the photographic history of the civil war - volume 04 the cavalry

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Published in 1911 and in the public domain

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The Photographic History of The Civil WarIn

Ten Volumes

"SIR

THE GUARD

IS FORMED!"

This

picture

ofIt

guard-mounting

is

one of theat

earliest

Civil

War

cavalry

photographs.

was taken

in

1861

the Cavalry School of Practice and

Recruiting Depot, at Carlisle barracks, Pennsylvania.uniform.

The guard wears

full-dressright.

The adjutant

is

presenting

it

to the

new

Officer of the

Day, on the

"STAND

TO

HORSE!"

AN AMERICAN VOLUNTEER CAVALRYMAN, OCTOBER,"

1802

"He

s

not a regular

but he

s

smart.

This tribute to the soldierly bearing of the trooper above was

bestowed, forty-nine years after the taking of the picture,

by anas he

officer of

the U.horse"

S. cavalry,

himself a Civil

Warhand

veteran.

of Antietam.

The recipient of such high praise is seen The war was only in its second year, butfrom thebit.

"stood

to

a

month

after the battle

his drill

is

quite according to

army

regulations

His steady glance as he peers from beneath his hat into the sun tells its own story. and nights in the saddle without food or sleep, sometimes riding along the light Days 60-mile picket-line in front of the Army of the Potomac, sometimes faced by sudden encounters with theto bridle, six inches

Southern raiders, have

all

taught him the needed confidence in himself, his horse, and his equipment.

-Centennial

\

\V

The Photographic History of The Civil WarIn

Ten Volumes-

FRANCIS TREVELYAN MILLER

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

ROBERT

S.

LANIER

Managing Editor

\\

v

Thousands of Scenes Photographed 18G1-65, with Text by manySpecial Authorities

V>>&v

X:V.*jj

NEW YORKTHE REVIEW OF REVIEWS1911

^>

Co.

The Photographic History of The Civil WarIn

Ten VolumesVolume Four The CavalryEDITOR

THEO.

F.

RODENBOUGHArmy(Retired)

Brigadier-General United States

ContributorsTHEO.F.

RODENBOUGHUnited States

HOLMES CONRADArmyMajor Cavalry Corps, Army of NorthernVirginia

Brigadier-General (Retired)

CHARLESCaptain,

1).

RHODESStaff,

JOHN A. WYETH, M.D., LL.I).United StatesCaptainStates

General

Quirk

s

Scouts,

Confederate

Army

Army

New York The Review of Reviews Co.1911

COPYRIGHT,

1011,

BY PATRIOT PUBLISHING Co., SPRINGFIELD, MASS.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES, INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIANPrinted in

New

York, U.S.A.

TH

E

SACKETT & WILHELMS

CO.

NEW YORK

CONTENTSPAGEFrontispiece"STAND

TO

HORSE"

AN AMERICAN VOLUNTEER CAVALRYMAN

.

Introduction

THE EVOLUTION OF THE AMERICAN CAVALRYMANITS ORGANIZATION

....

13

Theo. F. RodenboiKjh

THE FEDERAL CAVALRYCharles D. Rhodes

AND EQUIPMENT

39

THE CONFEDERATE CAVALRYHolmes Conrad

IN

THE EAST

71

FEDERAL RAIDS AND EXPEDITIONSCharles D. Rhodes

IN

THE EAST

115

FEDERAL RAIDS AND EXPEDITIONSCharles D. Rhodes

IN

THE WEST

129

MORGAN

S

CHRISTMAS RAID, 1862-63

141

John Allan Wijeth

THE DESTRUCTION OF ROSECRANS GREAT WAGON-TRAINJohn Allan Wyeth

158

PARTISAN RANGERS OF THE CONFEDERACYCharles D. Rhodes

165

OUTPOSTS, SCOUTS, AND COURIERSCharlesI).

181

Rhodes

A

RIDE THROUGH THE FEDERAL LINES AT XIGHTJohn Allan Wyeth

204

CAVALRY BATTLES AND CHARGESCharles D. Rhodes

215

CAVALRY LEADERS

NORTH AND SOUTH

259

Theo. F. Rodenboiujh

FAMOUS CHARGERS

.

289

Theo. F. Rodenbough

MOUNTING THE CAVALRY OF THE UNION ARMYCharles D. Rhodes

319

PHOTOGRAPH DESCRIPTIONS THROUGHOUT VOLUME IV Roy Mason

228596

PREFACE

TOHeis

the public at large, the volume prepared by Generalwill

Rodenbough and

his associates

be not only instructive but decidedly novel

in its view-point.

In the popular

conception the cavalryman figures as the most dashing and care-free

among

soldiers.

associated primarily with charges at a gallop to the sound of clashing sabers and bugle

calls,

and with

thrilling rescues

on the

field."Jeb"

Adventurous, indeed, are the exploits ofin the

Stuart, Custer,

and others recounted volume shows that

pages that follow, together with the typical reminiscences from Dr. Wyeth.characteristic that stands dominant, however, throughout this

The

the soldiers in the cavalry

branch were peculiarly responsible.

Not only must they main

tain a highly trained militant organization, ready to fight with equal efficiency either

mountedmore

or on foot, but to

them

fell

the care of valuable, and frequently scarce, animals,

the protection of the armies supplies, the transmission of important messages, and dozensspecial duties

which must usually be performed on the cavalryman

s

own

initiative.

On

such detached duty there was lacking the shoulder to shoulder comradeship that large

masses of troops enjoy. Confronted by darkness, distance, and danger, the trooper must carry out his orders with few companions, or alone. The discussion of organization and equipment is most important to an understandingof the

cavalryman as he actually worked.

The Federal methods,

described at length in this

volume, naturally involved a larger system and a more elaborate growth than those of the

South withdifferedat the

its

waning resources.of the Union.

In other respects, however, the Confederate organization

from that

The

feeling for locality in the

South manifested

itself

beginning of the war through the formation of companies and regiments on a geo graphical basis, and the election of officers by the men of the companies themselves. Thus,

arms and ordnance stores, and the later disastrous scarcity of horses, the Confederates "hung together" in a manner that recalls the English yeomenin spite of the

want

of military

archers

who foughtit

so sturdily, county

by county.

was a gallant and devoted part that the American cavalryman, Federal or Confederate, played on his hard-riding raids and his outpost duty, as well as his betterknown battles and charges, from 1861 to 1865.Altogether

THE

PUBLISHERS.

CHAPTER ONE

THE EVOLUTION OF THE AMERICAN CAVALRYMAN

THE FIRST EXPERIMENT

The men onof

dress parade here, in 1862, are

much

smarter, with their band and white gloves, their immaculj .te uniforms and horsesIt

all

one

color,

than the troopers

in the field

a year

later.

was not known at that time how important a pa ,1 the cavalry was

to play in

the great war.

These are the Seventh

The organization of this three months regiment was reluctantly authorized by the War Department in Washington. New York Cavalry, the "Black Horse," organized at Troy, mustered in November G, 1801, and mustered out

SEVENTH NEW YORK CAVALRY,

1862

Marchrt-as

31, 1802.

They were designated by

the State authorities Second Regiment Cavalry onthe Seventhtill

changed2. ?,

by the1861,

War Departmentreal service later.

to

New York

Novemberjf

and remained on .duty thereGeneral

the following

November 18, 1861, but the designation The seven companies left for Washington, D. C., Cavalry. March. The regiment was honorably discharged, and manyin

its

members saw

I.

N. Palmer, appears

the

foreground

with his

staff, third

from the

left.

CAVALRY OF THE CIVIL WAR ITS EVOLUTION AND INFLUENCEBY THEO.F.

RODENBOUGHArmy(Retired)

Brigadier-General, United States

ITStates, unprepared as

may

surprise non-military readers to learn that the United it is for war, and unmilitary as are its

people, has yet become a model for the most powerful armies of Europe, at least in one respect. The leading generals and teachers in the art and science of war now admit that our grand

mounted troopsfore the

struggle of 1861-65 was rich in examples of the varied use of in the field, which are worthy of imitation.

Lieutenant-General von Pelet-Narbonne, in a lecture be Royal United Service Institution of Great Britain, in any case one must remem emphatically maintains that"

ber that, from the days of Napoleon until the present time, in no single campaign has cavalry exercised so vast an influ ence over the operations as they did in this war, wherein, of atruth, the personality o

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