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The Great Global Convergence The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six Big Era Six

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Page 1: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

The Great Global ConvergenceThe Great Global Convergence

1400 – 1800 C.E.1400 – 1800 C.E.

Big Era SixBig Era Six

Page 2: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

The Great Global ConvergenceThe Great Global Convergence

Welcome to

Big Era Six!

Big Era Six lasted from

1400 to 1800 CE.

97Era 6Era 3 Era 5Era 4 8

Today

Page 3: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

What was global convergence?What was global convergence?

Converge means to

come together.

Change accelerated when people,

resources, and ideas from the whole world

came together. That made the world more like we know it today—more modern!

Accelerate means to speed up.

Page 4: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

• Scholars translated books, taught Scholars translated books, taught others, and worked to gain knowledge. others, and worked to gain knowledge.

• Trade introduced people to new Trade introduced people to new products, increasing the demand for products, increasing the demand for luxuries.luxuries.

• Money moved across countryside and Money moved across countryside and continents in exchange for goods.continents in exchange for goods.

• Religious ideas were hotly debated, and Religious ideas were hotly debated, and missionaries spread religions to new missionaries spread religions to new lands.lands.

• Ruling groups debated laws, and military Ruling groups debated laws, and military struggles continued.struggles continued.

Exchanges that began in Exchanges that began in Afroeurasia during Big Era Five Afroeurasia during Big Era Five

continued to bring about change.continued to bring about change.

Page 5: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Sciences, philosophy, and the arts Sciences, philosophy, and the arts

flowered in Europe after 1400.flowered in Europe after 1400. ““Knowledge of the Ancients” Knowledge of the Ancients”

entered Europe during the entered Europe during the 1212thth century. Its origins century. Its origins were Greek, Arabic, were Greek, Arabic, Chinese, and Indian. It Chinese, and Indian. It contained all natural contained all natural sciences, math, applied sciences, math, applied sciences, and philosophy. sciences, and philosophy.

Scholars Scholars flocked to flocked to Spain in the Spain in the 1100s to 1100s to translate translate books from books from Arabic to Arabic to Latin.Latin.

Scholars represente

d the heritage of ancient and

eastern knowledge

as a “giant.”

Europeans had some catching up to do.

Page 6: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Rise of European UniversitiesRise of European Universities

Demand for education Demand for education stimulated the growth stimulated the growth of European of European universities in major universities in major towns.towns.

These universities These universities introduced new introduced new knowledge into the knowledge into the curriculum.curriculum.

Page 7: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Printing technology spread from China to Europe. Printing technology spread from China to Europe. European and Korean artisans invented printing European and Korean artisans invented printing

with moveable metal type at about the same time.with moveable metal type at about the same time.

• Gutenberg’s printing Gutenberg’s printing press with moveable press with moveable type could reproduce type could reproduce pages quickly, adding pages quickly, adding woodcut illustrations.woodcut illustrations.

• By the time he By the time he invented his invented his printing press, printing press, papermaking had papermaking had spread to Europe.spread to Europe.

• In the first century of In the first century of printing, thousands of printing, thousands of books were sold and books were sold and added to Europe’s added to Europe’s growing libraries.growing libraries.

Page 8: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Religious institutions and ideas Religious institutions and ideas changed with the timeschanged with the times

• International religious institutions developed, such as International religious institutions developed, such as Sufi orders in Islam, Catholic and Protestant missionary Sufi orders in Islam, Catholic and Protestant missionary orders in Christianity, and Muslim reformist groups in orders in Christianity, and Muslim reformist groups in Africa and Arabia. Africa and Arabia.

• Martin Luther challenged the Catholic Martin Luther challenged the Catholic Church’s authority and brought on the Church’s authority and brought on the Protestant Reformation after 1517. He Protestant Reformation after 1517. He translated the Bible into German. translated the Bible into German.

• Political leaders took sides, spawning Political leaders took sides, spawning European religious and national conflicts that European religious and national conflicts that lasted more than a century—to the mid-lasted more than a century—to the mid-1600s.1600s.• Neo-Confucian Neo-Confucian

doctrines were doctrines were challenged by Wang challenged by Wang Yangming (1472-1529) Yangming (1472-1529) and his followers, and his followers, emphasizing rational emphasizing rational thought and thought and reflection.reflection.

Page 9: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Asian commercial and political Asian commercial and political voyages on the seas voyages on the seas

continued.continued.

Ottoman naval vessels patrolled Ottoman naval vessels patrolled the Mediterranean, the Black the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, and the Indian Ocean.Sea, and the Indian Ocean.

Zheng He, Admiral Zheng He, Admiral of the Ming fleet, of the Ming fleet, made seven made seven voyages around the voyages around the Indian Ocean.Indian Ocean.

Indian Ocean trade Indian Ocean trade routes attracted routes attracted merchants as they had merchants as they had for centuries.for centuries.

Page 10: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Columbus 1492

Vasco da Gama 1498

Magellan 1519

After 1415, European mariners made voyages across the seas toward east and west. By 1519, Spanish ships had circumnavigated the globe.

Others set out in search of wealth and adventure.

Page 11: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Aztec Empire

Mayan States

Inca Empire

Spanish conquistadors ended Aztec and Spanish conquistadors ended Aztec and Inca rule and claimed their lands in Inca rule and claimed their lands in

Mesoamerica and Andean South America.Mesoamerica and Andean South America.

In 1492, two major empires

in the Americas, the Aztecs and the Inca, ruled many people.

Page 12: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

From 1400 to 1800 From 1400 to 1800 the rate of change the rate of change accelerated more accelerated more rapidly in many rapidly in many areas of human areas of human

activity.activity.Ideas & Ideas &

InventionsInventions

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Trade & Trade & ManufacturinManufacturin

gg

Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Global convergence sped up the Global convergence sped up the dynamic of world change.dynamic of world change.

Page 13: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

The Great The Great DyingDying

The Great Dying was caused by smallpox and other disease germs carried by the conquerors. Native Americans had no immunity to these diseases.

By some accounts, the population of the Americas fell from 22 million in 1500 to less than 1 million in 1640.

Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 14: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Europeans brought Europeans brought African slaves across the African slaves across the South Atlantic to labor in South Atlantic to labor in the colonies. The Atlantic the colonies. The Atlantic

slave trade grew from slave trade grew from about 1,000 per year in about 1,000 per year in

the early 1500s to nearly the early 1500s to nearly 80,000 per year at the 80,000 per year at the

end of the 1700s.end of the 1700s.

Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 15: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six
Page 16: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

The Columbian ExchangeThe Columbian Exchange

Plants, animals, and micro-organisms of Afroeurasia were Plants, animals, and micro-organisms of Afroeurasia were exchanged with those of the Americas across the oceans.exchanged with those of the Americas across the oceans.

Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 17: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

The Columbian ExchangeThe Columbian Exchange

New crops like New crops like potatoes and beans potatoes and beans spread and spread and improved nutrition improved nutrition worldwide.worldwide.

Luxury products like Luxury products like coffee, chocolate, coffee, chocolate, tea, tobacco, and tea, tobacco, and spices meant new spices meant new cultural habits for cultural habits for those with money those with money to spendto spend..

Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 18: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Global cash crops Global cash crops were grown on were grown on large plantations large plantations with slave labor.with slave labor.

Caribbean sugar plantation 1600s

Environmental changes resulted Environmental changes resulted from introducing new speciesfrom introducing new species

Livestock Livestock introduced to the introduced to the Americas changed Americas changed indigenous groups’ indigenous groups’ ways of life.ways of life.

Plains woman hunting buffalo 1800s

Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 19: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

miningboiling sugar

Deforestation intensified with growth in Deforestation intensified with growth in mining, shipbuilding, and plantation mining, shipbuilding, and plantation

agriculture.agriculture.Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 20: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

World population grew a lot World population grew a lot during Big Era Sixduring Big Era Six

Population change in millions, 1400-1800 CE

0

100

200

300

400

1400 CE 1600 CE 1800 CE

China

India

Europe

Sub-Saharan Africa

Latin America

The number of people in the world increased about 2 ½ times between 1400

and 1800 CE

Growth differed among world

regions.

Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 21: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Islam and Christianity spread Islam and Christianity spread with empires, trade, and with empires, trade, and

migration.migration.

• Traders and Sufi orders Traders and Sufi orders spread Islam in Africa and Asia.spread Islam in Africa and Asia.• The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire expanded into eastern Europe, expanded into eastern Europe, and Islam spread into the and Islam spread into the Balkans.Balkans.

• Catholic missionaries and Catholic missionaries and religious orders followed the religious orders followed the spread of empires in Asia, spread of empires in Asia, Africa, and the Americas.Africa, and the Americas.• Protestants colonized North Protestants colonized North America.America.

Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 22: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Printed books carried more Printed books carried more and more information.and more information.

Ideas & Ideas & InventionsInventions Page numbers, indexing,

and other citation systems became common.

Rich illustrations stimulated interest in literacy and learning.

Scientists shared detailed diagrams to replicate

experiments and instruments.

Sharp, accurate engraved

illustrations helped spread

innovative inventions rapidly.

Page 23: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler proved Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler proved that the earth was that the earth was notnot the center of the the center of the universe… but the Church opposed the universe… but the Church opposed the

idea.idea.You mean You mean I’m not the I’m not the center of center of

everything?everything?!!

Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition, apainting by Cristiano Banti, 1857

Page 24: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Maps Maps reflected reflected discovery discovery

and and colonization.colonization.

……and helped and helped exchanges of exchanges of knowledge knowledge

among people among people in the world.in the world.

Ideas & Ideas & InventionsInventions

Page 25: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Maritime Maritime technologies technologies

continued to improve continued to improve after 1500.after 1500.

•Mapping world wind Mapping world wind patterns and oceanic patterns and oceanic currents.currents.

•Ships were fully rigged Ships were fully rigged with sails for speed and with sails for speed and handling. handling.

•Ships grew larger & Ships grew larger & stronger (500 tons in stronger (500 tons in 1450 to 2000 tons by 1450 to 2000 tons by 1590).1590).

•The sextant greatly The sextant greatly improved navigation at improved navigation at sea.sea.

•Cannons and ammunition Cannons and ammunition improved.improved.

Ideas & Ideas & InventionsInventions

Page 26: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Trade encircled the Trade encircled the globe.globe.

Trade & Trade & ManufacturingManufacturing

Page 27: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Global artistic influences led Global artistic influences led to new European industries.to new European industries.

Ottoman and Persian Ottoman and Persian ceramics led to Holland’s ceramics led to Holland’s Delft stoneware industry.Delft stoneware industry.

Chinese influence led English Chinese influence led English manufacturers to try to make manufacturers to try to make “china” after they found the “china” after they found the right clay.right clay.

Trade & Trade & ManufacturingManufacturing

Chinese silks and Indian cottons Chinese silks and Indian cottons led to building of English and led to building of English and French textile factories.French textile factories.

Page 28: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

• Accountants learned double-Accountants learned double-entry bookkeeping with “Arabic” entry bookkeeping with “Arabic” numerals.numerals.

• Commercial law protected private Commercial law protected private property and investments.property and investments.

• More efficient bureaucracies and More efficient bureaucracies and taxation increased the power of taxation increased the power of the government’s purse.the government’s purse.

• European monarchs issued European monarchs issued charters to colonize overseas. charters to colonize overseas.

• Jurists experimented with civil Jurists experimented with civil and constitutional law. and constitutional law.

Banking and law served Banking and law served new demands.new demands.Trade & Trade &

ManufacturingManufacturing

Page 29: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Large bureaucratic states in Afroeurasia used gunpowder and artillery to expand

trade and win territory in several

parts of Afroeurasia.

Big Era Six was the

first age of global

empires.

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 30: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Persian, Indian, Turkish, Persian, Indian, Turkish, Chinese, Japanese, and Chinese, Japanese, and European artisans European artisans experimented with steel experimented with steel production for weapons.production for weapons.

Land and maritime Land and maritime empires battled over empires battled over control of trade, control of trade, resources, and resources, and territory.territory.

Gunpowder empires in Gunpowder empires in Asia, Africa, and Asia, Africa, and

Europe honed skills in Europe honed skills in production of artillery production of artillery

and handguns.and handguns.States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 31: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

States and Empires in 1519 CEStates and Empires in 1519 CE

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 32: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

States and Empires in 1600 CEStates and Empires in 1600 CE

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 33: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

States and Empires in 1714 CEStates and Empires in 1714 CE

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 34: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

States and Empires in 1804 CEStates and Empires in 1804 CE

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 35: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Monarchs claimed Monarchs claimed absolute power.absolute power.

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Louis XIVFrance

1643-1715

Catherine the Great Russia

1762-1796

Elizabeth IEngland

1558-1603

Philip IISpain

1556-1598

Xizong Ming China

1620-1627

Shah Abbas Persia

1587-1629

JahangirIndia

1605-1627

Süleyman Ottoman Empire

1520-1566

Page 36: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Charles I, beheaded in 1649 Charles I 1625-1649

King George III1760-1820

Rebellion in American Colonies 1776

Challenges to absolutism came from new Challenges to absolutism came from new elites with ideas about human rights.elites with ideas about human rights.

French Revolution1789

Louis XVI 1775-1793

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 37: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

• Environmental change accelerated with the Environmental change accelerated with the Columbian Exchange, intensified resource Columbian Exchange, intensified resource exploitation, and continuing deforestation.exploitation, and continuing deforestation.

• World population increased owing to World population increased owing to improved nutrition and migration. But Africa improved nutrition and migration. But Africa gained only slowly due to slavery, and native gained only slowly due to slavery, and native Americans suffered massive population Americans suffered massive population losses because of Old World disease losses because of Old World disease pathogens.pathogens.

• Science, technology and cultural Science, technology and cultural development expanded with the invention of development expanded with the invention of printing and new knowledge institutions—printing and new knowledge institutions—libraries, universities, and museums.libraries, universities, and museums.

Summary: global convergence led Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change.to accelerating world change.

Page 38: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Summary: global convergence led Summary: global convergence led to accelerating world change.to accelerating world change.

• World trade volume increased World trade volume increased dramatically and began to shift its center dramatically and began to shift its center from Asia to the Atlantic region.from Asia to the Atlantic region.

• States increased their power with States increased their power with gunpowder conquests and new sources of gunpowder conquests and new sources of mercantile wealth. mercantile wealth.

• In Europe rising economic elites enjoyed In Europe rising economic elites enjoyed growing wealth, which led them to growing wealth, which led them to challenge old landed aristocracies and challenge old landed aristocracies and monarchs. monarchs.

Page 39: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Is Big Era Six Is Big Era Six the Modern World?the Modern World?

Are we there yet?

ModernityModernity

Page 40: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

Historians argue whether the world Historians argue whether the world became “modern” in Big Era Six.became “modern” in Big Era Six.

Do you think human society

was “there yet” in Big Era

Six?

Wait until you see Big Era Seven!

“Modernity” means advanced, continuous human development in

science, technology, standards of living, and

social organization.

Page 41: The Great Global Convergence 1400 – 1800 C.E. Big Era Six

End of Big Era SixEnd of Big Era Six