the health effects of overweight and obesity
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DESCRIPTIONThe Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity. Speaker’s Slides and Message Points * Material Current as of June 16, 2005. Obesity is Still a Top Public Health Problem in America. Obesity can be deadly Obesity rates are soaring in America Obesity is related to many chronic health problems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity
Speakers Slidesand Message Points
* Material Current as of June 16, 2005
Obesity is Still a Top Public Health Problem in AmericaObesity can be deadlyObesity rates are soaring in AmericaObesity is related to many chronic health problemsObesity increases the risks of problems in pregnancy and childbirthOverweight has important health consequences in childrenThe costs associated with obesity are high and growing
Obesity Can Be DeadlyNewest estimate from CDC: 112,000 deaths each year of deaths occur in people younger than 70 years
The Science of Estimating Obesity-Related Deathsis Complex and EvolvingScientists keep working to describe full health effects of obesityRole of obesity in death is complexObesity is not reported reliably on death certificatesScientists must use complex modeling techniques to estimate obesity-related deaths
Estimates of Obesity-Related Deaths Have Changed Because of Newer Data, Different MethodsEarlier CDC estimates were based on older dataReflected health risks of 1970sLed to estimate of 365,000 deathsNew estimates used newer data, different methods May better reflect current health status of U.S. populationMay reflect lower death rates for obesity-related diseases like heart diseaseMethods accounted for decrease in obesity-related deaths among older adults
Risk Factors for Heart Disease Have Fallen Dramatically Over Past 40 Years (U.S. Adults 20 74): HIGH TOTAL CHOLESTEROLHigh total cholesterol level (>=240 mg/dL)2005 American Medical AssociationJAMA, April 20, 2005-Vol293, No. 15Risk Factors by BMI Group
Risk Factors for Heart Disease Have Fallen Dramatically Over Past 40 Years (U.S. Adults 20 74):HIGH BLOOD PRESSUREHigh blood pressure (systolic >=140 mm Hg or diastolic >=90 mm Hg2005 American Medical AssociationJAMA, April 20, 2005-Vol293, No. 15Risk Factors by BMI Group
Risk Factors for Heart Disease Have Fallen Dramatically Over Past 40 Years (U.S. Adults 20 74):SMOKINGSmoking2005 American Medical AssociationJAMA, April 20, 2005-Vol293, No. 15Risk Factors by BMI Group
Obesity Rates are Soaring in AmericaAdult obesity has doubled since 1980Since 1990 rates have jumped in every state in Nation1990 2003
Obesity* Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1990
Obesity Is Related to Many Chronic Health ProblemsType 2 diabetesHypertensionHeart diseaseStrokeBreast cancerColon cancer
ArthritisGallbladder diseasePhysical disabilitySleep disturbancesBreathing problems
Obesity Increases Risks of Problems in Pregnancy and Childbirth Infant deathInfant birth defectsDelivery by cesarean sectionSlow or difficult labor or deliveryDiabetes and high blood pressure in pregnancy InfertilityMenstrual problems
Percentage of Overweight U.S. Children and Adolescents is Soaring** >95th percentile for BMI by age and sex based on 2000 CDC BMI-for-age growth charts**Data from 1963-65 for children 6-11 years of age and from 1966-70 for adolescents 12-17 years of ageSource: National Center for Health Statistics
Overweight Has Important Health Consequences in Children70% chance of being overweight as adultsChildhood onset of type 2 diabetesFace future risk of serious complications: kidney disease, blindness, amputationsChildren born in 2000 have a high risk of getting diabetes in their lifetimes:33% of males39% of femalesRisk factors for heart disease61% of overweight 5-10-year olds have at least one risk factor26% have two or more risk factors
Costs Associated with Obesity are High and GrowingDirect health costs attributable to obesity estimated to be$52 billion in 1995 $75 billion in 2003Hospital costs related to childhood overweight have tripled in last 20 years
Three Key Factors Are Related to the Onset of ObesityPoor dietary practicesDecreased physical activityIncreased inactivity
Americans Food Practices are Shifting DramaticallyReduced frequency of family meals Increased fast food consumptionIncreased portion sizeIncreased consumption of soft drinks (from 27 to 50 gallons/year from 1972-1999)Restrained eating, meal skipping
Physical Education in High Schools is on the Decline
Participation in daily P.E. classes, 9-12th graders:
Heavy TV Viewing Among Teens Has Increased Dramatically (NHES Youth Aged 12-17 in 1967-70 and NLSY Youth Aged 12-17 in 1990)TV Hours (Youth Report)
As TV Time Increases, So Do Rates of Overweight in Teenagers (NHES Youth Aged 12-17 in 1967-70 and NLSY Youth Aged 10-15 in 1990)TV Hours Per Day (Youth Report)
Scientists Agree on Steps to Reduce Obesity and Promote HealthEat a healthy diet(e.g., 2 cups fruit and 2 and 1/2 cups vegetables each day, based on 2,000-calorie diet)Get regular physical activity(e.g., for adults, at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity 5 days per week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous activity 3 days a week)Go for regular visits to the doctor to monitor risk factorsif you have an obesity-related condition and are trying to lose weight
**Despite the recent controversy in the media about how many deaths are related to obesity in the United States, the simple fact remains: obesity is still a top public health problem in America.It can be deadly.Obesity rates are soaring.Obesity is related to many chronic health problemsObesity increases the risks of problems in pregnancy and childbirthOverweight has important health consequences in childrenThe costs associated with obesity are high and growing*Obesity can be deadly. The most recent study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 112,000 deaths are associated with obesity each year.Moreover, three-quarters of these deaths occur in people age 70 or younger.
*What makes our public health job challenging is that the science of estimating obesity-related deaths is complex and evolving.Scientists around the country are working to improve the methods for describing the full health effects of obesity, including how many deaths are caused by obesity.Developing these explanations is not always easy because the role of obesity in death is complex.Obesity is not reported reliably on death certificatesSo, scientists must use complex modeling techniques to estimate obesity-related deaths
*CDCs earlier estimates of obesity-related deaths were based on data that reflected the health risks that people experienced in the 1970s. Those older data led to an estimate of 365,000 deaths. CDCs latest estimates used different methods and, most importantly, newer data that more accurately reflect the current health status of the U.S. population. The decline in obesity-related mortality between then and now (reflecting mortality data through 2000) may be due to lower mortality rates of obesity-associated diseases such as heart disease. For example, better drug management of high blood pressure and cholesterol may have resulted in fewer people dying today as a result of obesity.
*High total cholesterol levels in adults have declined markedly, especially during the 1980s.*High blood pressure levels also have fallen in adults, with steep declines seen during both the 1970s and 1980s.*And smoking rates have declined steadily for all weight categories during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.*Obesity rates are soaring in America. Since 1990 adult obesity rates have jumped in every state in the Nation.About 60 million adults, or 30 percent of the adult population, are now obese, which represents a doubling of the rate since 1980.
*With obesity comes a whole series of health conditions and diseases, including Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, breast cancer, colon cancer, arthritis, gallbladder disease, physical disability, sleep disturbances, and breathing problems.
*Obesity also increases the risks of problems in pregnancy and childbirth. These include: infant death, infant birth defects, delivery by cesarean section, slow or difficult labor or delivery, diabetes and high blood pressure in pregnancy, infertility, and menstrual problems.
*Also of concern is the impact that the rapid increase in childhood-onset obesity is likely to have on disease rates.The number of overweight children is higher than ever before. More than 16 percent of children aged 6 to 19 are overweight, a rate that has doubled since 1980.
*Children who are overweight are at increased risk of becoming overweight and obese adults. In fact, overweight children have a 70 percent chance of being overweight as adults.Overweight children have their own health problems. Were seeing children suffering from so-called adult diseases tied to overweight, such as Type 2 diabetes. Overweight children with Type 2 diabetes are at risk of suffering the serious complications of diabetes as adults, such as kidney disease, blindness, and amputations.In fact, more than one out of three children born in 2000 33% of boys and 39% of girls are estimated to get diabetes in their lifetimes.Just as striking, 61 percent of overweight 5-to-10-year-olds already have at least one risk factor for heart disease, and 26 percent have two or more risk factors. *The costs to society of obesity and overweight are high and growing.The direct health costs attributable to obesity were estimated to be $52 billion in 1995, increasing to $75 billion in 2003.Hospital costs related to childhood obesity alone have tripled in the last 20 years.
*There are three key reasons for todays obesity epidemic:Poor dietary practicesDecreased physical activityIncreased inactivity *Americans food practices are shifting dramatically:Reduced frequency of famil