the post-napoleonic order

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The Post-Napoleonic Order. 1815-1832. The Congress of Vienna. Established Congress System to restore balance of power European powers meet to discuss problems in Europe and to intervene if there is unrest Goal to prevent further revolutions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The Post-Napoleonic Order1815-1832

  • The Congress of ViennaEstablished Congress System to restore balance of powerEuropean powers meet to discuss problems in Europe and to intervene if there is unrestGoal to prevent further revolutionsTo restore legitimate rulers who were overthrown by NapoleonFaced two problems: Nationalism and Liberalism

  • The Challenge of NationalismGermanyGerman people living within different German statesSome want all Germans to be one nationItalyItalian people living under small Italian states or foreign occupationSome want all Italians to be one nation

  • The Challenge of NationalismAustriaTwenty different nationalities within Austrian EmpireGermans in charge, though a minorityEach nationality wants to be a separate nationRussiaPoles and other nationalities want independenceBritainIrish want independence

  • The Challenge of LiberalismLiberalismThe French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars challenge old order of Divine Right and aristocratic ruleDemand for constitutional governmentRepresentation in governmentCivil libertiesBut only for the middle classConservatives want to go back to before 1789

  • The Legacy of the French RevolutionRomanticismReaction to the EnlightenmentQuestioning of Reason and RationalityReturn to nature and emphasis on pure emotionInfluence in literature, art, and music

  • The Legacy of NapoleonNapoleon inspires German nationalismRevival of German folk tales Inspired German national identityThe role of historyG.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831)German philosopherBelieved history moves in cycles and clashes of ideasThesis, antithesis, synthesisFitche - Belief in the role of individual in historyGreat men move history forward

  • The Conservatives Strike BackAustriaKlemens von Metternich (1773-1859)Austrian chancellorPrevents reforms in AustriaPrevents German states from unitingPrussiaFrederick William III opposes constitutional governmentJunkers remain in charge

  • The Conservatives Strike Back The Carlsbad DecreesGerman university students form groups supporting German unificationBurschenschaftenCarlsbad Decrees issued by German Confederation in 1819Banned student groupsImposed censorshipForbade discussion on German unification

  • The Conservatives Strike BackRussiaDecembrist Revolt (1825)Army officers attempt a revolt against Czar Nicholas I on December 1825Demand a constitution and Nicholas brother Constantine as CzarRevolt ruthlessly put downNicholas I also puts down revolt in Poland in 1830

  • The Conservatives Strike BackFranceBourbons restored under Louis XVIIIBecame a constitutional monarchyCharter keeps most of the gains of the RevolutionTorn in conflict between liberals and conservativesRepression returns by 1821

  • The Conservatives Strike BackBritainWorkers and farmers agitate against government taxesParliament passes Combination Acts outlawing unions in 1799Peterloo MassacreArmy fires on striking workersParliament passes Six Acts in 1819 restricting free speech

  • Revolution EruptsGreecePart of the Ottoman Empire for 500 yearsGreeks launch revolution in 1821Has the sympathy of other European powersGreek Revolution shows weakness of the Ottoman EmpireSpurs Eastern QuestionGreece becomes independent kingdomSerbia also declares independence

  • Revolution EruptsLatin AmericaFrench Revolution and Napoleonic Wars lead Spanish and Portuguese colonies to declare independence in 1820Most of the emerging countries undemocratic and poorBritain keeps Spain and Portugal from regaining colonies

  • Revolution EruptsFrance Revolution of 1830Louis XVIII dies in 1824, Charles X succeeds himCharles X attempts to roll back constitutional governmentOverthrown in 1830; Louis Philippe becomes KingFrance remains a constitutional monarchy under control of the middle class

  • Revolution EruptsBelgiumAdded to Holland in 1815Belgians demand their independenceBased on nationalism; Belgians are Catholic, Dutch are ProtestantBelgium becomes an independent kingdomProtection assured by major European powers

  • Revolution EruptsBritainNo revolution, but makes reformsCatholic Emancipation Act (1829) allows Irish Catholics to vote and hold office in IrelandGreat Reform Bill (1832) expands electorate by including the middle class

  • ConclusionEurope after the Napoleonic Wars torn in struggle between conservatism and nationalism and liberalismConservatives try to reverse the influences of the French RevolutionEach country tries to deal with the consequences of the new order

  • The Revolution of 1848The Springtime of Peoples

    The turning point at which history failed to turn.-- George Macaulay Trevelyn [1937]

  • Revolutions of 1848Causes (Simplistic) Liberals from middle class demand rightsEconomic slowdownPoor harvestsNationalism among European minorities

  • Revolution of 1848FranceRuled by Louis Philippe since 1830Corruption in the governmentPoor harvestsHigh prices for foodWorking class demonstrate in ParisWomen demanded equal rightsDemand workshops and relief for unemployedSoldiers fire on workersLouis Philippe abdicates February 24, 1848

  • Revolution of 1848Second Republic declaredLouis Napoleon BonaparteNephew of Napoleon BonaparteElected President of the Second Republic in 1848Takes power in 1851; constitution did not allow president to be reelectedDeclared himself Emperor Napoleon III in 1852

  • Revolution of 1848AustriaNationalism among minorities Hungarians (Magyars) demand independenceStudents lead uprising in ViennaMetternich resigns and leaves the countryEmperor Ferdinand I agrees to a liberal constitution under pressureFerdinand abdicates in 1848; nephew Francis Joseph becomes Emperor and takes back the constitution

  • Revolution of 1848AustriaMagyar RevoltHungarians demand autonomy for HungaryDemand to rule over other minorities MagyarizationPut down by the Austrians with Russian helpCzech RevoltSlavs in Bohemia and Moravia demand same autonomy as in HungaryBeginning of Pan-SlavismSlavs from all over Europe want to unite into one stateUsed by the Russians to further their goalsPut down by the Austrians

  • Revolution of 1848ItalyDivided into separate city-statesNorthern Italy under Austrian ruleItalians revolt against the AustriansPut down by the Austrian armyRevolution spreads through other parts of ItalyLed by Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe GaribaldiRevolutions put down by French troops

  • Revolution of 1848GermanyRevolution in PrussiaLiberals demand reformsFrederick William IV agrees to reformsNew constitution writtenVoting based on taxes paid

  • Revolution of 1848GermanyThe Frankfurt AssemblyLiberals demand changes to the German confederationLiberals meet in Frankfurt to write a new constitution for a united GermanyHad no support from military or German rulersDisputes over borders of a united GermanyCrown offered to Frederick William IV of PrussiaSays, No, thanks.Germanys last chance at a democracy for 100 years

  • ConclusionUnrest throughout Europe caused Revolution of 1848Liberals desired greater political participationNationalities demanded independenceConservatives manage to put down rebellionsFew revolutionary goals achievedModerate liberals withdrew when more radical demands are presented