the napoleonic wars

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GUNTHERROTHENBERTHE NAPOLEONIC WARS~ . : : . ~ ~ . 0'.-THE NAPOLEONICWARSGunther E. RothenbergGeneral Editor: John Keegan1..- CASSELLFirst published in Great Britain 1999by Cassell, Wellington House, 125 Strand, LondonWC2R OBB www.cassell.co.ukText copyright Gunther Rothenberg, 1999The moral right of the author has been assertedDesign and layout copyright CassellThe picture credits on p. 224 constitute an extension tothis copyright page.All rights reserved. No part of this title may bereproduced or transmitted in any material form(including photocopying or storing it in any mediumby electronic means and whether or not transiently orincidentally to some other use of this publication)without the written permission of the copyrightowner, except in accordance with the provisions of theCopyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under theterms of a license issued by the Copyright LicensingAgency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1P 9HE.Applications for the copyright owner's writtenpermission should be addressed to the publisher.British Library Cataloguing-in-publication DataISBN: 0-304-352-675Cartography: Arcadia Editions LtdDesign: Martin HendryPicture research: Elaine WillisTypeset in Monotype SabonPrinted in Italy by Printer Trento SrlACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI gratefully acknowledge the help and comfort provided bymy wife, Dr Eleanor1. M.Hancock, during the writing ofthis book. Also, I wish to thank Caroline Knight and PennyGardiner, both at Orion, whose cheerful good humour andenthusiasm encouraged me whenmy spirits were flagging.Mayall authors have the good fortune to enjoy suchsupport.GUNTHER ROTHENBERGMonash UniversityNapoleon issues final orders to his corps commanders before the fighting begins at Austerlitz.CONTENTS---.... : ~ : = = : = @ : . - - - : = = ~ : + - - - I ....---2 EGYPT, THE SECONDCOALITION AND THE GRANDEARMEETHE TRANSFORMATIONOFWAR AND THE EMERGENCEOFNAPOLEON BONAPARTEMilitary reforms before the French Revolution; thetransformation of war; the ascent of NapoleonBonaparte; elements of Napoleonic warfare; theItalian campaign: 1796-7 194 THEGRANDE ARMEE, SPAINAND THE HABSBURGRECOVERY 1807-9133THE PENINSULAR WAR;WELLINGTON AND THEGUERRILLAS 1809-13RUSSIA, GERMANY ANDFRANCE 1812-14The Grande Armee: foreign and Allied troops; changeswithin the Grande Armee; the first Peninsularcampaigns; reshaping the Habsburg army; the warof 1809: the Ratisbon phase; the Aspern-Esslingphase; Wagram analysed IIIWellington's army; British allied and auxiliaryforces; the war in the Peninsula: the defence ofPortugal; Wellington's offensives; guerrilla war:an assessment56591015ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMAPLISTCHRONOLOGYINTRODUCTIONTHE NAPOLEONIC WARSINTHE HISTORY OF WARFAREITHE WATERLOOCAMPAIGN1815The opposing armies and war plans; the march onMoscow; the retreat from Moscow; Prussianmilitary reforms; the recovery of the French army;the 1813 autumn campaign; the defence ofFrance:1814 157Napoleon's return; the Armee du Nord; Napoleon's warplan; the allied armies and their plans; Lignyand Quatre Bras 16 June; Waterloo: the finaldefeat; Epilogue: Napoleon's system of war - thepursuit of the decisive battle 191The Egyptian interlude; the strategic picture in 1799;Marengo campaign: preparations; Marengo andHohenlinden; Napoleon and his Grande Armee;command, control and administration of the GrandeArmee; Napoleon's soldiers: officers and men;arming the revolutionary and imperial armies;war renewed: the Third Coalition 493 THE YEARS OF VICTORY1805-7Napoleon's adversary: the Habsburg army; themanoeuvre on DIm; war in Italy; the march on Vienna;the Russian army and the road to Austerlitz;the battle of Austerlitz; the Prussian army andthe Jena campaign; the Jena-Auerstadt campaign;the winter campaign in East Prussia and Poland 797BIOGRAPHICAL NOTESFURTHER READINGINDEXPICTURECREDITS214218220224Military units-typesKEY TO MAPSGeneral military symbolsinfantrycavalryx site of battlefortskirmish lineMilitary units-sizeNAPOLEON army commanderxxxxCJarmyxxxCJcorpsxxDdivision [2J cavalryxCJbrigade~infantryxCJbrigadeIIICJregimentIICJbattalionfieldgunMilitary unit coloursunless otherwise shown FrenchAlliesGeographical symbols.. settlementMilitary movementsattack-y retreatCommanders.ftsettlement (3Dmaps)roadriverseasonal riverpFrenchrsBritish Russian-fEPrussianpAustriancanalborderbridgefordMAP LISTI. EUROPEIN 1789 212. FRENCH REVOLUTION 1789-95233ITALIANCAMPAIGNS, 4MAY 1796 - 8APRIL 179738-94MONTENOTTECAMPAIGN, APRIL 17964 15ADVANCEON LODI, MAY 17964 16. BATTLEOF THEPYRAMIDS, 21JULY 1798547BATTLEOF ABOUKIR, 25JULY 1799558. EGYPT ANDSYRIA, JULY 1798- JULY 1799559CROSSING THEALPS, 15MAY - 14 JUNE 18006310. BATTLEOF MARENGO, 14 JUNE 180064-5II. DANUBECAMPAIGN, SEPTEMBER-NoVEMBER 18058412. BATTLEOF AUSTERLITZ, 2DECEMBER 18059 2-313PRUSSIANCOLLAPSE,18069 6-714WINTER WAR, 1806-7 10415PRUSSIA AFTER JULY 1807 10416. BATTLEOF FRIEDLAND, 13-14 JUNE 1807 108-917DANUBECAMPAIGN, APRIL-JULY 180911918. BATTLEOF ASPERN-ESSLING, 21-22 MAY 1809 12319BATTLEOF WAGRAM, 5-6 JULY 1809 12820. FRENCH EMPIRE,181013521. IBERIANCAMPAIGNS 1807-1414022. ROAD TO Moscow,1812 162-323BATTLEOF BORODINO, 7SEPTEMBER 1812 164-524LEIPZIGCAMPAIGN, 181317925BATTLEOF LEIPZIG, 16-19OCTOBER 1813 180-8126. DEFENCEOF FRANCE, 1814 18327EUROPE AFTER THETREATYOF VIENNA19428. LIGNY ANDQUATRE BRAS,16 JUNE 1815198-929BATTLEOF WATERLOO, 18 JUNE 1815 204-7THENAPOLEONICWARSCHRONOLOGY OF THE NAPOLEONIC WARS1792 28 April Piedmont sign armistice.20 April French Assembly declares war on 10 May Action at Lodi.Austria. 15 May Milan occupied.15 May France declares war on Piedmont. 4 June Investment of Mantua(lifted26 June First Coalition formed. 31 July).20 Sept Battle of Valmy: 2-5 August Battles of Lonato and Castiglione.6 Nov Austrians defeated at Jemappes. 1-12 Sept Wiirmser breaks through toMantua.1793 3 Sept French defeated at Wiirzburg.1 Feb Convention declares war on 8 Oct Spain declares war on Britain.Britain and Holland. 15-17 Nov Battle of Arcola.20 Feb Convention calls up 300,000cot:Iscripts. 17979 March Convention declares war on Spain. 14 Jan Battle of Rivoli.23 August Committee of Public Safety 2 Feb Mantua surrenders.decrees levee en masse. 18 April Armistice of Leoben.16 Sept Bonaparte takes charge of 17 Oct Treaty of Campo Formio withartillery before Toulon. Austria.19 Dec Toulon falls.22 Dec Bonaparte promoted to brigadier 1798general. 12 April Bonaparte appointed commanderArmy of the Orient.1794 1 July Bonaparte lands at Alexandria.26 June Defeat at Fleurus forces Austrians 21 July Battle of the Pyramids.to evacuate Belgium. 1 August Nelson destroys French fleet at27 July Overthrow of radical Committee Aboukir.of Public Safety: 21 Oct Cairo revolt suppressed.29 Dec Second Coalition formed.179516 May Peace of Basle, Prussia leaves war. 179919 August Peace with Spain. 29 Jan French occupy Naples.5 Oct Bonaparte puts down attempted 6 Feb Bonaparte invades Palestine.coup. 1 March Russia declares war on France.17 Mar-20 May Siege of Acre.1796 25 March Archduke Charles defeats French1 March Directoire appoints Bonaparte at Stockach.commander Army of Italy: 5 April-15 Aug Austro-Russian forces recapture27 March Bonaparte assumes command. Italy and Switzerland.10-22 April Bonaparte's offensive against 25 July Bonaparte smashes Turks atAustro-Piedmont. Aboukir.10CHRONOLOGY23 August Bonaparte sails for France. 2Dec Napoleon crowns himself.27 Aug-19 Nov Anglo-Russian landing in north 14 Dec Spain declares war on Britain.Holland fails.25-30 Sept Massena defeats Russians near 1805Zurich. 11 April Anglo-Russian Alliance.9-10 Nov Coup establishes Consulate. 26 May Napoleon crowns himself King14 Dec Bonaparte becomes First ofConsul. 7 June Eugene appointed 9 August Austria joins Third Coalition.1800 27 August Grande Armee marches for6April Austrian offensive in north-west Danube.9 Sept Austria invades Bavaria.3 May Moreau victorious at Stockach. 7 Oct French elements cross Danube.15-21 May Army of Reserve crosses Alps. 20 Oct Mack surrenders at DIm.14 June Battle of Marengo. 14 Nov Napoleon enters Vienna.3 Dec Battle of Hohenlinden. 2Dec Napoleon victorious at16Dec Northern(Armed Neutrality) Austerlitz.League formed. 26 Dec Treaty of Pressburg.1801 18069 Feb Peace of Luneville. 1 April Joseph Bonaparte becomes23 March Tsar Paul murdered; Alexander King of Naples.succeeds. 20 June Louis Bonaparte declared King2 April British attack Copenhagen. of Holland.2 Sept Army of the Orient capitulates. 12 July Confederation of the Rhineestablished.1802 9 August Prussia mobilizes.26 Jan Italian Republic established; 1 Oct Prussian ultimatum to France.Bonaparte president. 6 Oct Fourth Coalition formed.25 March Peace of Amiens. 7 Oct French enter11 Sept France annexes Piedmont. 14 Oct Battle of Jena-Auerstadt15 Oct France invades Switzerland. destroys Prussian26 Oct Napoleon enters Berlin.180316May Britain declares war on France. 18071 June French seize Hanover. 8 Feb Battle of Eylau.15 June French army concentrates along 18 Mar-27 May Siege of Danzig.Channel. 13-14 June Battle of Friedland.7-9 July Treaty of Tilsit.1804 2-7 Sept British bombard Copenhagen,21 March Duc d'Enghien murdered. seize Danish fleet.18 May Napoleon proclaimed Emperor. 1 Dec Junot occupies Lisbon.19May Marshalate created.IITHENAPOLEONICWARS1808 28 August Fall of Almeida.2 May Murat represses Madrid rising. 27 Sept Battle of Bussaco.6 June Joseph Bonaparte proclaimed 10 Oct Massena's advance stalled byKing of Spain. Lines of Torres Vedras.9 June Austria establishes Landwehr.20 July French corps capitulates at 1811Baylen. 5 March Massena begins withdrawal.1 August Wellesley lands Portugal. 3-5 May Battle of Fuentes de Ofioro.21 August Battle of Vimiero. 16 May Battle of Albuera.14 Oct Erfurt Congress concludes. 23 Dec Napoleon begins preparations to27 Oct Moore moves to operate in Spain. invade Russia.5 Nov Napoleon assumes command inSpain. 18124Dec Napoleon smashes Spanish forces 19 Jan Wellington storms Ciudadand enters Madrid. Rodrigo.6 April Bada

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