the history of photography by meg dean. pinhole camera a pinhole camera is a camera containing no...

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THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY

THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHYBY MEG DEANPinhole CameraA pinhole camera is a camera containing no lens. In a light proof box with a small hold on one side of the box. Light from a scene passes through this single point and projects an inverted image on the opposite side of the box.Joseph NiepceJoseph was the worlds first photographer. French born 1765, commenced research and experimented in 1816 and finally produced the first ever permanent image 8 years later. In 1827 Neipce commenced an association with Louise Daguerre. They established a partnership in 1829 to improve Neipces helio-graphic process. Very little development took place before his death in 1833. Louis DaguerreLouis spent his early life working in theatre, he made use of the camera abscura to developed the diorama. After his death he found by accident that mercury vapour would develop a late night image on a silvered plate that had been treated with iodine vapor. The image could be fixed with a mixture of salt solution. The early problems of the daguerreotype were long exposure, reversed images and no copies could be made. (use of daguerreotype lasted until 1850s). Improvement by other photographers reduced exposure times making portraiture possible. The life of the daguerreotype process was shortened by the development of the negative to positive process of Fox-Talbot.

William Henry Fox-TalbotWilliam born in the 1800, introduced the negative to positive processes. Henrys photographic career started with the use of the camera obscure for sketching. 1834 was the year he began producing fixed images on paper (=negatives). In comparison to the daguerreotype Williams prints were very grainy, however Talbot made astonishing research, which reduced exposure times. The calotype was patented in 1841 and allowed the production of many positive prints from one negative print. His pioneering work is the basis of photography as we know it to be today.Richard Leach MaddoxMaddox is created with the development of the modern gelatin-silver halide emulsion (1871). He didnt patent his work and received no gain from one of the most significant developments of photographic history-the basis of all-modern photographic sensitized material. He used the wet collodain process but suffered from the fumes of the chemicals.George EastmanGeorge WAS THE FOUNDER OF THE KODAK ORGANISATION. HE BECAME INTERESTED IN PHOTOGRAPHY BUT WAS DISSATISFIED WITH THE AMOUNT OF EQUIPMENT NEEDED. HE READ OF THE USE OF DRY PLATES USING A GELATIN EMULSION AND COMMENCED WORKING WITH THEM. HE DEVELOPED AN EMULSION COATING MACHINE FOR DRY PLATES AND WENT INTO COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION. MANY OTHER EXCITING FOLLOWED. IN 1888 THE NO. 1 KODAK CAMERA PRELOADED WITH FILM WENT ON THE MARKET, IT WAS RETURNED TO THE FACTORY FOR PROCESSING. OTHER IMPORTANT INVENTIONS FOLLOWED, TRANSPARENT ROLL FILM AND DAYLIGHT LOADING CAMERAS.Edwin Land IN 1947 EDWIN LAND INTRODUCED A CAMERA WHICH COULD PRODUCE A PHOTOGRAPH IN ONE MINUTE. BY 1967 MANY PEOPLE OWNED THE POLAROID LAND CAMERA. RESEARCH LED TO THE IMAGE BEING VISIBLE 10-20 SECONDS AFTER EXPOSURE. POLAROID LAND FILM COMBINES THE NEGATIVE EMULSION AND POSITIVE PAPER IN ONE PACKAGE. THE IMAGE IS TRANS FERRED FROM THE ONE TO THE OTHER BY CHEMICALS RATHER THAN LIGHT, THE IMAGE IS FORMED BY THE UNEXPOSED SILVER CRYSTALS. GENERALLY NO NEGATIVE IS PRODUCED. THE AREA OF INSTANT PHOTOGRAPHY HAS CONTINUED TO EXPAND FROM LAND'S INITIAL WORK TO THE AREAS OF BLACK AND WHITE AND COLOUR, AND EVEN MOTION PICTURES.

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