the middle ages 400-1400 5 th to the 15 th centuries three periods early middle ages 500-1000 high...
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- The Middle Ages 400-1400 5 th to the 15 th Centuries Three Periods Early Middle Ages 500-1000 High Middle Ages1000-1250 Late Middle Ages1250-1500
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- The BeginningEarly Middle Ages Decline of Roman Empire Rise of Northern Europe New forms of government Heavy Romanization (religion, language, laws, architecture, government) Latin- medium aevum means middle age and is source of English word medieval
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- Early Middle Ages Dark Ages (500 CE- 1000 CE)- scholars named this as a time when the forces of darkness (barbarians) overwhelmed the forces of light (Romans) Rise of influence of Barbarians as Roman Emperors had granted barbarian mercenaries land with the Roman Empire in return for military service and it was these barbarians who eventually became the new rulers
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- Warriors and Warbands in the West Period of change in Western Europe as barbarians were migrating in to areas given up by Romans As more barbarians moved westward, other tribes were forced to move Groups categorized by languages and little else Celtic: Gauls, Britons, Bretons Germanic: Goths, Frank, Vandals, Saxons Slavic: Wends
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- Expanding Influence of the Church Christian Church has become an important political, economic, spiritual and cultural force in Europe Leading officials of Church were the Pope and Patriarch Banning of heresy (holding beliefs that contradict the official religion) Conversion by force Eventually in 11 th Century, Church split into two independent branches Eastern Orthodox (Greek) based in Constantinople and Roman Catholic in Rome
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- The Medieval Catholic Church F illed the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. Monasticism: St. Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Provided schools for the children of the upper class. Inns, Hospitals, Refuge in times of war. Libraries & Scriptoria to copy books and Illuminate manuscripts. Monks Missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
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- Slaves and Serfs Slaves made up of conquered peoples Some treated harshly, while other were treated fairly Rural slaves became serfs, who worked the land and provided labour for owner (in return from protection) Set up for system of feudalism
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- Feudalism Increasing violence and lawless countryside Weak turn to the strong for protection, strong want something from the weak Feudalism= relationship between those ranked in a chain of association (kings, vassals, lords, knights, serfs) Feudalism worked because of the notion of mutual obligation, or voluntary co-operation from serf to noble A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service Key terms Fief = land given by a lord in return for a vassals military service and oath of loyalty Serfs= aka villeins or common peasants who worked the Lords land Tithe = tax that serfs paid (tax or rent) Corvee= condition of unpaid labor by serfs (maintaining roads or ditches on a manor)
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- The Road to Knighthood KNIGHT SQUIRE PAGE
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- Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior There was not an authentic Medieval Code of Chivalry as such - it was a moral system which went beyond rules of combat and introduced the concept of Chivalrous conduct - qualities idealized by knighthood, such as bravery, courtesy, honor, and gallantry toward women. The Medieval Code of Chivalry was understood by all but a Code of Chivalry was documented in The Song of Roland in the early Medieval period of William the Conqueror. It describes the 8th century Knights and battles of the Emperor Charlemagne and has been described as Charlemagne's Code of Chivalry. The idea of the Code of Chivalry were emphasized by the oaths that were sworn in Knighthood ceremonies. These sacred oaths were combined with the ideals of chivalry and with strict rules of etiquette and conduct. The idea and ideals of a Medieval Code of Chivalry was publisized in the poems, ballads, writings and literary works of Medieval authors.
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- Birth of Modern Languages Development of Middle Ages New languages born through migration, resettlement, conflict and changes Old English (Anglo Saxon) began to incorporate words borrowed from Latin and Old French, Old German and Old Norse Roots of contemporary Spanish, Italian and other Romance languages
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- William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 William, the Duke of Normandy, was the cousin of Edward, the King of England. When Edward died without children in 1066, the throne was given to Harold Godwinson, an English earl. But William claimed that before his death, Edward had promised the throne to him. William therefore planned to assume his role as heir and take up the throne. William squashed and buried any thought of the throne going to Harold on October 14th, 1066. He landed 7000 troops and advanced out of the beach of Pevensey, doing most of this while Harold was completely unaware. William's Army decisively defeated the Saxon Army. In 10 hours time he rendered any Saxon retaliation virtually impossible. South and Southeastern England were shortly torched and destroyed at William's command. Nothing remained but a trail of horses and human corpses. Saxon peoples of England struggled for 21 years against William in futile attempts at rebellion.
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- Williams Contributions to England 1.Rule of Law Established on his throne where William was the absolute authority 2.New Language and Culture: French 3.Introduction of Feudal System in England 4.Anglo-Saxon lands and Dominance given to Norman Lords. 5.Doomsday Book
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- Doomsday Book To further extend his grip on England, William I ordered that a book be made containing information on who owned what throughout the country. This book would also tell him who owed him what in tax and because the information was on record, nobody could dispute or argue against a tax demand. This is why the book brought doom and gloom to the people of England - hence "Domesday Book". The decision of what someone owed was final - rather like Judgement Day when your soul was judged for Heaven or Hell.
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- Evolution of Englands Political System Henry I: Williams son. Set up a Court System. Exchequer Dept. of Royal Finances. Henry II: Established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. Grand jury. Trial by jury.
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- Magna Carta, 1215 King John I Runnymeade Great Charter Monarchs were not above the law. Kings had to consult a council of advisors. Kings could not tax arbitrarily.
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- The Beginnings of the British Parliament Great Council: Middle Class Merchants, Townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr.,burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. Eventually called Parliament. By 1400, two chambers evolved: o House of Lords Nobles & Clergy. o House of Commons Knights and Burgesses.
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- Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade
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- Medieval Universities
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- Oxford University
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- Famous Oxford Scholars Roger Bacon, Philosopher / Franciscan Friar Thomas Bradwardine, Archbishop of Canterbury Simon Bredon, mathematician William of Ockham, philosopher and theologian Duns Scotus, philosopher and theologian John Wyclif (Wycliffe), religious reformer
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- Medieval Guilds Gui ld Hal l Commercial Monopoly: Controlled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices
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- Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmiths Shop
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- Crest of a Coopers Guild
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- New Ideas and Culture Effects of Crusades Guild and communes Towns, cities and manors New thinkers (Thomas Aquinas) and writers Creation of universities New art and architecture (gothic, castles) Knighthood and chivalry Courtly entertainment (fables, playwrights)
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- Late Middle Ages Black Death A devastating worldwide pandemic that first struck Europe in the mid 14 th century Killed about a third of Europes population, an estimated 34 million people.
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- The Bubonic Plague Called black death because of striking symptom of the disease, in which sufferers' skin would blacken due to hemorrhages under the skin Spread by fleas and rats painful lymph node swellings called buboes buboes in the groin and armpits, which ooze pus and blood. damage to the skin and underlying tissue until they were covered in dark blotches Most victims died within four to seven days after infection EFFECTS Caused massive depopulation and change in social structure Weakened influence of Church Originated in Asia but was blamed on Jews and lepers
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- 100 Years War 1337-1453 Fighting started in the Hundred Years' War because the Kings of England - descendants of William the Conqueror who still spoke French - wanted to rule France as well. France was temptingly weak and divided. It began with the English King already ruling a large part of France it ended with him ruling hardly any, but with what is now Nord - Pas de Calais split off under foreign rule for several centuries.
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