January , (booklet)

    Henry Clay Frick as a Collector of DrawingsDecember , –January ,

    Exhibitions& Lectures


    January The Frick Deposition: Gerard David’s Innovations on aTraditional ThemeMaryan W. Ainsworth, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

    February Madame de Pompadour, Her Tastes and Her TimeClare Le Corbeiller, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

    March Madame de Pompadour—Images of a MistressHumphrey Wine, The National Gallery, London

    April Italian Drawings in the National Gallery of Canada:The Building of a CollectionDavid Franklin, National Gallery of Canada

    April Pierpont Morgan as Collector, and the Ex-MorganObjects in The Frick CollectionJean Strouse, author

    May The “Medieval Housebook” and the Art ofIllustrationTimothy B. Husband, The Metropolitan Museum of Art and The Cloisters

    June Attacking the Bullfight: Manet and SpainJuliet Wilson-Bareau, independent scholar

    Jean Strouse, author of Morgan: American Financier (RandomHouse, ), shed new light on yet another facet of the relationshipbetween Pierpont Morgan and Henry Clay Frick in a fascinating lec-ture, “Pierpont Morgan as Collector, and the Ex-Morgan Objects inThe Frick Collection,” presented as part of the Frick’s Artists, Writers,and Poets Series.

    Edgar Munhall Lecture Series

    To mark his retirement at the end of the year, the following talks were given in

    honor of Edgar Munhall, curator of The Frick Collection from to .

    The series was generously underwritten by Diane Allen Nixon.

    October The Frick and the GettyJohn Walsh, Director, The J. Paul Getty Museum

    November Parisian Perspectives: Whistler, Fantin, and MontesquiouNigel Thorp, Director, Centre for Whistler Studies, University of Glasgow

    December The Wallace Collection: Past, Present, and FutureRosalind Savill, Director, The Wallace Collection

    January , Liotard’s Last Laugh: The Art of Jean-Étienne Liotard (‒)Edgar Munhall, Curator, The Frick Collection

  • French and English Drawings of the Eighteenth and NineteenthCenturies from the National Gallery of Canada, with essayand checklist by Richard Hemphill, National Galleryof Canada. A -page illustrated booklet published byThe Frick Collection in connection with an exhibi-tion on view from February through April , .

    Drouais’ Portrait of Madame de Pompadour from the NationalGallery, London, by Edgar Munhall, Curator, The FrickCollection. An illustrated brochure published by TheFrick Collection in connection with a loan on viewhere from January through April , .

    John Constable’s Salisbury Cathedral: Two Versions Reunited,by Susan Grace Galassi, Associate Curator, The FrickCollection. An illustrated brochure published by TheFrick Collection in connection with the loan of Con-stable’s view of the cathedral from the MetropolitanMuseum, on view here from September throughDecember , .

    Watteau and His World: French Drawing from to ,by Alan Wintermute et al. A -page illustrated cata-logue published by Merrell Holbertson of Londonand the American Federation of Arts in connectionwith an exhibition on view at The Frick Collectionfrom October , , through January , .

    The second category of publications, the books aboutthe Collection, follows.

    The Frick Collection/A Tour, by Edgar Munhall, withSusan Grace Galassi, Ashley Thomas, and the Acous-tiguide Corporation staff. A -page illustrated guidepublished by The Frick Collection in association withScala Publishers of London. Edited by JosephFocarino, photographs of art works by Richard diLiberto.

    The year saw the largest number of publicationsever produced by The Frick Collection. They fell intotwo categories: catalogues and brochures published inconnection with current exhibitions, and books aboutthe Collection. The exhibition catalogues andbrochures follow.

    The Medieval Housebook and the Art of Illustration, by Timothy B. Husband, Curator, Medieval Art and TheCloisters, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NewYork. An -page catalogue published by The FrickCollection in connection with an exhibition of illus-trated manuscript pages and related prints shown herefrom May through July , . Project editorJoseph Focarino, copy editor John Anderson. Alsoreleased in connection with this exhibition was the-page Venus and Mars: The World of the Medieval House-book by Christoph Graf zu Waldburg Wolfegg, pub-lished by Prestel-Verlag of Munich.

    Velázquez in New York Museums, essays and catalogueentries by Jonathan Brown, The Institute of FineArts, New York University, and Marcus Burke, TheHispanic Society of America. A -page illustratedcatalogue published by The Frick Collection in con-nection with an exhibition of six portraits byVelázquez shown here from November , ,through January , . Edited by Joseph Focarino.

    Manet’s The Dead Toreador and The Bullfight: Frag-ments of a Lost Salon Painting Reunited, by Susan GraceGalassi, Associate Curator, The Frick Collection, etal. A -page illustrated catalogue published by TheFrick Collection in connection with the loan of thecelebrated Dead Toreador from the National Gallery ofArt, Washington, from May through August ,. Edited by Joseph Focarino.


    The Frick Collection Report: , fourth in a series ofannual reports by the staffs of The Frick Collectionand the Frick Art Reference Library. Published byThe Frick Collection. Project editor Joseph Focarino,copy editor Lawrence N. VanDoren, project coordina-tor Heidi Rosenau.

    A Guide to Works of Art on Exhibition, tenth, revised edi-tion of the -page guide prepared by the curatorialstaff of The Frick Collection. Published by TheFrick Collection.

    In addition, saw the continuation of work onVolume IX of The Frick Collection: An Illustrated Catalogue,which will include drawings, prints, and acquisitionsmade since . Earlier volumes in the series includeVolumes I and II: Paintings; Volumes III and IV: Sculp-ture; Volumes V and VI: Furniture and Gilt Bronzes; Vol-ume VII: Porcelains; and Volume VIII: Enamels, Rugs, andSilver. The Catalogue is edited by Joseph Focarino, pub-lished by The Frick Collection, and distributed byPrinceton University Press.

    The Frick Collection also publishes three times a yearan announcement of concerts, special exhibitions, andlectures, available free on request.

    All Frick publications, including books, color prints,color slides, posters, postcards, and greeting cards, areavailable from the Collection’s Museum Shop.

    The Frick Collection/A Tour, by staff members of The FrickCollection and the Acoustiguide Corporation. The -page colorguide was published in English, French, and German, to be supple-mented in by editions in Italian, Spanish, and Japanese.

  • Excerpts from Reviews

    Peabody Trio“. . . each produced a beautifully polished, lushsound.” —New York Times

    Frederic Chiu, piano “His technique is resourceful and often impressive.For a moment, we might have been in the candle-litsalon of a Parisian duchess.” —New York Times

    Amati Quartet“They make a full, big, well-balanced sound, and theircoordination, ensured by the merest eye-contact, isimpressively consistent. They also sound young, in thepassion of their playing.” —New York Times

    Quatuor Mosaïques“. . . these excellent instrumentalists are steeped in theperformance practices of the early-music movement.. . . [They] took full advantage of the reverberantacoustics of the music room.” —New York Times

    Jacques Thibaud Trio“This could be the first string trio in some time tohave a major career.” —New York Times

    Paul Galbraith, guitar“The highlight of his recital was a gracefully phrased,beautifully balanced account of Haydn’s Piano SonataNo. .” —New York Times

    Steven Osborne, piano“The selected pieces Mr. Osborne played [from Messiaen’s Vingt Regards sur l’Enfant Jesus] took nearly minutes, and every minute was riveting. Obviouslyenthralled by the music, he gave a commanding andvibrantly imaginative performance, never faltering instamina, concentration and inspiration.”—New York Times

    Performers Appearing during

    Peabody Trio January

    Die Singphoniker, vocal sextet February New York debut

    Frederic Chiu, piano February

    Mark Kosower, cello March

    Amati Quartet March New York debut

    Guillemette Laurens, mezzo-soprano April Luca Pianca, lute

    Quatuor Mosaïques April New York debut

    Jacques Thibaud Trio June

    Paul Galbraith, guitar August New York debut

    Tapestry, vocal trio, harp, percussion October

    Mandelring Quartet October

    The King’s Noyse, Renaissance violin band November

    Steven Osborne, piano November

    Arve Tellefsen, violin December

    The Frick Collection has presented classical musicconcerts to the public since . During its distin-guished sixty-two year history, the concert programhas been host to major soloists and ensembles, such asthe famous instrumentalists Gregor Piatigorsky, ArturSchnabel, Josef Szigeti, and Wanda Landowska; thevocalists Kiri Te Kanawa, Peter Pears, Kathleen Battle,and Elisabeth Söderström; and the Budapest,Amadeus, Tokyo, and Guarneri quartets, with manyartists returning numerous times over the years.

    In recent years two new trends have developed:European musicians are making their New Yorkdebuts here and the Collection is becoming anincreasingly important venue for music played onperiod instruments. The circular Music Room, withits glass dome, damask-covered walls, and Hollyhockspanels by Fragonard, conveys the atmosphere of a pri-vate salon, offering satisfying acoustics to the musi-cians onstage and to the listeners in the hall. Theintimacy of the setting and the warmth and enthusi-asm of Collection audiences encourage fine perfor-mances, attracting the critical press and oftenlaunching careers.

    In , the Frick’s music program furthered thisrich tradition with thirteen concerts, of which sixwere debuts. Many were warmly reviewed by impor-tant newspapers and magazines.

    All concerts are offered to the public free of chargeand are underwritten with the support of the Fellowsof The Frick Collection. The concerts are recordedand subsequently broadcast locally by WNYC-FM(.) and nationally over the Public Radio Interna-tional network. The format was changed this year topresent one-hour programs, which has increased thenumber of stations carrying the concerts across thecountry.


    Scottish pianist Steven Osborne performed a program of Ravel, Schubert,and Messiaen last fall.

  • As part of the renovation of the sixth floor carried out by Buttrick, White, & Burtis, the Italian Room, designed by Carrère and Hastings and formerly a private office of Helen Clay Frick, retains its original character while serving as a staff office.

    The uniqueness of the Frick Art Reference Librarylies in the richness of its documents—both text andimage—chronicling the history of Western art, col-lecting, taste, and connoisseurship. Founded in by Helen Clay Frick, the Library’s goals complementThe Frick Collection’s mission of “encouraging anddeveloping the study of the fine arts and of advancingthe general knowledge of kindred subjects.” The highregard in which the Library is held by sister institu-tions was underscored by visits from the heads ofseveral of the most important art libraries in NorthAmerica. Among the institutions represented were theGetty Research Institute; the National Gallery of Art,Washington; and the Art Gallery of Ontario. Thepurpose of these visits was to view the Library’shighly successful renovations and to discuss the pilotprojects and the electronic and digital research toolsthat are being developed through the Library’s collab-orations with other organizations and through thegrowing expertise of the staff.

    In recognition of the Library’s expanding role asthe research center of The Frick Collection, the over-riding goal for the next five years will be to completethe enormous task of converting over a million textand image records to electronic and digital form; tomaintain the highest standards in the development,management, and preservation of the research collec-tions; and to provide integrated access to theseresources through reader services, the website, and anexpanding research program.

    Renovation of Work Areas

    After nine months, the full-scale renovation of thesixth floor was completed in the spring, providingcustom workstations and offices for twenty-nine staffmembers, interns, and volunteers. The flexibility ofthese workstations allows for easy conversion intoscanning stations to keep pace with the changing tech-nological environment. Chief of Collections Preserva-tion Don Swanson represented the Library in

    Frick Art Reference Library

  • Digital Program

    With the completion of the Luce Project, the Library,assisted by the Information Systems Department,began to investigate the feasibility of a surrogate digi-tal photoarchive. Throughout the year the staff gainedexpertise, and a digital planning committee, chairedby Inge Reist, was formed to spearhead the investiga-tion of the conversion to digital form of the Pho-toarchive and its nearly one million images.

    Cornell/Frick Digital CollaborationConcurrent with this project was the initiation of apartnership with Cornell University Libraries and itsdigital program. The latter collaboration wasprompted and funded by Patrick Gerschel, FrickCouncil chairman and a Cornell alumnus. The Cor-nell Interactive Media Group conducted two focusgroups for the Library, the first with staff and thesecond with a cross-section of the Library’s users, tostudy and evaluate audience interaction with andexpectations concerning digital resources. In turn,members of the staff visited Cornell for two days ofdemonstrations of the image databases developed bytheir digital laboratories. As a result of these consulta-tions, the Library embarked on a program to scan itsholdings of transparencies, beginning with a gift fromthe Daniel Grossman Gallery. During the latter partof the year, the Cornell/Frick partnership undertookplanning and testing of scanned images and databasepractices. Virginia Kerr, head of digital initiatives atNorthwestern University, was contracted to evaluatethe Library’s pilot projects and current practices andto advise the Library on the future direction of digitalprojects.

    Global Art SystemsA sponsored pilot project was undertaken with thevendor Global Art Systems to produce a fully search-able text and image database of , anonymousItalian artists represented in the Photoarchive. A sam-pling of the records was presented by the sponsor of

    coordinating the efforts of the building and construc-tion personnel and the architectural firm of Buttrick,White, & Burtis. The staff members responsible forbibliographic and photographic records now occupywork areas that are suited to the requirements of theirrespective tasks and that facilitate inter-departmentalcommunication as documentation processes and pro-cedures become more integrated.

    Completion of the Luce Photoarchive Project

    Nineteen ninety-nine marked the final year of thissuccessful five-year project to improve the holdingsand public services of the Photoarchive’s Americanschool, consisting of documented images of over

    , works of art. In the course of the project,which was funded with a grant from the Henry LuceFoundation, all aspects of the Photoarchive werereviewed, and a strategic plan was initiated for devel-oping, managing, and evaluating the Photoarchive inthe future. Comprising over one million photographsand reproductions of paintings, drawings, sculpture,and illuminated manuscripts, the Photoarchive isinternationally recognized as an invaluable resourcefor the study of Western art from the fourth to thetwentieth century. A collections development modelwas created to encourage acquisitions from privateand public collections; and a collections managementsystem was implemented to record material in allschools. By the end of the project, , of the worksof art represented in the Photoarchive were docu-mented in the database, and the Library had formedpartnerships with other art research institutions todigitize images and share resources. Ultimately theproject paved the way for digital initiatives that nowform part of the long-term planning for the Library’sPhotoarchive.

    New Initiatives

    With encouragement from the director, and recogniz-ing that the Library’s ability to fulfill its goals over thenext five years is predicated on funding for its pro-jects, two separate, but ultimately linked, programswere implemented in —the Retrospective Conver-sion Program and the Digital Program. The firstphase of the Retrospective Conversion Program wassuccessfully completed, and the planning phase forthe Digital Program received a jump-start throughpartnership and sponsorship.

    Retrospective Conversion Program

    Completion of the Auction Sale Catalog ProjectAmong the Library’s special resources, its collection

    of auction sale catalogs justly stands as one of theforemost assemblages of primary sources for scholarlyresearch on works of art and the history of collecting,a resurgent field of study. The Eugene V. and Clare E.Thaw Charitable Trust’s award of , madepossible a two-year project to convert to electronicform the auction sale catalog index, representing over, sale catalogs. Researchers are now able to gainbroader awareness of and access to the Library’s hold-ings through the Research Libraries Information Net-work (RLIN) and SCIPIO, the international auctionsale catalog database. As a result of this project, theLibrary identified as many as , of its catalogs asrare, if not unique, in the world. This work wasaccomplished through the efforts of Chief of Collec-tions Management and Access Deborah Kempe andproject coordinator Rodica Preda.

    Remaining Retrospective Conversion With the auction sale catalog index converted, theLibrary faced the prospect of procuring funds for thethree remaining years of the Retrospective ConversionProgram. Through this program nearly ,records for pre- publications will be converted toelectronic form, and over , records for the artistfiles represented in the Photoarchive will be created.Late in , the Library learned that a generous, donation from the estate of Paul Mellon wasearmarked for this program. A small grant from theMetropolitan New York Library Council allowed theLibrary to initiate a project to create records for agroup of American artists represented in the Library’sPhotoarchive. With the assistance of interns from thePalmer School of Library and Information Science,over , records for American artists were enteredinto FRESCO (Frick Research Catalog Online) andcontributed to RLIN. This project, which constitutesa key step in the linking of research materials withinthe library, was an opportunity for real teamworkbetween the Photoarchive and Book departments.

    The architectural firm of Buttrick, White, & Burtis successfullyredesigned the staff work areas on the sixth floor of the Library.

  • Preservation Program

    Conservation LabNearly , items were prepared for shelving andmore than sixty drop-spine boxes were fabricated toprotect oversized and rare books. Much of the workin the conservation lab centered on repairs and treat-ments of fragile items identified in the course of thetwo-year Thaw-funded auction sale catalog project.Major treatments were performed on several rareEuropean sale catalogs from the late eighteenth toearly nineteenth century, with more than five hundredhours allocated to in-depth conservation treatment.Special care and preservation will be allotted for thenearly , rare catalogs identified in this project.Advanced treatments were performed by AssociateConservator Jerilyn Davis on some of the Library’soldest books and manuscripts, including Figures de laBible (), Konstryk Tekenboek van Abraham Bloemaart(), and Iconografía española (‒). Such treat-ments ranged from light bleaching to rebinding andgold tooling. In November, the Library replaced itsaging sonic welder, the principal tool for encapsulat-ing photographs. The original machine had assisted in encapsulating more than , photographs andpage leaves over fifteen years.

    Negative Duplication ProjectIn July, the Library was awarded its sixth grant of, from the New York State Program for theConservation and Preservation of Library ResearchMaterials, to continue duplicating spoiling negativesamong its collection of ,. More than nega-tives from the Collection’s historical archives werepulled by the archivist and chief conservator for treat-ment, including negatives from the s and sthat document paintings in The Frick Collection asthey were at that time. In all, the project duplicated, spoiling negatives, bringing the total number ofnegatives duplicated or re-housed so far to ,.Presentations on the need for the duplication projectwere given to the trustees of The Frick Collection, tostaff, and to members of the New York chapter ofthe Art Libraries Society of North America. In Octo-ber, Don Swanson visited several plantations along theJames River in Virginia where Thurman Rotan, Frickphotographer from to , photographed paint-ings in private collections in the s. Because ofthese photographic campaigns, the Library has accu-rate records of the earlier condition of these paint-ings, which today show signs of extreme deterioration.As a result of the Negative Duplication Project, thestate-of-the-art preservation of the Rotan negativesqualifies them as the only known historical documentsof the paintings in their original state.

    In the spring, Don Swanson gave a presentation tothe trustees of the Helen Clay Frick Foundation andthe Frick Art & Historical Center in Pittsburgh onthe conservation and preservation needs of the FrickFamily Archives located at the Center. In addition, heperformed emergency conservation triage work suchas mold removal and re-housing fragile blueprints inorder to treat and stabilize parts of the archives, andalso implemented measures to improve the environ-ment of the storage area. Spoiling acetate and nitratenegatives were housed in separate containers to mini-mize exposure to other materials.

    Cataloging and AcquisitionsNearly , bibliographic titles, , auction salecatalogs, and , photographs were acquired for theresearch collections in through purchases, gifts,and exchanges, bringing the total holdings to ,books, , auction catalogs, and , photo-graphic items. The Library subscribes to journals,with the latest editions of many available in the Read-ing Room. Through funds from the Luce Project,special purchases of over photographs of seldom-reproduced works of art were procured from smallAmerican museums. Over the last five years, the rateof cataloging and production of bibliographic recordshas increased by percent, a testament to improvedwork spaces and online resources, and to the dedica-tion of staff members, who increased productiondespite relocation during the renovation. The qualityof the Library’s bibliographic cataloging, overseen byHead of Bibliographic Records Mark Bresnan, con-tinues to garner praise from the outside world, as doesthat of the documented photographic records, over-seen by Head of Photographic Records Kerry Sulli-van. In addition, the cataloging format developed bythe Photoarchive has been designed to be consistentwith the emerging standards of the visual resourcescommunity.

    the project, Pernigotti, S.p.A. of the Averna Group,Milan, Italy, at a corporate event held at The FrickCollection, where it was well received. In December,the testing and evaluation phase of the project began,and storage possibilities were investigated for themany scanned images.

    Research Collections

    Gift and Depository ProgramAs part of the estate bequeathed to The Frick Collec-tion, the personal library of Winthrop Edey, clockcollector and benefactor, was given to the Library.Acquiring this collection has strengthened theLibrary’s ability to support the study of the decora-tive arts in the Collection. More than 150 books weregiven to the Library by Marion Hirschler, a Fellow ofthe Frick, including a number of exhibition cataloguesnew to the Library. Over thirty European auctionhouses responded positively to the director’s appealfor complimentary sale catalog subscriptions, therebyexpressing their appreciation of the service theLibrary provides through its documentation of theinternational art market. Overall, the estimated sav-ings to the Library that resulted from this initiativeamounted to nearly ,. Exchanges with theBrooklyn Museum of Art, Koninklijk Museum, Boy-mans van Beuningen Museum, Royal Academy, andMusée Dobrée made possible book purchases virtuallyat cost. Apart from the Edey gift, the Library bene-fited from generous donations of nearly , items,of which more than half were added to the researchcollections. The sale of duplicate and out-of-scopematerial, most notably from the bequest of thelibraries of Bernice Davidson and Rudolf Heine-mann, generated special funds that will be used to fillsignificant gaps in the Library’s collection. Amongthese special purchases were Esposizioni futuriste,‒, a re-printed collection of rare exhibitioncatalogues. Donors to the Library received acknowl-edgements on bookplates and in the credit lines ofonline records in FRESCO.

    Selections from the personal library of Winthrop Edey, clock collector andbenefactor.

    A selection of books, manuscripts, and European sale catalogs from the late eighteenth to the early nineteenth century, after conservation treatment.

  • art professionals that will begin in the spring of .

    Outreach and Shared ResourcesAnnual orientations were held for students of theInstitute of Fine Arts, Bard Graduate School for theDecorative Arts, and Sotheby’s and Christie’s NewYork education programs. Ongoing outreach to artdealers culminated in the annual art dealers’ breakfastin the Library’s Reading Room during the Interna-tional Fine Art Fair in May. Along with participationin an interlibrary lending program, the Library contin-ues to provide abstracts for catalogues raisonnés to theGetty’s Bibliography on the History of Art (BHA) and tocontribute records to the Library of Congress ArtistName Authority Cooperative, a shared internationaldocumentation program.

    Internship and Volunteer ProgramThe Library hosted a total of eleven interns and vol-unteers in , including two summer interns in thePhotoarchive, one from the University of Marburg,Germany, the other from Trinity University in SanAntonio, Texas. A conservation internship program

    orations, and orientations have given the Librarygreater visibility and have heightened public awarenessof its role as an international research center. Exhibi-tions of Library materials were organized with thedesign assistance of Don Swanson to complement theCollection’s Medieval Housebook and Velázquez in New YorkMuseums exhibitions. The Conservation Departmentalso assisted the curatorial staff by preparing printsand Library books for the display case that accompa-nied the exhibition of Manet’s The Dead Toreador andThe Bullfight. The Library loaned two books to theexhibition A Painter’s Poet: Stéphane Mallarmé and theImpressionists, curated by Professor Jane Roos, and heldat the Bertha and Karl Leubsdorf Art Gallery, HunterCollege. Don Swanson designed and typeset the sixty-eight page booklet Charles Ryskamp and Friends, A Bibliog-raphy, which was issued in an edition of four hundred,bound by the Conservation Department, and pub-lished by the Frick Art Reference Library. In recogni-tion of the important role the Library has played inadvancing research on the history of art and connois-seurship, Nicholas Hall generously underwrote a seriesof panel discussions to encourage dialogue between

    Reader Services

    In September, to the delight of staff and readers, thecleaned vedute of Venice by Francesco Guardi werereinstalled in the Main Reading Room, after theirbrief sojourn in the entrance hall to the Collection.The paintings contribute to the tranquil environmentthat researchers enjoy in these rooms.

    The number of users of electronic resourcesincreased dramatically, with many taking advantage oftraining workshops. Readers increasingly show a ten-dency to integrate their use of different research for-mats—books, catalogs, photographs, and electronicresources. The number of e-mail reference queries andinterlibrary loan requests also grew substantially. Anew digital reprographic service was provided inresponse to requests that previously required dark-room facilities, and as a result print, e-mail, and disc-formatted images of high quality can now be madeusing a scanning workstation.

    Reference Librarian Irene Avens compiled a bibli-ography pertaining to the Library’s holdings on Holo-caust-era assets that has been praised as a valuable

    research tool by the Commission for Art Recovery.These resources draw attention to the important rolethat the Frick Art Reference Library played in identi-fying and thus saving cultural treasures from destruc-tion during the Second World War, and to the role itcontinues to play by assisting researchers in tracingprovenance in the identification of lost works of art.To further improve access to electronic research tools,Assistant Reference Librarian James Mitchell devel-oped a guide to electronic resources and other findingaids for the Small Reading Room. The Library pro-duced a new edition of its Guide to Use, includinginserts on Archives & Special Collections, Auction &Art Sales Resources, Periodical Resources, ElectronicResources, and Reprographic & Digital Services.

    Research Program

    The Library’s new Research Program, overseen byInge Reist, evolved to better acquaint the public withthe exceptional research opportunities available at theLibrary. To this end, exhibitions, publications, collab-

    Above and right: The cleaned View of Venice and Regatta in Venice by Francesco Guardi were reinstalled inthe Main Reading Room.

  • was initiated in January with the Wells College BookArts Center. The Epilepsy Institute of New YorkCity presented Conservation Associate RhondaRouget with a plaque acknowledging her encourage-ment and training of their volunteer, Priscilla Lassiter,who has been working under Ms. Rouget’s supervisionfor almost three years.

    Archives and Records Management (Institution-wide)

    Research queries continued to increase, up nearly percent over . As in past years, questions covereda range of topics, notably the architecture of theLibrary and the Collection, and the individuals andcompanies involved in the construction and furnish-ing of the buildings. In addition to increased timespent making archival resources available toresearchers, the Archives Department, thanks to theaddition of a part-time assistant, continued to processhistorical collections and to prepare finding-aids. Thegift of books and manuscripts from Bernice David-son, research curator for the Collection from to, was reviewed, and work began on the manuscriptportion. A policy was prepared on the archivist’s rolein appraising gifts to the Collection and Library.

    Notable Acquisitions during

    Gift and Depository Program

    Hôtel Drouot, Paris, subscription to its fine arts auction sale catalogs; gift of the auction house

    Phillips Fine Art Auctioneers, London, subscriptionto its auction sale catalogs; gift of the auction house

    Frederick Mortimer Clapp, New York and Other Verses,Boston, n.d. (originally published Boston, ), withan inscription by the author to William Suhr (paint-ings conservator for The Frick Collection, ‒);gift of Henriette Suhr

    Das mittelalterliche Hausbuch (The Medieval Housebook),Christoph Graf zu Waldburg Wolfegg, ed.,Munich/New York, (facsimile edition); gift ofthe Sammlung der Fürsten zu Waldburg Wolfegg

    Michael Bryan, A Biographical and Critical Dictionary ofPainters and Engravers, London, ; gift of Jeri Garbaccio

    Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, Dirección Generalde Bellas Artes y Bienes Culturales, Madrid, Obrasmaestras recuperadas, Madrid, ; gift of the FundaciónBanco Central Hispano, Madrid

    Witt Computer Index: A Text Database for Americanand Eighteenth-century British Holdings of the WittLibrary; gift of the Witt Library in exchange for theLibrary’s Spanish Artists from the Fourth to the Twentieth Century: A Critical Dictionary

    transparencies and photographs; gift of Hirschl& Adler Galleries

    helpdesk software was installed, and successful Y2Kpreparations resulted in a seamless transition to thenew century. Head of Information Systems FloydSweeting secured an e-rate grant amounting to ,for telecommunications and Internet access from theSchools & Libraries Corporation. The Library quali-fied for this funding as a publicly available scholarlylibrary not attached to a school.

    Digital Information ManagementThe Information Systems Department is responsiblefor the research and development of technicalprocesses for the institution’s increasing involvementin digital initiatives. Scanning and storage procedureswere established through the efforts of Manager ofDigital Information Vivian Gill. Investigation of cur-rent “best practices” for digitizing images, along withthe Cornell partnership, helped to set the technicalstandards for the institution’s involvement in digitalprojects and collaborations and for the scanningworkstations used for filling reprographic orders. Aspecialist for digital scanning was contracted to trainPhotoarchive staff and others in digital skills and pro-cedures. Digital images for over four hundred worksof art in The Frick Collection, along with their docu-mentation, were contributed to AMICO (ArtMuseum Image Consortium), an association of overthirty museums and universities.

    WebsiteFloyd Sweeting redesigned and expanded the virtualtour with two new IPIX bubbles, pop-up windows fornavigation, and sound clips from the ArtPhoneAcoustiguide Audio Tour. A staff Intranet was devel-oped for internal information, and a web page wasdesigned for the public as a gateway to electronicresources in the Reading Room. The department par-ticipated in a research study on museum and librarywebsites for the Council on Library and InformationResources. The Frick website continued to receivehigh ratings for its information and design.

    Plans were initiated for an institution-wide oral his-tory program, and Archivist Sally Brazil continued tolay the groundwork for organizing the architecturalplans and records of the institution. As in , thearchivist and the chief conservator identified deterio-rating historical negatives at the Collection for dupli-cation. Finally, the archivist worked closely with thechief librarian and chief conservator in preparing aproposal to the Helen Clay Frick Foundation forhousing the Frick Family Archives at the Frick ArtReference Library. A decision on the location of theseArchives is awaited.

    Information Systems and Technology (Institution-wide)

    The past year saw necessary improvements to theinformation technology and support infrastructuremanaged by Brian Nichols. These included rewiringand reconfiguration of systems on the Library’s sixthfloor, implementation of enhanced telecommutingcapabilities, increased network virus and firewall pro-tection, and additional access ports and an upgradedWindows version of FRESCO. In addition, computersystems for the Collection’s Sales and InformationDepartment and Museum Shop were upgraded,

    The creation of a fully searchable text and image databaseof , anonymous Italian artists represented in thePhotoarchive was undertaken with Global Art Systems.

  • photographs of European and American paintingsand drawings given by individual scholars, collectorsand dealers including Ellen Callmann, Everett Fahy,Marion T. Hirschler, Daniel Katz, Edgar Munhall,Donald Neiman, Tere J. Seeley, Melvin R. Seiden, andJohn Torson

    Purchase Program

    Amedeo Belluzzi, Palazzo Te a Mantova (Mirabilia Italiae, ), vols., Modena,

    Otto Benesch, The Drawings of Rembrandt, enl. and Eva Benesch, vols., London,

    Emmanuel Bénézit, Dictionnaire critique et documentaire despeintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs et graveurs de tous les temps et detous les pays par un groupe d’écrivains spécialistes français etétrangers, rev. ed., Jacques Busse, ed., vols., Paris,

    British Museum, Department of Prints and Drawings,Roman Baroque Drawings: c. to c., NicholasTurner, ed., vols., London,

    Nadja Leger, Suprématisme de Nadia Khodossievitch-Léger,text by Christophe Czwiklitzer, Basel,

    Carl Albert Loosli, Ferdinand Hodler, Leben, Werk undNachlass, vols., Bern, ‒

    Piero Pacini, ed., Esposizioni futuriste, Florence,[‒]. Facsimile reprint set of cataloguesand invitations for Futurist exhibitions held between and

    Paul Pfisterer, Signaturenlexikon (Dictionary of Signatures),Berlin/New York,

    Candido Portinari: Projeto cultural artistas do Mercosul, text by Antonio Callado, São Paulo,

    Karl Schuchhardt, Die Hannoverschen Bildhauer der Renaissance, Hannover,

    Werner Spies, ed., Claudia Loyall, comp., Richard Lindner: Catalogue Raisonné of Paintings, Watercolors, andDrawings, Munich,

    Joan Sureda, ed., Historia del arte español, Barcelona,

    Gianni Tettamanti, Galdino da Varese e il suo tempo,Varese,

    P. J. J. van Thiel, Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem,‒: A Monograph and Catalogue Raisonné, Diane L. Webb, trans., Doornspijk,

    International Criminal Police Organization (INTER-POL), Stolen Works of Art, CD-ROM, Paris, ‒

    photographs purchased by special order from theJoslyn Art Museum, Omaha; Jane Voorhees ZimmerliArt Museum of Rutgers University, New Brunswick;and Dallas Museum of Art

    photographs of Venetian sculpture and photographs of recently restored Italian sculpturepurchased from Anne Markham Schulz and RalphLieberman, respectively

    The Polish Rider, painted by Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn c. , was cleaned in .

  • On January , the second annual Henry Clay FrickFellows Dinner took its cue from the Victorian FairyPainting exhibition, which was about to close, andbegan the evening with a performance in the EastGallery by the renowned mentalist Marc Salem. Fol-lowing Mr. Salem’s jaw-dropping illusions, a wonder-ful dinner prepared by Jean-Georges Vongerichten wasserved in the Dining Room gallery. The Henry ClayFrick Fellows Dinner, which opens the Frick’s annualsocial calendar, has become a highpoint of the year.

    A host of events for Fellows and their friendsenlivened the calendar during . On February ,Director Samuel Sachs edified and entertained a fullhouse in the Music Room with his slide lecture“Fakes and Forgeries.” While this subject holdsperennial interest for private collectors, museums, andthe general public, Mr. Sachs was happy to report thatThe Frick Collection has been spared firsthand expe-rience with the problem. On May , the Frick threwwide its doors for Fellows and their guests to enjoythe Spring Party. The crowd danced to Peter Duchin’sorchestra, and sampled cigars and port on the porticoand strolled about the Fifth Avenue Garden. On theevening of June , Beth and Sam Sachs’s penthouseterrace took on a southwestern ambience when theyhosted an open house to celebrate the beginning ofsummer. The next evening, an opening reception for

    Fellows heralded the arrival of the exhibition TheMedieval Housebook, a unique opportunity to view theoperation of a fifteenth-century German castle. InJuly, the Fellows Tea series was inaugurated, withadditional teas in September and December. Theseintimate events with curators and the director offer anin-depth look at an aspect of the Collection or a par-ticular exhibition, followed by tea in the Director’sDining Room. The most popular of these offeringswas Associate Curator Susan Grace Galassi’s presenta-tion on Manet’s The Bullfight. November brought ahuge crowd to the annual Holiday Shopping Evening,which dovetailed with an all-members’ viewing of theWatteau and His World exhibition. The year closed onDecember 16 with the Sachs’s festive annual holidayopen house.

    MembershipIn , The Frick Collection made a major commit-ment to building and refining its membership pro-grams (Fellows, Friends, and Associates). DanielVincent was hired as associate manager of develop-ment for membership, having been senior membershipofficer at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, at a timewhen successive waves of blockbuster exhibitionsraised that institution’s membership to over ,.Mr. Vincent has energetically accepted the challenge

    Public Affairs,Development &Communications

    Special Event FundraisingOn October , more than two hundred supporters ofThe Frick Collection gathered for the Fête Galante and,on the occasion of the opening of the exhibition Wat-teau and His World, celebrated Mrs. Vincent Astor’sextraordinary contribution to the cultural life of NewYork City. Inspired by Watteau’s fête galante paint-ings, costumed players using period instruments pre-sented a lively eighteenth-century French tableau inthe Music Room during coc