The lakes handbook lake restoration and rehabilitation
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- The Lakes Handbook VOLUME 2 L AKE RESTORATION AND REHABILITATION EDITED BY P.E.OSullivan AND C.S.Reynolds
- THE LAKES HANDBOOK Volume 2
- Also available from Blackwell Publishing: The Lakes Handbook Volume 1 Limnology and Limnetic Ecology Edited by P.E. OSullivan & C.S. Reynolds
- The Lakes Handbook VOLUME 2 L AKE RESTORATION AND REHABILITATION EDITED BY P.E.OSullivan AND C.S.Reynolds
- 2005 by Blackwell Science Ltd a Blackwell Publishing company BLACKWELL PUBLISHING 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia The rights of P.E. OSullivan and C.S. Reynolds to be identied as the Authors of the Editorial Material in this Work have been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. First published 2005 by Blackwell Science Ltd Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The lakes handbook / edited by P.E. OSullivan and C.S. Reynolds. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-632-04795-X (hardback, v.1 : alk. paper) 1. Limnology. 2. Lake ecology. I. OSullivan, P.E. (Patrick E.) II. Reynolds, Colin S. QH96.L29 2003 551.482dc21 2003000139 A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Set in 9 on 11.5 pt Trump Mediaeval by SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong Kong Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by TJ International, Padstow, Cornwall The publishers policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: www.blackwellpublishing.com
- Contents List of Contributors, vii Part I General Issues 1 ON THE VALUE OF LAKES, 3 Patrick OSullivan 2 THE ASSAULT ON THE QUALITY AND VALUE OF LAKES, 25 Wilhelm Ripl and Klaus-Dieter Wolter Part II Regional Studies 3 THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES: A LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES FOCUS, 65 Marlene S. Evans 4 LAKE WASHINGTON, 96 W.T. Edmondson 5 LAKES OF NORTHERN EUROPE, 117 Heikki Simola and Lauri Arvola 6 EUROPEAN ALPINE LAKES, 159 Martin T. Dokulil 7 LAKE BAIKAL AND OTHER GREAT LAKES OF ASIA, 179 Lyudmila G. Butorina 8 LAKES IN ARID ENVIRONMENTS, 200 W.D. Williams 9 FLOODPLAIN LAKES AND RESERVOIRS IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL SOUTH AMERICA: LIMNOLOGY AND HUMAN IMPACTS, 241 John M. Melack Part III Human Impact on Specic Lake Types 10 EUTROPHICATION OF SHALLOW TEMPERATE LAKES, 261 G.L. Phillips
- vi contents 11 EUTROPHICATION OF SHALLOW TROPICAL LAKES, 279 Patrick L. Osborne 12 RESERVOIRS AND OTHER ARTIFICIAL WATER BODIES, 300 Milan Straskraba Part IV Lake and Catchment Models 13 THE EXPORT COEFFICIENT APPROACH TO PREDICTION OF NUTRIENT LOADINGS: ERRORS AND UNCERTAINTIES IN THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE, 331 Helen M. Wilson 14 THE PHOSPHORUS LOADING CONCEPT AND THE OECD EUTROPHICATION PROGRAMME: ORIGIN, APPLICATION AND CAPABILITIES, 354 Walter Rast and Jeffrey A. Thornton 15 MODELS OF LAKES AND RESERVOIRS, 386 Sven-Erik Jrgensen 16 THE ASSESSMENT, MANAGEMENT AND REVERSAL OF EUTROPHICATION, 438 Helmut Klapper 17 BIOMANIPULATION IN SHALLOW LAKES: CONCEPTS, CASE STUDIES AND PERSPECTIVES, 462 S. Harry Hosper, Marie-Louise Meijer, R.D. Gulati and Ellen van Donk 18 RESTORING ACIDIFIED LAKES: AN OVERVIEW, 483 Lennart Henrikson, Atle Hindar and Ingemar Abrahamsson Part V Legal Frameworks 19 THE FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING LAKES IN THE USA, 501 Thomas Davenport 20 NORDIC LAKESWATER LEGISLATION WITH RESPECT TO LAKES IN FINLAND AND SWEDEN, 511 Marianne Lindstrm 21 THE PROBLEM OF REHABILITATING LAKES AND WETLANDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE CASE EXAMPLE OF EAST AFRICA, 523 F.W.B. Bugenyi 22 SOUTH AFRICATOWARDS PROTECTING OUR LAKES, 534 G.I. Cowan Index, 543
- Contributors Lennart Henrikson WWF Sweden, Fresh- water Programme, Ulriksdals Slott, SE-170 81 Solna, Sweden AtleHindar NorwegianInstituteforWaterRe- search, Regional Ofce South, Televeien 3, N- 4879 Grimstad, Norway S. Harry Hosper Institute for Inland Water Management and Wastewater Treatment (RIZA), PO Box 17, 8200 AA, Lelystad, The Netherlands Sven-Erik Jrgensen The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute A, Section of Environmental Chemistry, University Park 2, 2100 Copenhagen , Denmark Helmut Klapper Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig-Halle Ltd, Department of In- land Water Research, Brckstrae 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany Marianne Lindstrm Finnish Environment Institute, PO Box 140, 00251 Helsinki, Finland Marie-Louise Meijer Waterboard Hunze en Aas, P.O. Box 164, 9640 AD Veendam, The Netherlands John M. Melack Bren School of Environ- mental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Patrick L. Osborne International Center for Tropical Ecology, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, USA Ingemar Abrahamsson Medins Sj- och biologi AB, Fretagsvgen 2, 435 33 Mlnlycke, Sweden Lauri Arvola Lammi Biological Station, Uni- versity of Helsinki, Fl-16900 Lammi, Finland F.W.B. Bugenyi Department of Zoology, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda, and Fisheries Research Institute (FIRI), PO Box 343 Jinja, Uganda Lyudmila G. Butorina Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences, Borok, Nekouz District, Yaroslavl Region 152742, Russia G.I. Cowan Department of Environmental Af- fairs and Tourism, Private Bag X447, Pretoria 0001, South Africa Thomas Davenport EPA Region 5, WW16-J, 77 W Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604, USA Martin T. Dokulil Institute of Limnology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Mondseestrasse 9, A-5310 Mondsee, Austria W.T.Edmondson lateofDepartmentofZoolo- gy, University of Washington, NJ-15, Seattle, Washington 981965, USA Marlene S. Evans National Water Research Institute, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Sakatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 3H5, Canada Ramesh D. Gulati Netherlands Institute of EcologyCentre for Limnology, Rijksstraatweg 6, 3631 AC Nieuwersluis, The Netherlands
- viii contributors Patrick OSullivan School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 4AA, UK G.L. Phillips Centre for Risk and Forecasting, Environment Agency, Kings Meadow House, Reading RG1 8DQ, UK Walter Rast Aquatic Station, Department of Biology, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA Wilhelm Ripl Technische Universitt Berlin, Fachgebiet Limnologie, Hellriegelstrasse 6, D- 14195 Berlin, Germany Heikki Simola Karelian Institute, University of Joensuu, PO Box 111, Fl-80101 Joensuu, Finland Milan Straskraba late of The Academy of SciencesoftheCzechRepublicandtheUniversity of South Bohemia, Cesk Budejovice, Czech Republic. Jeffrey A. Thornton Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission, PO Box 1607, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53187, USA Ellen Van Donk Netherlands Institute of Ecology Centre for Limnology, Rijksstraatweg 6, 3631 AC Nieuwersluis, The Netherlands W.D. Williams late of Department of Environ- mentalBiology,UniversityofAdelaide,Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia Helen M. Wilson School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 4AA, UK Klaus-DieterWolter Technische Universitt Berlin, Fachgebiet Limnologie, Department of Limnology, Hellriegelstrasse 6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany
- Part I GeneralIssues
- 1.1 INTRODUCTION In Volume 1 of this book, we examined: 1 lakephysicalandchemicalprocesses(thenature and origin of lakes themselves, the relationship be- tween lakes and their surrounding water table and with their catchments, lake hydrodynamics and sedimentation); 2 limnetic ecology (the nature and role of the major classes of organisms found in freshwater lakesphytoplankton, zooplankton, macroben- thos, pelagic microbes and shas well as whole lake communities). In this volume, we discuss the general impact of human societies upon lakes, as well as that experi- enced by lakes of selected parts of the Earth North America (and Lake Washington in particular), the Nordic and Alpine regions of Europe, Lake Baikal (by volume by far the worlds largest lake), the arid zone in general, and Latin America. We then go on to examine the problems created by human use of various different kinds of lakeshallow bodies of both the temperate zone and the tropics, reservoirs and other articial bodies. The volume then continues with an examina- tion of measures developed over the past 30 years in order to combat eutrophication (the most wide- spread environmental problem created by human impact on lakes, on a catchment scale), especially the use of catchment models to predict nutrient loadings from the land upon lakes, and of steady state and dynamic models better to understand the problem itself. This is then followed by a discus- sion of the general measures currently available to reverse eutrophication, and of one of these in particular (biomanipulation), and also those employed in order to restore acidied lakes. Final- ly, we give various authors the opportunity to de- scribe current and recent attempts to combat human impact on lakes, and to restore them to some state resembling stability, in various coun- tries or regions (North America, Nordic Europe, East Africa, South Africa), in the hope that these experiences may prove useful, if not inspirational, to colleagues elsewhere. In all of this, as also in Volume 1, the value of lakestheir immense scientic interest, their importance as threatened habitats, and for conser- vation of endangered species, their extreme impor- tance to the human community as a resourceis implicitly accepted as a given, in that to us, as limnologists, the value and importance of lakes is so overwhelmingly and blindingly obvious as to need no further amplication. However, if we, as scientists, are to be accountable to the society which pays our salaries, and which funds our re- search (a function which is today increasingly de- manded of us), and if we are to explain the value of whatwedotoawidersocietywhichhasneverbeen exposed to the fascinations of limnetic ecology, we need to be able to state explicitly: 1 just what it is that we nd so valuable (and in- deed marvellous) about these beautiful but some- times tantalising bodies of water; 2 just what it is we are restoring, when we propose thatwerestorelakestosomemoredesirablecondi- tion, and to spell this out in terms which involve using language with which we ourselves, as scien- tists, may be less comfortable. This may be because Science, because of its desire for objectivity, is inadequate to teach us all we need to know about valuing nature. Yet value in nature, like value in human life, is something we can see and experience (Rolston 1997, p. 61, my emphasis). 1 OntheValueofLakes PATRICK OSULLIVAN
- 4 p. osullivan Paradoxically, in attempting to do this, we may nd ourselves reaching out beyond the laboratory, into the wider community, and enlisting the support of the growing number of our fellow citi- zens who may lack sophisticated limnological knowledge, but who share our concern for nature in general, and hence for lakes. 1.2 LAKES AS A RESOURCE The human assault upon lakes is discussed in de- tail in the next chapter. Here, in order to begin dis- cussion of lakes as a resource in general, Table 1.1 depictsseveralofthemajorhumanusesoflakes,as related to water quality. It should be noted that the terms oligo- and eutrophic are used here according to their original meanings (i.e. in order to signify lake nutrient status or concentration [respec- tively, poorly and well-nourished; Hutchinson 1969, 1973; Rohde 1969; Edmondson 1991; OSul- livan 1995], and not lake biological productivity). Thus, for drinking water, oligotrophic waters, which are normally, by denition, cooler and more oxygenated, and therefore potentially con- tain fewer pathogenic microorganisms, and fewer plankton, and thus require less treatment, there- fore incurring fewer costs, are preferred. For bathing, mesotrophic waters are preferable to eu- trophic, if not required, although it is sometimes possible to share the latter with blooms of benign phytoplankton, provided other distractions are available (e.g. the Wansee in August). Non-bathing water sports are tolerable in eutrophic waters, but other recreational uses, particularly those where the aesthetic experience of lakes is as important, or more important, than their direct use, surely demand oligotrophic or mesotrophic waters, with their greater clarity, and general absence of water blooms and other nui- sances. Fish culture (in the developed world, at least) depends on the species involved, with salmonids preferring those oligotrophic waters originally shed (in Britain, anyway) only by gen- tlemen. Cyprinids, however, are tolerant of low- land, eutrophic waters, usually known (in that country) as coarse sheries, with all that the term implies regarding both nutrient and social status. The carp ponds of the Trebon district of South Bohemia (Czech Republic) represent an early de- velopment of what is often nowadays thought of as a new idea (i.e. permaculture; Mollison 1988), but Table1.1 Lake and reservoir use according to trophic status (after Bernhardt 1981) Use Required/preferredwater Tolerablewaterquality quality Drinking water Oligotrophic Mesotrophic Bathing Mesotrophic Slightlyeutrophic Recreation(non-bathing) Oligotrophic Mesotrophic Watersports(non-bathing) Mesotrophic Eutrophic Fishculture: salmonids Oligotrophic Mesotrophic cyprinids Eutrophic Commercial fisheries Mesotrophic, eutrophic Eutrophic Landscaping Mesotrophic Eutrophic Irrigation Eutrophic Stronglyeutrophic Industrialprocesses Mesotrophic Eutrophic Transport Mesotrophic Highlyeutrophic Energy(generation) Oligotrophic Mesotrophic Energy(cooling) Mesotrophic Eu...
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