the mysterious ‘‘base ball park...

Click here to load reader

Post on 04-Aug-2020

14 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Spring 2012 15

    Photographs of nineteenth-centuryTwinCitiesballparksarefewinnumber.AlthoughtheyappearregularlyindecorativeandnostalgiccontextsatplaceslikeTargetFieldandButlerSquareinMinneapolis,theseimageshaveneverbeenrigor-ouslyanalyzed.Earlyballparkphotosarerareresources,valuabletoolsforunderstandingthehistoryofbase-ballfacilities,theirdesignanduse.Digitalenlargementsoffoursuchpictures—onefromSt.PaulandthreefromMinneapolis—allowustodateeachimagemoreprecisely,recoverdetailsaboutthefacilityand

    The Mysterious

    KristinM.AndersonChristopherW.Kimball

    above: The mystery photo, long thought

    to be Nicollet Park circa 1900

    itssurroundings,and,inonecase,solveamystery.

    TheearliestballparkinthegroupisSt.Paul’sAthleticPark,designedbyCassGilbertandJamesKnoxTaylorandbuiltin1888.St.Paul’sprofessionalminorleagueteamscalledAthleticParkhomefrom1888until1892.CharlesComiskeyusedtheparkforSundaygamesin1895and1896,whenplayingathisregu-largroundsnearDaleStreetandUniversityAvenuecausedlegaldif-ficulties.Duringthe1890sandwellbeyond,AthleticParkwashometosemi-pro,amateur,andschoolteams,

    bothbaseballandfootball,fulfillingitsbuilders’desiretocreateamulti-purposesportsfacilityforthecity.Theonlyknownphotographoftheballparkispartofapanoramicimagedated“circa1890”intheMinnesotaHistoricalSociety’sphotocatalogandnowbrokenintothreeparts.St.Paul’sAthleticParkistheearliestTwinCitiesballparkforwhichthereisasurvivingphotograph,although,asitturnsout,thisimageisnottheoldestTwinCitiesballparkpicture.1

    Reading the Visual eVidence

    ‘‘Base Ball Park Minneapolis’’and Other Photos

  • 16 Minnesota History

    Thesegroundswerelocatedonthewest-sideflats,anareasouthofdowntownSt.Paulthatwasat—andsometimesbelow—theleveloftheMississippiRiver.Thepictureseemstohavebeentakentoshowthemas-sivefloodingintherivervalley.Floodswerefairlycommoninthislow-lyingpartofSt.Paul,andthevantagepointonthebluffsabovetheballparkgivesapanoramicviewofbothbanks,lookingnortheast.Theunknownphotographeranchoredtheimagebyplacingthisfamiliarlandmark—atleasttonineteenth-centurySt.Pauleyes—intheforeground.

    Inthispictureofthebaseballpark,thereisnobaseballgame.En-largingthephotoshows,instead,afewgawkersclimbingontheemptystandstosurveythefloodscene.Littleabouttheballpark’sappear-anceprovidescluestopinpointthedateofthephoto.TheoriginalGil-bertandTaylordesign,publishedintheSt. Paul Daily Globe,includedacoveredgrandstandandbleachersectionstoseatabout3,000people.Thisphotographshowsthatnothinghadchangedfromthat1888con-figuration.AthleticParkremainedasimplewoodenballpark,enclosed

    Kristin Anderson is a professor of art at Augsburg College, Minneapolis, and Christo-pher Kimball is president and professor of history at California Lutheran University in Thousand Oaks. They are at work on a book, ContestedTerrain:AnArchitecturalandUrbanHistoryofTwinCitiesBallparks. Their article on 1910s renovations at Nicollet Park and Lexington Park appeared in the Fall 2003 issue of this magazine.

    byitsseatingstructuresand12-foot-highoutfieldfences.2

    Whiletheballparkwasnotal-teredmuchinitsearlyyears,thesurroundingsbegantoevolveshortlyafterAthleticParkwasbuilt,andsomeofthesechangeshelpdatethephotograph.Forinstance,theforegroundincludesmanytraintracks,presentatthesitebeforetheballparkwasbuiltandincreas-inginnumberthroughthenextfewdecades.(Althoughfewer,tracksarestillpresentatthesitetoday.)Therailcarsprovideafewcluesaboutthepicture’sdate,too.ThesetrackswereownedbytherailroadknownformanyyearsastheChicagoGreatWestern.FoundedbySt.PaultycoonA.B.Stickneyin1885,thelinewasfirstcalledtheMinnesotaandNorthwestern.In1887itbecametheChicago,St.PaulandKansas

    St. Paul Athletic Park (center foreground) in a panorama of the flooded Mississippi River valley, 1893. The State Street bridge bisects

    this information-rich image, visually separating the rail cars from the ice house, its roof and cupola visible here. The vinegar works

    is at the terminus of the State Street bridge. Ruins of the Eisenmenger mansion loom on the bluff across from the flooded ballpark.

    More rail cars, some houses, and the Crescent Creamery, partly under water, are at the far right.

    Vinegar works grandstand eisenmenger mansion

  • Spring 2012 17

    torandsometimemeatmerchantJohnF.Eisenmenger.DesignedbySt.PaularchitectWalterIfe,thishugehomewasnotedforitsfinematerialsanddetails;itsconstruc-tionlastedfromJuly1890throughthefollowingsummer.Unfortu-nately,thenewmansionburnedonAugust14,1892,justayearafteritwasoccupied.Thephoto,whenen-larged,showsthateventhoughthehome’speakedcopper-and-slateroofwasgoneandtheskywasvisiblethroughmanypartsofthebuilding,mostofthewallsandoneofthefourchimneysremainedstanding.Photo-graphsfromthemid-1890sshowthatthebuildinglatersufferedaddi-tionaldamage.Itwasleftasadisin-tegratingruinforadecadeuntileverythingbuttheporte-cocherewasdismantledinFebruary1902.Thatremnantbecameadecorativeele-mentinthenewlycreatedIndianMoundsPark,andtheremainderofthebrickandstonewastakenacrossthecitytoComoPark,wherethematerialswereusedtoconstructbuildingsanddecorativewalls.5

    tracksthatwenttothenearbySouthSt.PaulUnionStockyards—theicehousebelongedtotherailroadandprobablyservedtherefrigeratedrailcars,someofwhicharevisibleintheforeground.4

    Themostinterestingbuildingisinthedistance,straightacrosstheMississippifromtheballpark.Byaligningthelargebuildingsilhou-ettedagainsttheskylineintheback-groundwiththeballparkintheforeground,itispossibletoidentifytheprecisespotitoccupied:ItstoodnearthesiteofnumerousIndianmoundsontopofthebluffs,anareathatwouldbecameacitypark.Inthe1890s,however,thisdistrictwasdot-tedwithafewlargehouses,andthisonebelongedtorealestatespecula-

    City,andthen,inJuly1892,theChi-cagoGreatWestern.Unlikechangesinnameandcorporateidentitytoday,thisbusinessevolutiondidnotnecessitaterepaintingtherollingstock.Aslateas1901,allthreecom-panynamescouldbeseenonvariousrailcars.3

    Thereareanumberofbuildingsaroundtheballpark.Some,likethevinegarworkstotheleftandthehousesonthebluffatthefarright,predateAthleticPark.ThisisalsotruefortheCrescentCreamery’sdairy-farmingoperationtotherightoftheballparkandbelowthebluffs.Morehelpfulindatingthephotoistheicehouseneartheballpark’sright-fieldcorner,builtduringFebruary1892.Setalongthetracks—

    Gilbert and Taylor’s grandstand, “a model of comfort”

    according to the St.PaulDailyGlobe

    state street bridgeice house crescent creamery rail cars houses on bluff

  • 18 Minnesota History

    andFifthStreetindowntownMin-neapolis.Thepark’ssmallsize—lessthanacityblock—necessitatednotonly12-foot-highfencesbutalsowiremeshextendinganother25feetorsoabovethatwoodenwall.ThroughthismeshandbeyondthefencesacrossFifthStreet,theballpark’sneighborhoodisvisible,includingnearbybusinessesandhouses(andatleastonespectator—maybetwo—inthewindows).Detailsofthepark’sstructureandoperationsarealsovisible.Fansaccessedthebleachersfromtheback,walkingunderthegrandstand,outadoorway,andupasetofstairstothewalkwayalongthefence.Thisarrangementcanbeseeninadrawingoftheballparkpub-lishedintheMinneapolis JournalinMay1889,when theparkopened.Sometrashhascollectedintheopenspacebetweenthegrandstandandthebleachers.Itseemsthattheaccumulatedgarbageincludesmanyscorecardsliketheonesheld

    bysomeofthefans.Thelitterwaslikelyleftfromanearliergamethatdayforwhichclean-uphadnotyetoccurred.8

    Theimagealsoprovideswonder-fulinformationaboutthecrowdanditsbehavior.Afairamountofinfor-malityisvisible—likecigarsmokingandnose-picking—alongwithspec-tatorsnotonlyinthebleachersbutalsoontheground,onwalls,andonfences.Thefanswearclothingmoreformalthanweexpecttoseeattoday’sballgames,eveninthebestseats,andsomehavebrought

    andthegrandstandcirca1892,ac-cordingtotheMinnesotaHistoricalSociety.Thereisalsoacyanotype(socalledbecausetheimageisblue)labeled“BaseBallParkMinneapolis”andidentifiedasNicolletParkcirca

    1900.Carefulexaminationofeach,andofthegroup,revealssomefasci-natingdetailsabout1890sbaseballandcreatesaclearerviewofthecity’sbaseballownershipandfacilitieschronology.7

    DesignedbyMinneapolisarchi-tectsFremontOrffandGeorgeOrff,AthleticParkincludedawoodengrandstandandtwolargesectionsofbleachers.Thebleachersphotowastakenfromtheupperendofthegrandstandalongthefirstbaselineandlookedtowardthepark’sright-fieldcorneratFirstAvenueNorth

    Giventheevidenceextractedfromtheballpark’ssurroundings,itislikelythatthepanoramawastakentodocumentthelatespringfloodin1893when,accordingtoanewspaperaccount,“onthesectionwheretheoldballparkislocated,nothingcanbeseenbutavaststretchofmuddyfluid,dottedhereandtherebyastuntedtree,afence,orashanty.”Theriverhadbeenris-ingrapidlyintheprecedingweek,upthree-and-a-halffeetinfourdays.Worsefloodingoccurredin1897,buttherelativelyintactcondi-tionoftheEisenmengerhouseandtheabsenceofanyrailcarslabeledChicagoGreatWesternwouldindicatethatthiswastheearlierflood.Asaresult,weproposeadatearoundMay1,1893,forthisimage.6

    the three Minneapolis images tellamorecomplicatedstory.Therearetwoveryinterest-ingandappealingcrowdshotstakenatMinneapolisAthleticPark,builtin1889:thebleacherscirca1890

    Eisenmenger mansion (“For Sale” sign in window) about 1897,

    showing far more damage than in the earlier panorama

    The fans wear clothing more formal than we expect to see at today’s

    ball games, even in the best seats.

  • Spring 2012 19

    hadownedaone-thirdinterestintheteamsince1889,andinOctober1890heandhisnewpartner,Grif-fin,boughttheteamandasporting-goodsstoreoperatedbythepreviousco-owner,SamMorton.Afterthispurchase,HachandGriffinevi-dentlyundertookamajorchangeinthepark’sadvertisingschemes.TheypaintedoveradsonthefencefortheMinneapolis Journalandaphotographer,amongothers,andmadesurethattheirbusinesseswererepresentedwithprominentadsinthescoreboard’simmediatevicinity,wherefanswouldbelook-ingregularly.Theircross-promotionincludednotonlythesporting-goodsstorebutalsoabicycleschoolinthe

    Asitturnsout,thephotographcanbedatedprecisely,basedonthesignsandotherwritingclusteredinitsrightcorner.SurroundingthescoreboardareadvertisementsforthevariousbusinessesofHenryL.HachandAndrewH.Griffin.Hach

    sunprotection:inadditiontotheubiquitousheadgear,umbrellasandneckscarvesareseenthroughoutthecrowd.Notpresent,however,areanywomen.Whilerepresentingavarietyofages,thefield-levelandbleachersfansareallmale.

    Grandstand and bleachers of Minneapolis’s Athletic Park,

    designed by architects Orff and Orff

    Crowded bleachers at Minneapolis’s

    two-year-old Athletic Park, 1891

  • 20 Minnesota History

    thepark,showingitsbleachersinMay1891andthegrandstand,dateunknown.Butwhatofthethirdpicture?Anearlyownerofthiscyan-otypeinscribeditwith“BaseBallParkMinneapolis,”andtheMinne-sotaHistoricalSocietyhasidentifieditasNicolletParkcirca1900,per-hapsbecauseitdoesnotlookliketheclearlyidentifiedAthleticParkgrandstand.Thismysterystructureistaller,theseatingissteeper,anditistoppedwithboxesontheroof.ButlabelingitNicolletParkdoesnotmakeitso:photographsoftheorigi-nalNicolletPark,builtin1896,showaverydifferentgrandstandwithouttheroofboxes.12

    IfthephotographdoesnotshowNicolletPark,whichsucceededAth-leticPark,perhapsitshowsanearlierfacility,Minneapolis’sSouthSideGrounds,usedfrom1886until1888.Althoughtherewasmentionofaroofdeckinitsinitialplans,anotherdetailinthecyanotypeeliminatestheSouthSideGroundsasapossibility:thewritingonthedugoutawning.Awn-ingssometimescarriedadvertising,andthisone,whenenhanced,revealsthenameoftheawningcompanyit-self:“H.J.Saunders,MfrAwnings&Tents.”InMay1889HenrySaundershadawindow-shadebusiness,butbyApril1890hehadtakenoverandrenamedTwinCityTentandAwning.SinceSaunderswasnotintheawn-ingbusinessuntilaftertheSouthSideGroundshadbeenabandonedforAthleticPark,thiscannotbetheSouthSideGrounds.13

    playedwiththebleachersview,itlacksthehelpfulscoreboardinforma-tionthatpinpointedthefirstpicture’sdate.Thephotographerwasafewsectionsoutfromthegrandstand’scenter,alongthethirdbaseline,lookingintowardhomeplate.Thestructureandcrowdlookmuchlikeanyotheroftheera,butthisimagecanbeidentifiedasAthleticParkbecauseofthegiganticWestHotelloominginthebackground.Thehotelwaslocatedontheneighboringblock,atthecornerofHennepinAvenueandFifthStreet.

    Thisviewallowsagoodlookattheconstructionofthegrandstand,withitscenterentrance,backedbenches,steps,boxseatsalongthefront,wirescreentoprotectthespectators,andsunshadescover-ingtheopeningsatthestand’sback.Unfortunately,thereisonlyahintofthegameandtheteams—justthreeblurredformsonthefield.Butwhiletheplayersarebarelyvisible,therearewonderfulviewsofthewell-dressedcrowdanditsactivities.Fourwomensitintheforeground.Perhapsthisisaladiessection,oneofthecommonadmissionandattendancegimmicksofnineteenth-centurybaseball.InthemiddleofthecrowdaretwoAfricanAmericanfanstakinginthegamewitheveryoneelse.Oneofthesemenandanumberoftheotherspectatorsareholdingscorecards,andtheshellsofpeanutseatenduringthegameareeasilyvisibleintheforeground.

    Soherewehavetwoviewsof

    oldPanoramaBuilding.EstablishedinApril1891,itwasclosedbyApril1892,whenGriffinleftMinneapolisforChicagotobecometheretailsalesmanagerforbaseballpromoterandsportsmerchantA.G.Spalding.Thebicycle-schoolsignmakesitclearthatthephotographwastakendur-ingthe1891season.9

    Otherhistoricalandvisualin-formationdatesthephotographevenmoreprecisely.Thescoreboardshowsseveralgames:whileMinne-apoliswastrouncingSiouxCity9to0inthebottomofthesixthinning,otherWesternAssociationmatchesbetweenKansasCityandDenver,St.PaulandMilwaukee,andOmahaandLincolnarealsolistedonthescore-board.Theassociation’s1891scheduleincludedbothaMinneapolis-SiouxCityseriesandKansasCity-DenverseriesinlateMay.Asitturnedout,thereweretwoMinneapolis-SiouxCitygamesonSaturday,May30,1891—at10:30a.m.and3:30p.m.—oneofwhichwasamake-upforthepreviousday’srainout.Theafternoongame’scrowdwaslarge,estimatedvariouslyasbeingbetween3,000and5,000spectators,accountingforthefansonthefield.Thescoreboardtallymatchesthenewspaper’sboxscores,andwelearnthatMinneapoliswonthegame19to3.TheKansasCity-Denverscorealsomatchesthenewsreports.10

    Knowingthedateofthegame,itisevenpossibletochecktheweather,whichwassummeryenoughtoencouragethescarves,umbrellas,andothersunny-weatherapparelseenamongthebleacherscrowd.Theafternoonhighwas80degrees.11

    the second Athletic Park imageshowsthegrandstand.Whilethisphotoisfrequentlydis-

    While the players are barely visible, there are wonderful views of the well-dressed crowd and its activities.

  • Spring 2012 21

    “Ed”Whitcombinthefallof1892.Inturn,Whitcombarrangedforsomenon-leaguebaseballthefollowingspring.OnMay30,1893,thepapersreportedontwogamesfeaturingtheUniversityofMinnesotabaseballteam,forwhichrespectablecrowdsofatleast500peopleshowedup.16

    Thatsuccessdidnotlast,how-ever.OntheeveningofJune1,1893,thefirealarmsneartheballparkwerepulled.Alargecrowdgatheredratherquickly,havingseentheflamesandthinkingthattheWestHotelwason

    paintedwhite,providingnotonly“aneatappearance”butalsohelpingplayersbetterjudgegroundballs.Therefore,theearliestdateforthephotographisSpring1890.15

    ButifAthleticParkhadroofboxesin1890,wherearethoseboxesintheundatedgrandstandphoto(above)?Asitturnsout,theyearsafterAthleticPark’sopeningweretoughforMin-neapolisbaseball.Theleagueteamsfailedtocompletetheseasonin1891and1892,andHenryHachsoldthethen-emptyAthleticParktoJames

    Ifitisneithertheprecedingnorthesucceedingballpark,couldthisbetheAthleticParkgrandstand?Ath-leticParkopenedinMay1889withunrealizedplansforrooftopseat-ing;however,earlysuccessandlargecrowdsledtheclubtoerectthoseroofboxesalmostimmediately—withinamonthofthepark’sdebut.Constructedtoaccommodatethelarger-than-expectedcrowds,theseboxescametobeusedastheladiessectionbecause,inthewordsofonereporter,“Ladies...prefertobeoutoftheexcitementandruckuswhichcharacterizesthegrandstandcrank.”14

    Anotherdetailpushesthephoto-graph’sdatepastthepark’sfirstsea-son:thewhitegrandstandwall.TheDaily Globereportedthatinprepara-tionforthepark’ssecondseasonin1890,thefrontofthegrandstandwas

    “Ladies . . . prefer to be out of the excitement and

    ruckus which characterizes the grand stand crank.”

    Grandstand crowd, Minneapolis Athletic Park, a mix of well-dressed men and women who clearly ate peanuts

  • 22 Minnesota History

    fire.Instead,itwastheballparkthatwasburning.Talkofarsonandinsur-ancepaymentssoonappearedinthenewspapers,andsuspicionswerefur-therarousedwhenownerWhitcombcouldnotbelocatedandmadenorepairstotheruinedfacility.17

    Ironically,itwasaSt.Paulman-ager,JohnBarnes,whosteppedforwardinthelatefalltoengineertherescueofMinneapolisbaseball.BarneshadplayedonandmanagedSt.Paulbaseballteamsstartinginthemid-1880sandthenspentthreesea-sonsinthePacificNorthwest,whereheorganizedbaseballteamsandaleagueatthebehestoftheNorthern

    Mystery solved: Minneapolis Athletic Park, about 1890–92

    PacificRailroad.HereturnedtotheTwinCitiesinearly1893,andthatfallhebecameapart-ownerandthesecretaryoftheMinneapolisBaseBallAssociation.InJanuary1894hepulledapermitandhiredacontrac-tortocompletelyrebuildtheAth-leticParkstandsinordertoprovideahomeforthecity’snewWesternLeagueteam.Descriptionsofthenewstructurepresenteditassupe-riortoitspredecessor:thecentralgrandstandaccesswouldbeeasier,theboxesatthestand’sfrontwouldbebetterthantherooftopboxes,theseatsandtheirbackswouldbemorecomfortablethantheold“circusseats”

    John Barnes, late 1880s,

    during his St. Paul days

  • Spring 2012 23

    14.Minneapolis Tribune,May26,1889,p.10;St. Paul Daily Globe,May23,1889,p.5,May27,1889,p.1.FrankPezolt’s1891bird’s-eye-viewmapofMinneapolisshowsroofboxesatAthleticPark,albeitonlyononesideofthegrandstand;infact,theywereonboth.Whileuseful,Pezolt’srendi-tionisinaccurateinseveraladditionalim-portantrespects,includingthesetbackfromthestreetandthelackofbleachers.

    15.St. Paul Daily Globe,Apr.3,1890,p.6.

    16.Minneapolis Tribune, Dec.7,1892,p.5,June1,1893,p.7;Minneapolis Jour-nal,May30,1893,p.6;St. Paul Daily Globe, May31,1893,p.5.

    17.Minneapolis Tribune,June2,1893,p.5;St. Paul Daily Globe,June2,1893,p.3;Minneapolis Journal,June2,1893,p.9.

    18.St. Paul Daily Globe,Aug.31,1893,p.5,Jan.19,1894,p.3,Feb.25,1894,p.10;Minneapolis Tribune,Dec.17,1893,p.23;JeffPrice,“ATaleofFourCities:ProBase-ballintheNorthwesthaditsoriginsinSe-attle,Portland,Tacoma,andSpokane,”Rain Check: Baseball in the Pacific Northwest,ed.MarkArmour(Lincoln:UniversityofNe-braskaPress,2006),4;buildingpermitissuedJan.17,1894(#A3862),MinneapolisDevelopmentReview,PublicServiceCen-ter;Minneapolis Times,Mar.11,1894,p.7.

    The photo on p. 22 is from the Library of Congress. All other illustrations are in MHS

    collections, including the St.PaulDailyGlobe, June 3, 1888, and the Minneapolis

    Journal, May 14, 1889.

    Notes1.KristinAndersonandChristopher

    Kimball,“TheSaintsonSunday:BallparksandSabbatarianisminSt.Paul,”NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture17(Fall2008):1–15.

    2.St. Paul Daily News,Mar.22,1888,p.4;St. Paul Daily Globe,Mar.22,1888,p.2,June3,1888,p.6.

    3.St. Paul Daily Globe,Aug.14,1893,p.5;H.RogerGrant,The Corn Belt Route: A History of the Chicago Great Western Railroad Company (DeKalb,IL:NorthernIllinoisUniversityPress,1984);The Official Railway Equipment Register17(June1901):133.

    4.St.Paulbuildingpermitsfor365StateSt.,May7,1885(#3709),214DunedinTer-race,May1886(#7322),218–220DunedinTerrace,July1891(#25887),and380StateSt.,issuedFeb.10,1892,workcompletedMar.1,1892(#27090)—allinRamseyCo.HistoricalSociety;St. Paul Daily Globe, Oct.20,1885,p.2;CharlesRascher,Atlas for St. Paul, Minn.(Chicago:RascherInsuranceMapPublishingCo.,1891),4:plates354,363;St. Paul Dispatch,Feb.22,1888,p.1.

    5.St.Paulbuildingpermits:July1,1890,for$28,000(#23147),June8,1891,for$14,000,workcompletedAug.4,1891(#25652).St.Paul Daily Globe,Aug.15,1892,p.2,Sept.26,1897,p.11,Feb.9,1902,p.14,Apr.8,1902,p.2.

    6.St. Paul Daily Globe, May1,1893,p.2, Apr.5,1897,p.2(twoarticles),Mar.27,1904,p.22.

    7.Thephotosarecatalogedas:“Predom-inantlymalespectatorswatchgameatbase-ballparkinbackoftheWestHotel,Minne-

    apolis,ca.1890,”“SpectatorsatabaseballgameattheballparkonFifthStreetNorthandFirstAvenueNorth,Minneapolis,ca.1892,”and“SpectatorscrowdthestandsforabaseballgameatNicolletPark,ca.1900.”

    8.Minneapolis Tribune,May19,1889,p.12;Minneapolis Journal, May14,1889,p.2.

    9.Decatur Morning Review, Oct.2,1890,p.1;St. Paul Daily Globe,Oct.5,1890,p.6,Apr.21,1892,p.3;The Sporting Life,Oct.11,1890,p.1;Minneapolis Tribune,Oct.28,1890,p.4.

    10.Minneapolis Tribune,May31,1891,p.13(twoarticles).

    11.MinnesotaClimatologyWorkingGroup,historicaldatatab,http://climate .umn.edu(accessedJan.13,2012).Addi-tionalcorroboratingevidenceonthescore-board:the“St.PaulMonday”announce-mentatthelowerleft,promotingaMinneapolis-St.Paulseriesscheduledforthefollowingweek,andthegame-in-prog-ressumpire,veteranplayerandumpireLonKnight,whoby1891wasworkingintheWesternAssociation.OnKnight,seeSt. Paul Daily Globe, Aug.2,1888,p.5,June7,1897,p.5;Minneapolis Tribune,Aug.2,1888,p.2,Aug.30,1889,p.2,June10,1890,p.3,Aug.13,1890,p.1,Apr.18,1891,p.2.

    12.Minneapolis Times,June21,1896,p.1.

    13.Minneapolis City Directory,1888–89,1890–91;Dual City Directory for Minneap-olis and St. Paul,1889–90;H.J.Saundersad(windowshades),St. Paul Daily Globe,May5,1889,p.9;H.J.Saunders(newbusi-nessnotice),Minneapolis Tribune,Apr.27,1890,p.6.

    ofthe1889grandstand.Ineveryway,Barnes’snewparkwouldbeanim-provementovertheoldone.18

    Our chronology, then, putsthebleachersphotographatMay30,1891,around4:30p.m.,thegrandstandshotafterthebeginningofthe1894seasonbutnolaterthanMay23,1896,whentheteamplayed

    itslastgameatAthleticPark,andthecyanotypesometimebetween1890andthepartial1892season.Thevantagepointforthebleach-ersimageandthecyanotypeleadstoatantalizingpossibility:withthephotographerinthesameareaofthegrandstand,andwithashadow-castingcrowdonthefieldandanumberofumbrella-wieldingspec-tators,isitpossiblethatthesetwo

    photosweretakenonthesamedayinMay1891?

    Whilethisquestionmayneverbeanswered,thestudyofthesefourphotographscreatesmoreaccuratedates,clarifiesthearchitecturalchronologyoftheAthleticParksofMinneapolis,andclearsupthepersistentmisidentificationofthecyanotype,thatmysteriouspictureofthe“BaseBallParkMinneapolis.” a

  • Copyright of Minnesota History is the property of the Minnesota Historical Society, and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or users or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission: contact us. Individuals may print or download articles for personal use. To request permission for educational or commercial use, contact us. Include the author’s name and article title in the body of your message. But first-- If you think you may need permission, here are some guidelines: Students and researchers

    • You do not need permission to quote or paraphrase portions of an article, as long as your work falls within the fair use provision of copyright law. Using information from an article to develop an argument is fair use. Quoting brief pieces of text in an unpublished paper or thesis is fair use. Even quoting in a work to be published can be fair use, depending on the amount quoted. Read about fair use here: http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html

    • You should, however, always credit the article as a source for your work.

    Teachers

    • You do not need permission to incorporate parts of an article into a lesson.

    • You do need permission to assign an article, either by downloading multiple copies or by sending students to the online pdf. There is a small per-copy use fee for assigned reading. Contact us for more information.

    About Illustrations • Minnesota History credits the sources for illustrations at the end

    of each article. Minnesota History itself does not hold copyright on images and therefore cannot grant permission to reproduce them.

    • For information on using illustrations owned by the Minnesota Historical Society, see MHS Library FAQ.

    www.mnhs.org/mnhistory

    mailto:[email protected]?subject=Minnesota%20History%20magazine%20-%20Request%20permission%20for%20commercial%20or%20educational%20usemailto:[email protected]?subject=Minnesota%20History%20magazine%20-%20Request%20permission%20for%20commercial%20or%20educational%20usehttp://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.htmlmailto:[email protected]?subject=Minnesota%20History%20magazine%20-%20Request%20permission%20for%20commercial%20or%20educational%20usehttp://www.mnhs.org/library/about/FAQ.htm#imageshttp://www.mnhs.org/market/mhspress/minnesotahistory/index.html