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COURSE NAME: HISTORY OF INTERIOR DESIGNPROPOSED BY: DR.MOHAMED ALNEJEMSEMESTER: FIRST 2015/2016
CHAPTER (5): -The Renaissance in Italy-Baroque and Rococo in Italy and Northern Europe
Oman College of Management & Technology
CHAPTER 5 :
The Renaissance in Italy
Baroque and Rococo in Italy
and Northern Europe
What was the Renaissance?
A period after the Middle Ages.
The start of the modern world
New interest in old stuff, like Greece & Rome
Changes in thought about art, religion, literature, education
Where did the renaissance Start?
Began in Italy
Later spread north to Germany and England
The term renaissance means
rebirth, and stems from ideas
formulated by the Italian poet
Petrarch believed that he and his
contemporaries had revived Greek
and Roman ideas and thought after
a period of cultural stagnation in
the Dark Ages following the
collapse of the Roman Empire.
The Italian city of Florence is
often described as the cradle of the
The term renaissance:
Renaissance (14001600)o Means rebirtho Refers to the time period and the style of arto A renewed interest in Classical thinking, mythology, and art.
Humanismo Philosophical approach that stressed the intellectual and physical
potential of human beings.
Religiono Reformation and Counter-Reformationo Catholic and Protestant beliefs were reflected in the art of the
Italian Renaissance and the northern Renaissance.
The Renaissance in Italy:
The Early Renaissance .
The High Renaissance .
Late Renaissance and Mannerism.
The Renaissance period in Italy:
The Early Renaissance in Italy
Renewed interest in the Classical past- Study of mathematics and science encouraged the systematicunderstanding of the world.
Art was a balance of the real and ideal- Realistic depictions of three-dimensional space and perspective- Idealistic portrayal of mythological or religious subjects, and the nudefigure .
The artist Giotto represents the transition between the art of theMiddle Ages and the early Renaissance.
Building the cathedral began in 1296, but it was still incomplete more than 100 years later.
No one had figured out how to build its enormous dome
In 1419 a competition to design the dome was held, Italian sculptor and architect Filippo Brunelleschi won
Dome of Florence Cathedral
The construction of Brunelleschis dome began in 1420
- It took 16 years to complete
Dome was a great technological challenge
- 140 feet in diameter, and 170 feet above ground at its top
- Brunelleschi designed the system and equipment for building it
- The dome structure was built layer by layer
Masaccio, Tribute Money
Masaccio is a nickname, meaning Big Clumsy Tom
Masaccio applied linear perspective (Brunelleschis invention) in Tribute Money
-All elements use the same scale
-Vanishing point and focal point
-Creates the believable illusion of three-dimensional space
-Used to create realistic shading and modeling
The High Renaissance in Italy
Beginning of the 16th century
Continued development of making art look believable-Rules of perspective
-Ideal and real
-Religious and mythological subject matter
Three great Italian artists dominated this period:-Leonardo da Vinci
Late Renaissance and Mannerism
A time of historical upheaval-1527 Sack of Rome-1530 Charles V crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Late Renaissance art-A reaction to the high Renaissance-Dissonance instead of harmony-Distortion rather than precision
Mannerism-From the Italian di maniera, which means charm, grace-Exaggeration for emotional effect
Art based on heaven to being based on the natural world
Inspired by humanism
Appeared 3D to the human eyes
Mathematics gave an insight into Classical methods of proportion and structure
Defined by flat surfaces and strong lines
Important part symmetry
Early Renaissance sculptors took inspiration directly from Classical Roman and Greek sculptor.
They imbued their free-standing figures with a range of emotions and filled them with energy and thought.
Baroquein Italy and Northern Europe
Refers to the time period and the style of art.
Increase in trade, advancements in science.
Permanent split between Roman Catholics and Protestants.
Baroque art tends to be full of motion and emotion.
Early Baroque 1540s to 1600s
High Baroque 1620s onwards
Reaction against the artificiality of the 16th century Mannerism
Realism was again in fashion, although appear in different ways
Two most important groups of Early Baroque were the Naturalists
The term Baroque once had a negative meaning.
The name is derived from Baroque pearls pearls with unusual, odd
Compared to Renaissance art, it was considered to be over-
dramatic and the architecture, overly decorated.
The term (Baroque) :
Italian Baroque Spanish Baroque
French Baroque Dutch Baroque
Long narrow naves replaced by broader or circular forms.
Dramatic use of light.
Large-scale ceiling frescoes.
External faade with dramatic central projection.
Interior a shell for painting and sculpture.
Onion domes in Eastern Europe.
The clients are the church and the nobility.
It is the way of expression of different religious believes.
It was used as a way of advertising power.
Works are located in public places, such as courtyards and fountains.
Creation of images that can be seen from different points of view.
Tendency to open structures.
Complicated lines, being the diagonal the most used.
Interest for the effects of light:
-different treatment of surfaces
-Resource to breaking wall to get the ideal illumination
Subjects: religious and profane (mythological, allegorical, historicalor portraits).
Composition: complicated; taste for big groups, with different centresof attention. Portraits are just essential.
Lines: dynamic and complicate. Diagonal is the most used orcombinations of horizontal and vertical.
Colour: rich, with great effects due to the use of oil and contrastdepending on the areas.
Strange elements: secondary plans, mirrors.
Rococoin Italy and Northern Europe
French style for interior decoration
It developped mainly at the end of 1720
It was used in other countries as a French Style
Galante: luxurious things
Chinoiserie: exotic character imitating Chinese arts
The Rococo style :
Typical of Rococo style :
oPastel color scheme
oSmall scale works
oDelicate rendering of objects and figures
o Idyllic settings
oFte galante and leisure activity of French aristocracy
It caught the public taste
Small and strange buildings
Elegant parlours, dainty sitting-rooms.
Walls, ceiling, furniture and works of metal as decoration
Ensemble of sportive, fantastic and sculptured forms
Horizontal lines almost completely supressed
Walls covered by stucco
White and bright colours.
There is not a breaking with the former
The tune was set by courts and it is decorative
Staircases, columns with atlantes become common
Gardens and parks were adorned more than ever before with statues.
The social role of sculpture increased to show the power of dynasties and nobility, mainly when cities expanded
Theme was the pursuit of pleasure
Romantic love was depicted as sensual.
Pastels and muted colors
Attention to finer details
Public expressions of fashion .
Flowing curves and flourishes
Gilded with precious metals
References the feminine form
Lots of color