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The Mongols: The Mongols: Conquerors, not Empire Conquerors, not Empire Builders Builders

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The Mongols:. Conquerors, not Empire Builders. Writing into the Day. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: The Mongols:

The Mongols: The Mongols:

Conquerors, not Empire Conquerors, not Empire BuildersBuilders

Page 2: The Mongols:

Writing into the DayWriting into the Day

Temujin conquered the largest land Temujin conquered the largest land mass of any military leader in history, mass of any military leader in history, easily surpassing Caesar, Napoleon, easily surpassing Caesar, Napoleon, Alexander the great, even Hitler. Yet Alexander the great, even Hitler. Yet only three generations later, there was only three generations later, there was very little evidence that the Mongol very little evidence that the Mongol Empire ever existed. Why was the Empire ever existed. Why was the Mongol influence not more lasting? Mongol influence not more lasting? What attributes do you think are What attributes do you think are required for an empire to have lasting required for an empire to have lasting significance?significance?

Page 3: The Mongols:

Continuity: Know your Continuity: Know your timeline!timeline!

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The Largest Land Empire The Largest Land Empire amassed by a single personamassed by a single person

Page 5: The Mongols:

I. The Mongol Empire of I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis KhanChinggis Khan

The Mongols were a fierce, warlike nomadic people who, while having a The Mongols were a fierce, warlike nomadic people who, while having a disregard for “civilized” societies, were tolerant conquerors with a great disregard for “civilized” societies, were tolerant conquerors with a great curiosity for diverse faiths and ethnic groups. They were traders and curiosity for diverse faiths and ethnic groups. They were traders and herders, gaining grains and vegetables by trading with sedentary peoples. herders, gaining grains and vegetables by trading with sedentary peoples. Mongol society was traditionally made up of clans or family groups, but could Mongol society was traditionally made up of clans or family groups, but could come together into confederations when necessary. come together into confederations when necessary.

A.A. The Making of a Great Warrior: The Making of a Great Warrior:

The Early Career of Chinggis Khan:The Early Career of Chinggis Khan:

-Kabul Khan was Chinggis’s Grandfather who had won glory by uniting the -Kabul Khan was Chinggis’s Grandfather who had won glory by uniting the Mongols into an alliance and defeating the northern Chinese kingdom of Qin. Mongols into an alliance and defeating the northern Chinese kingdom of Qin.

-Chinggis Khan was thrust into leadership at 17 when his father was killed. -Chinggis Khan was thrust into leadership at 17 when his father was killed.

-Khan’s given name was Temujin, but gave himself the moniker Chinggis -Khan’s given name was Temujin, but gave himself the moniker Chinggis Khan.Khan.

-After a series of military victories where he avenged the honor of his clan, -After a series of military victories where he avenged the honor of his clan, Temujin was elected Khagan, or supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes, in 1206. Temujin was elected Khagan, or supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes, in 1206.

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I. The Mongol Empire of I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan (continued)Chinggis Khan (continued)

B. Building the Mongol War MachineB. Building the Mongol War MachineMongol warriors were unique to the time for several reasons. They were Mongol warriors were unique to the time for several reasons. They were natural fighters, raised from birth to fight, much like the Spartans in natural fighters, raised from birth to fight, much like the Spartans in Ancient Greece. They were excellent archers, with accuracy up to 350 Ancient Greece. They were excellent archers, with accuracy up to 350 feet, even on horseback. Also, the entire army was made up of riders, feet, even on horseback. Also, the entire army was made up of riders, so they were solely Calvary, while most armies of the time were mostly so they were solely Calvary, while most armies of the time were mostly infantry. infantry. Tumens Tumens were fighting units made up of 10,000 warriors, something like were fighting units made up of 10,000 warriors, something like a modern day battalion or an ancient Roman Cohort. a modern day battalion or an ancient Roman Cohort.

C. Conquest: The Mongol Empire under Chinggis KhanC. Conquest: The Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khan-In 1207 Khan began his conquest of China, first taking the Xi Xia -In 1207 Khan began his conquest of China, first taking the Xi Xia kingdom in Northwest China, and the Jurchens in North China. kingdom in Northwest China, and the Jurchens in North China.

D. First Assault on the Islamic World:D. First Assault on the Islamic World:-The Kara Khitai was a grasslands people of the Russian steppes who -The Kara Khitai was a grasslands people of the Russian steppes who were conquered by Khan on his movement westward.were conquered by Khan on his movement westward.-Khwarazm was a Muslim empire conquered by Khan as the Mongols -Khwarazm was a Muslim empire conquered by Khan as the Mongols entered the middle east. entered the middle east. -In 1227, when Khan died, his empire stretched from the North China -In 1227, when Khan died, his empire stretched from the North China Sea to eastern Persia.Sea to eastern Persia.

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I. The Mongol Empire of I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan (continued)Chinggis Khan (continued)

E. Describe Life Under the Mongol Imperium:E. Describe Life Under the Mongol Imperium:-Chinggis Khan, though illiterate, was no savage. He was a -Chinggis Khan, though illiterate, was no savage. He was a warrior, but actually wanted to see his conquered people warrior, but actually wanted to see his conquered people live in peace, respecting diverse cultures. He did refuse, live in peace, respecting diverse cultures. He did refuse, however, to live in a cityhowever, to live in a city-He founded the capital of Karakorum and invited the rulers -He founded the capital of Karakorum and invited the rulers from various kingdoms to come, where he gleaned from from various kingdoms to come, where he gleaned from each culture what he wanted. each culture what he wanted. -Khan was Shamanistic, meaning he worshiped nature -Khan was Shamanistic, meaning he worshiped nature spirits(think animism here). He was, however, tolerant of spirits(think animism here). He was, however, tolerant of other religions.other religions.

F. The Death of Chinggis Khan and the Division of the EmpireF. The Death of Chinggis Khan and the Division of the Empire-In 1227, Ogedei, Khan’s third son, was elected grand khan, -In 1227, Ogedei, Khan’s third son, was elected grand khan, and ruled for nearly a decade, expanding the empire into and ruled for nearly a decade, expanding the empire into the west. The empire was split four ways, between khan’s the west. The empire was split four ways, between khan’s 3 sons and his grandson, Batu.3 sons and his grandson, Batu.

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The Four Khanates of the Divided The Four Khanates of the Divided Mongol EmpireMongol Empire

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II. The Mongol Drive to the II. The Mongol Drive to the WestWest

The Golden Horde was the empire controlled by Batu, and was made up of The Golden Horde was the empire controlled by Batu, and was made up of modern day Russia and parts of Western Europe. The conquest of Russia was modern day Russia and parts of Western Europe. The conquest of Russia was astounding in one major regard-the Mongols were the only group in history to astounding in one major regard-the Mongols were the only group in history to complete a successful invasion of Russia in the Winter. complete a successful invasion of Russia in the Winter.

Russia in the 1200s was overrun by Mongol invaders, who set up the golden Russia in the 1200s was overrun by Mongol invaders, who set up the golden Horde, taking tribute from the Russian people, causing the peasantry to Horde, taking tribute from the Russian people, causing the peasantry to become, in effect, serfs of the Russian ruling class in return for protection. become, in effect, serfs of the Russian ruling class in return for protection.

A. Russia in BondageA. Russia in Bondage

Russia was dominated totally by the Golden Horde, and therefore led to the Russia was dominated totally by the Golden Horde, and therefore led to the Russian tradition of powerful central governments.Russian tradition of powerful central governments.

The Commerce benefits of this relationship were that trade between the east The Commerce benefits of this relationship were that trade between the east and west was strengthened making the princes of Moscow rich and powerful. and west was strengthened making the princes of Moscow rich and powerful.

At the battle of Kulikova in 1380, Princes of Moscow rose up and defeated the At the battle of Kulikova in 1380, Princes of Moscow rose up and defeated the Golden Horde, eventually breaking the Mongol hold over RussiaGolden Horde, eventually breaking the Mongol hold over Russia

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II. The Mongol Drive to the II. The Mongol Drive to the West (continued)West (continued)

B. Mongol Incursions and the Retreat from EuropeB. Mongol Incursions and the Retreat from Europe

In 1240, The Mongols had made it to Europe and defeated King In 1240, The Mongols had made it to Europe and defeated King Bela of Bela of Hungary. Hungary.

C. The Mongol Assault on the Islamic HeartlandsC. The Mongol Assault on the Islamic Heartlands

Hulegu, Another Grandson of Chinggis, controlled the Ilkhan Hulegu, Another Grandson of Chinggis, controlled the Ilkhan portion of portion of the the mongol empire, in what is the Modern Day mongol empire, in what is the Modern Day middle east. middle east.

The Mongols conquered Bagdad in 1258, destroying much of the The Mongols conquered Bagdad in 1258, destroying much of the order of order of the Muslim world. the Muslim world.

It was in North Africa that they finally found their defeat at the It was in North Africa that they finally found their defeat at the hands of hands of the the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt. Mamluk dynasty of Egypt.

Page 11: The Mongols:

III. The Mongol Interlude in III. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese HistoryChinese History

Ogedei, son of Chinggis, became the great Khan in 1227. Ogedei, son of Chinggis, became the great Khan in 1227. Shortly after this the Mongol advance into China was Shortly after this the Mongol advance into China was resumed. resumed.

Kubilai Khan, one of Chinggis’s grandchildren, directed the Kubilai Khan, one of Chinggis’s grandchildren, directed the Mongol forces in china and played a pivotal role in Chinese Mongol forces in china and played a pivotal role in Chinese History. History.

Kubilai founded the Yuan dynasty and moved the capital to Tatu, Kubilai founded the Yuan dynasty and moved the capital to Tatu, which is present day Beijing. Unlike his grandfather, Kubilai which is present day Beijing. Unlike his grandfather, Kubilai did not reject civilization, and instead adopted Chinese culture did not reject civilization, and instead adopted Chinese culture as his own, attempting to “civilize” Mongol Cultureas his own, attempting to “civilize” Mongol Culture

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Page 12: The Mongols:

III. The Mongol Interlude in III. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History (continued)Chinese History (continued)

A.A. Gender Roles and the Convergence of Mongol Gender Roles and the Convergence of Mongol and Chinese Cultureand Chinese Culture

Describe the role and rights of Mongol women: Remained aloof from Describe the role and rights of Mongol women: Remained aloof from Chines culture. They refused to adopt the practice of foot binding, Chines culture. They refused to adopt the practice of foot binding, which so limited the activites of Chinese woman. They retained their which so limited the activites of Chinese woman. They retained their rights to property and control within the household.rights to property and control within the household.Explain the significance of Chabi: wife of Kubliai Khan, important Explain the significance of Chabi: wife of Kubliai Khan, important confidents on political/diplomatic mattersconfidents on political/diplomatic matters

B. Mongol Tolerance and Foreign Cultural InfluenceB. Mongol Tolerance and Foreign Cultural InfluenceDescribe the importance of Mongol patronage it alowed a tolertion and Describe the importance of Mongol patronage it alowed a tolertion and extensive amount of diversity of religion around the empoire leaving extensive amount of diversity of religion around the empoire leaving the subjects open to influuencethe subjects open to influuenceReligious tolerationReligious tolerationWhat religions thrived during this time?What religions thrived during this time?Buddhist, Christian, Daoist. Buddhist, Christian, Daoist. Identify Marco PoloIdentify Marco Polo

An Italian man who traveled through the Mongol empire, and went to the An Italian man who traveled through the Mongol empire, and went to the court of Kublia Kikan. court of Kublia Kikan.

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III. The Mongol Interlude in III. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History (continued)Chinese History (continued)

D. The Fall of the House of YuanD. The Fall of the House of Yuan

Describe the Death of Kubilai and the events that occurred afterDescribe the Death of Kubilai and the events that occurred after

Identify Ju YanzhangIdentify Ju Yanzhang

What doe she do?What doe she do?

E. Aftershock: The Brief Ride of TimurE. Aftershock: The Brief Ride of Timur

Identify Timur-i Lang (Tamerlane)Identify Timur-i Lang (Tamerlane)

Describe the 1360s conquestsDescribe the 1360s conquests

Describe eh events of 1405Describe eh events of 1405

Page 14: The Mongols:

Seminar topicSeminar topic

Temujin conquered the largest land Temujin conquered the largest land mass of any military leader in history, mass of any military leader in history, easily surpassing Caesar, Napoleon, easily surpassing Caesar, Napoleon, Alexander the great, even Hitler. Yet Alexander the great, even Hitler. Yet only three generations later, there was only three generations later, there was very little evidence that the Mongol very little evidence that the Mongol Empire ever existed. Why was the Empire ever existed. Why was the Mongol influence not more lasting? Mongol influence not more lasting? What attributes do you think are What attributes do you think are required for an empire to have lasting required for an empire to have lasting significance?significance?