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    COURSE NAME: HISTORY OF INTERIOR DESIGNPROPOSED BY: DR.MOHAMED ALNEJEMSEMESTER: FIRST 2015/2016

    CHAPTER (5): -The Renaissance in Italy-Baroque and Rococo in Italy and Northern Europe

    Oman College of Management & Technology

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    CHAPTER 5 :

    The Renaissance in Italy

    Baroque and Rococo in Italy

    and Northern Europe

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    The Renaissance

    in Italy

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    What was the Renaissance?

    A period after the Middle Ages.

    The start of the modern world

    New interest in old stuff, like Greece & Rome

    Changes in thought about art, religion, literature, education

    Where did the renaissance Start?

    Began in Italy

    Later spread north to Germany and England

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    The term renaissance means

    rebirth, and stems from ideas

    formulated by the Italian poet

    Petrarch.

    Petrarch believed that he and his

    contemporaries had revived Greek

    and Roman ideas and thought after

    a period of cultural stagnation in

    the Dark Ages following the

    collapse of the Roman Empire.

    The Italian city of Florence is

    often described as the cradle of the

    Renaissance.

    The term renaissance:

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    Renaissance (14001600)o Means rebirtho Refers to the time period and the style of arto A renewed interest in Classical thinking, mythology, and art.

    Humanismo Philosophical approach that stressed the intellectual and physical

    potential of human beings.

    Religiono Reformation and Counter-Reformationo Catholic and Protestant beliefs were reflected in the art of the

    Italian Renaissance and the northern Renaissance.

    The Renaissance in Italy:

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    The Early Renaissance .

    The High Renaissance .

    Late Renaissance and Mannerism.

    The Renaissance period in Italy:

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    The Early Renaissance in Italy

    Renewed interest in the Classical past- Study of mathematics and science encouraged the systematicunderstanding of the world.

    Art was a balance of the real and ideal- Realistic depictions of three-dimensional space and perspective- Idealistic portrayal of mythological or religious subjects, and the nudefigure .

    The artist Giotto represents the transition between the art of theMiddle Ages and the early Renaissance.

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    Building the cathedral began in 1296, but it was still incomplete more than 100 years later.

    No one had figured out how to build its enormous dome

    In 1419 a competition to design the dome was held, Italian sculptor and architect Filippo Brunelleschi won

    Florence Cathedral

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    Dome of Florence Cathedral

    The construction of Brunelleschis dome began in 1420

    - It took 16 years to complete

    Dome was a great technological challenge

    - 140 feet in diameter, and 170 feet above ground at its top

    - Brunelleschi designed the system and equipment for building it

    - The dome structure was built layer by layer

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    Masaccio, Tribute Money

    Masaccio is a nickname, meaning Big Clumsy Tom

    Masaccio applied linear perspective (Brunelleschis invention) in Tribute Money

    -All elements use the same scale

    -Vanishing point and focal point

    -Atmospheric perspective

    -Creates the believable illusion of three-dimensional space

    Chiaroscuro

    -Used to create realistic shading and modeling

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    The High Renaissance in Italy

    Beginning of the 16th century

    Continued development of making art look believable-Rules of perspective

    -Ideal and real

    -Religious and mythological subject matter

    Three great Italian artists dominated this period:-Leonardo da Vinci

    -Michelangelo

    -Raphael

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    Late Renaissance and Mannerism

    c. 15301600

    A time of historical upheaval-1527 Sack of Rome-1530 Charles V crowned Holy Roman Emperor

    Late Renaissance art-A reaction to the high Renaissance-Dissonance instead of harmony-Distortion rather than precision

    Mannerism-From the Italian di maniera, which means charm, grace-Exaggeration for emotional effect

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    Paintings

    Art based on heaven to being based on the natural world

    Inspired by humanism

    Appeared 3D to the human eyes

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    Architecture

    Mathematics gave an insight into Classical methods of proportion and structure

    Defined by flat surfaces and strong lines

    Important part symmetry

    Palazzi

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    Sculpture

    Early Renaissance sculptors took inspiration directly from Classical Roman and Greek sculptor.

    They imbued their free-standing figures with a range of emotions and filled them with energy and thought.

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    Baroquein Italy and Northern Europe

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    Refers to the time period and the style of art.

    Increase in trade, advancements in science.

    Permanent split between Roman Catholics and Protestants.

    Baroque art tends to be full of motion and emotion.

    Baroque (16001750)

    Introduction

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    Baroque history:

    Early Baroque 1540s to 1600s

    High Baroque 1620s onwards

    Reaction against the artificiality of the 16th century Mannerism

    Realism was again in fashion, although appear in different ways

    Two most important groups of Early Baroque were the Naturalists

    and Classicists

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    The term Baroque once had a negative meaning.

    The name is derived from Baroque pearls pearls with unusual, odd

    shapes

    Compared to Renaissance art, it was considered to be over-

    dramatic and the architecture, overly decorated.

    The term (Baroque) :

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    Baroque style:

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    Italian Baroque Spanish Baroque

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    French Baroque Dutch Baroque

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    Architecture: Characteristics

    Long narrow naves replaced by broader or circular forms.

    Dramatic use of light.

    Large-scale ceiling frescoes.

    External faade with dramatic central projection.

    Interior a shell for painting and sculpture.

    Illusory effects.

    Onion domes in Eastern Europe.

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    Sculpture Characteristics:

    The clients are the church and the nobility.

    It is the way of expression of different religious believes.

    It was used as a way of advertising power.

    Works are located in public places, such as courtyards and fountains.

    Creation of images that can be seen from different points of view.

    Tendency to open structures.

    Complicated lines, being the diagonal the most used.

    Interest for the effects of light:

    -different treatment of surfaces

    -Resource to breaking wall to get the ideal illumination

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    Painting

    Subjects: religious and profane (mythological, allegorical, historicalor portraits).

    Composition: complicated; taste for big groups, with different centresof attention. Portraits are just essential.

    Lines: dynamic and complicate. Diagonal is the most used orcombinations of horizontal and vertical.

    Colour: rich, with great effects due to the use of oil and contrastdepending on the areas.

    Strange elements: secondary plans, mirrors.

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    Rococoin Italy and Northern Europe

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    Rococo

    French style for interior decoration

    It developped mainly at the end of 1720

    It was used in other countries as a French Style

    Characteristics:

    Galante: luxurious things

    Contraste: asymmety

    Chinoiserie: exotic character imitating Chinese arts

    The Rococo style :

    Typical of Rococo style :

    oPastel color scheme

    oSmall scale works

    oDelicate rendering of objects and figures

    o Idyllic settings

    oFte galante and leisure activity of French aristocracy

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    Rococo Architecture

    It caught the public taste

    Small and strange buildings

    Elegant parlours, dainty sitting-rooms.

    Walls, ceiling, furniture and works of metal as decoration

    Ensemble of sportive, fantastic and sculptured forms

    Horizontal lines almost completely supressed

    Shell-like curves

    Walls covered by stucco

    White and bright colours.

    Rococo Sculpture

    There is not a breaking with the former

    The tune was set by courts and it is decorative

    Staircases, columns with atlantes become common

    Gardens and parks were adorned more than ever before with statues.

    The social role of sculpture increased to show the power of dynasties and nobility, mainly when cities expanded

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    Characteristics

    Theme was the pursuit of pleasure

    Romantic love was depicted as sensual.

    Pastels and muted colors

    Attention to finer details

    Public expressions of fashion .

    Rococo Painting

    Characteristics:

    Flowing curves and flourishes

    Freeform

    Gilded with precious metals

    References the feminine form

    Lots of color

    Rococo Furnishings