the middle ages 500 - 1500 ap european history. the germanic kingdoms roman empire overran by...

Download The Middle Ages 500 - 1500 AP European History. The Germanic Kingdoms Roman empire overran by Germanic groups with repeated invasions and constant warfare

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  • The Middle Ages 500 - 1500 AP European History
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  • The Germanic Kingdoms Roman empire overran by Germanic groups with repeated invasions and constant warfare Breakdown of trade: money became scarce Cities abandoned no longer center of economy or administration Population became rural Decline of literacy priests and other church officials were the few that were literate Breakup of unified empire language began to change. No longer Latin End of Democracy
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  • Rome Unified by loyalty to public government and written law Orderly government Germanic Family ties and personal loyalty People lived in small communities governed by unwritten rules and traditions Ruled by a Chief who led a band or warriors loyal only to him not some emperor theyd never seen
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  • European Empire Evolves After the decline of the Roman Empire small kingdoms sprang up all over Europe The largest and the strongest was controlled by the Franks Lead by Clovis first Christian king Area that is now France Greatest king was Charlemagne most powerful king in Western Europe Reunited large part of the Western Roman Empire encouraged learning
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  • Invasions Treaty of Verdun divided the Empire into three kingdoms Magyars nomadic people from Asia Vikings Farmers and traders from Scandinavia Were both raiders and settlers 911 CE given part of northern France Normandy to settle Sailed inland and invaded into Russia Invasions seriously disrupted Western Europe
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  • Marked by a lack of central political authority Local lords are bound to a king by ties of loyalty
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  • Feudalism Manors The lords estate The lord provided the serfs with housing, farmland and protection Serfs tended the lands, cared for the animals, maintained the estate
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  • Feudalism Manors Peasants rarely traveled more than 25 miles from the manor Was home to 15 30 families Self-Sufficient community Peasants heavily taxed, including a tithe a church tax of 1/10 their income
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  • A violent society Nobles constantly fought each other Defend estates Seize new territories Increase wealth Kept Europe fragmented Glorification of warriors
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  • The Age of Chivalry The mounted Knights were the most important part of an Army Professional solders main obligation was to serve in battle Rewarded with land Devoted lives to war
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  • The Age of Chivalry Chivalry a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters 1.His feudal lord 2.His Heavenly Lord 3.His Lady Meant to protect the weak and the poor Be loyal, brave, and courteous
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  • The Age of Chivalry Sons of nobles began training at an early age for knighthood Page at 7 they were sent to another lord to be trained Squire at 14 they act as a servant to a knight Knight- at 21 they become a knight and gain experience in local wars and tournaments
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  • The Age of Chivalry Tournaments mock battles that combined recreation and combat training Fierce and bloody competitions
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  • Power of the Church While the Roman Empire declined the Church remained Missionaries succeeded in spreading Christianity Adapted to rural conditions by building monasteries religious communities Rules established by Benedict Became best educated communities Missionaries succeeded in spreading Christianity Adapted to rural conditions by building monasteries religious communities Rules established by Benedict Became best educated communities
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  • Power of the Church Provided a unifying set of spiritual beliefs and rituals Created a system of justice to guide peoples conduct Cannon Law the law of the church excommunication banishment interdict the denial of sacraments - important religious ceremonies (baptism, last rights)
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  • The Clergy Religious officials had different ranks within the church structure
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  • HIGH MIDDLE AGES 1050-1350
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  • Economic Trends Italian merchants engage in Mediterranean trade Hanseatic League formed 80 large towns & cities in Northern Germany Used fishing fleets to trade wool Dominated northern European shipping Increased trade resulted in the growth of towns Craft Guilds began to regulate standards and prices
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  • Medieval Culture Art & Architecture Flying buttress Romanesque & Gothic architecture Stained glass Literature Use of vernacular language Song of Roland, Divine Comedy, Canterbury Tales Learning Church run university centers Rediscovery of classical writings Science & Technology Roger Bacon & scientific method A variety of inventions
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  • Flying Buttress
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  • The Crusades 1095 Pope Urban called for crusade to free the Holy Land from Muslim control 1096 First Crusade 1099: captured Jerusalem Set up four feudal estates 1189 1192 Third Crusade 1187 Muslims under Saladin recaptured Jerusalem King Richard the Lionhearted signed truce Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople weakening the Byzantine Empire Muslims slowly regained control of the Holy Land
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  • Results of the Crusades Ended the isolation of Western Europe Increased trade and travel More widespread use of money Rise of Italian city-states Hardships for Jewish communities in Europe Fourth Crusade tarnished the reputation of the Church
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  • Royal Power in England Political power was fragmented during the Middle Ages Increased trade led to a rise in the power of monarchs 1066 Battle of Hastings William the Conqueror led Norman invasion Established a central power in England The Magna Carta limited the power of the king 1295 Model Parliament established
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  • Royal Power in France French monarchs slowly won land from English kings Set up royal bureaucracies to run government Paid officials who then supported the king
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  • Royal Power in Spain Spain became a center of Muslim learning Prospered under Muslim control Spanish knight launched their own crusade against Muslims the Reconquista 1469 the marriage of Isabella & Ferdinand united most of Spain Used the Inquisition to end religious toleration
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  • Struggle between Popes and Kings German nobles established ties with the Church Gained the authority to appoint bishops lay investiture Pope Gregory VII worked to reestablish the authority of the Church over kings1122 Concordat at Worms settled issue of lay investiture Popes held power of excommunication
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  • Decline of the Middle Ages The Black Death Killed 1/3 to the population of Western Europe The Papal Schism Controversy over rightful Pope Resulted in two Popes one in France, one in Rome Famines Climate became colder and rainier Harvests shrank Population doubled People moved to towns
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  • The Hundred Years War 1337-1453 (Do the math) Efforts of English & French kings to build centralized power involved them in conflict Early in the war the English won many victories English had two new weapons the longbow & gunpowder 1429 Joan of Arc inspired French troops to many victories Fueled feelings of nationalism among French
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  • Decline of Feudalism Effects of Hundred Years War Rise in French national pride Death of large numbers of nobles Kings established efficient governments War of the Roses (England) enabled Henry II to establish the Tudor Dynasty Strong government could protect the people Changing nature of warfare arrows & cannons made knights & armor obsolete


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