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The Middle ages. Outcome: Church Reform & The Crusades. Church Reform & The Crusades. Age of Faith Between 500 - 1000 Europe was a dark age Around the 900s , a new spirit invaded the church and brought about a spiritual revival in the clergy. Church Reform & The Crusades. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Middle ages

The Middle agesOutcome: Church Reform & The Crusades

Church Reform & The CrusadesAge of FaithBetween 500-1000 Europe was a dark ageAround the 900s, a new spirit invaded the church and brought about a spiritual revival in the clergy

Church Reform & The CrusadesProblems in the ChurchVillage priests were married and had families ---> against Church rulingsBishops sold positions in the Church, this was called simonyKings used lay investiture

Church Reform & The CrusadesReform Popes Leo IX and Gregory VII enforced Church laws against simony and marriage

Papal Curia (popes advisers) acted as a courtDeveloped canon law on matters such as marriage, divorce, and inheritanceDecided cases based on canon law

Church used taxes to pay for the sick and poor- most hospitals in Europe

Church Reform & The CrusadesResult: The Age of Faith helped push the Church closer to an empire rather than being simply a religious order. Wars of conquest were inspired which would give way to the violent holy wars known as the Crusades.

Church Reform & The CrusadesThe CrusadesWhat is a crusade?A holy war involving the journey of thousands of Europeans to reclaim the holy land of Jerusalem in the name of ChristianityIn all, there were 8 or 9 Crusades (depending on your source)

Church Reform & The CrusadesWhy crusade? Social, Economic, Spiritual, & Political reasonsPope Urban II called for a holy war against Muslims controlling holy landsSocial: Opportunity to get knights to stop fighting each other and fight a new foe. These knights threatened peace in Europe.

Church Reform & The CrusadesWhy crusade? Social, Economic, Spiritual, & Political reasonsEconomic: Younger sons who did not stand to inherit fathers property were looking for wealth and adventureEconomic: Merchants supplied loans to finance the journey

Church Reform & The CrusadesWhy crusade? Social, Economic, Spiritual, & Political reasonsPolitical: A chance for the pope to gain territory instead of Byzantine rivalSpiritual: Kill Muslims = ticket to heaven (Christian contradiction)

Church Reform & The CrusadesWhen were the Crusades?Starts in 1093 and lasts for nearly 300 years

Church Reform & The CrusadesWhat happened:First and Second CrusadeUrbans call brought tremendous support for the CrusadeThose who died on Crusade were assured a place in heavenGod wills it! was the battle cry3,000 mile journey from Europe to JerusalemEventually, 12,000 approached Jerusalem and besieged it for a monthOn July 15, 1099, the Christians captured the city

Church Reform & The CrusadesFirst and Second CrusadeThe Second Crusade was organized to recapture the city of EdessaIn 1187, Europeans were shocked to learn that Saladin and the Muslims had captured Jerusalem again

The Second Crusade

Church Reform & The CrusadesThe Third CrusadeLed by 3 of Europes most powerful monarchsPhilip II of France went homeGerman Emperor Frederick drowned on journey

Church Reform & The CrusadesThe Third CrusadeEnglish King Richard the Lion-HeartedFought many battles against Saladin Agreed to a truce with Saladin in 1192Jerusalem stayed under Muslim controlSaladin promised unarmed Christians could freely visit the citys holy places

Church Reform & The CrusadesOther attempts4th Crusade failed to recapture JerusalemIn the 1200s, four more Crusades were also unsuccessfulThe Childrens Crusade

Church Reform & The CrusadesEffects of the CrusadesExample of Church powerTrade was expanded between Europe and Southwest AsiaFailure of later crusades lessened the power of the popeThe Crusades weakened the power of the feudal nobility Increased power of kingsThousands of knights and other participants lost their livesBegan a legacy of bitterness and hatred of Christians for the MuslimsPersecution of JewsThose who survived brought back culture to Europe