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The Renaissance & Reformation Chapters 13 & 15

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The Renaissance & Reformation. Chapters 13 & 15. Renaissance. Renaissance= “Rebirth”  change from ancient/medieval times to modern Applied to cultural changes= more emphasis on “self” instead of religion - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Page 1: The Renaissance & Reformation

The Renaissance & Reformation

Chapters 13 & 15

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Renaissance Renaissance= “Rebirth”

change from ancient/medieval times to modern Applied to cultural changes=

more emphasis on “self” instead of religion

Humanism: focused on individual & intellectual achievement; studied classic culture of Greece & Rome

Humanities: subjects of rhetoric, poetry, history

Petrarch= humanist poet

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Italian Renaissance

Italy= birthplace of Renaissance and of Catholic Church, center of Roman Empire Catholic Church= patron of the arts

Italy= Center of trade, good location

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Renaissance Art

Art reflected humanist ideas & techniques

Perspective: allowed artists to create realistic scenes & looked 3-D Leonardo Da Vinci Michelangelo Raphael

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Book of Courtier, Baldassare Castiglione How to be a well-mannered,

well-educated, aristocrat or courtier

The Prince, Niccolo Machiavelli Guide for how rulers

should gain and maintain power/ code of conduct

These are both “how to” books!

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Printing Revolution

Northern Europe= good economy

Printing Press: (1440)invented by Johann Gutenburg

1455: First Bible printed

Printed books= easier to produce, affordable= PRINTING REVOLUTION!

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Northern Renaissance Flanders: Prosperous city of

Renaissance--> center of trade

Painters used realism and vibrant colors to paint landscapes and religious scenes

Albrecht Durer: Italian painter & pioneer in spreading Renaissance ideas throughout Northern Europe

Made engravings popular & used religious themes

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Renaissance Writers

Erasmus: translated Bible into vernacular to be understood by common people

William Shakespeare: poet/playwright wrote 37 plays, complex language, genius

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What was the Renaissance?

2 Parts:

1. A shift in thought: A focus on the right now & secular/“worldly”, rather

than the religious/Heaven New emphasis on individual achievement/self

2. An openness to experimentation: Exploring the world (Columbus) Scientific inquiry (Galileo, Copernicus) Trying new techniques in art (Michelangelo) Challenging religious doctrine (Luther)

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Renaissance & Religion

1500s Renaissance leads to religious confusion People questioned the

lavish lifestyles of the clergy (Popes & priests)

People questioned the authority of the Roman Catholic Church

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Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther: German monk in Wittenburg Outraged that Church sold indulgences

to Christians to pay for rebuilding of cathedral in Rome

Indulgences: replaced punishments for sins

95 Theses: arguments against pope & Church nailed to church doors furious debate

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Protestant Reformation

Charles V (5th): Holy Roman Emperor summoned Luther to assembly & ordered him to change 95 Theses

Luther refused, because he believed all Christians deserved equal access to God & Bible

Printing presses spread Luther’s message & it became the Protestant Reformation

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John Calvin: challenged Catholic church in Switzerland & agreed w/ Luther

Predestination: belief that all events have already been determined by God

Set up theocracy (church+govt) & spread reforms, gained followers= Calvinists

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Protestant Groups

Reformation spreads, new Protestant sects(groups) organize to influence many countries

Many rejected Catholic idea of infant baptism “children not old enough to make decision of salvation”

Gives rise to new denominations: Baptists, Amish, Methodists, etc…

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English Reformation

Henry VIII: broke w/ Catholic Church to divorce wife, Catherine of Aragon Had 1 child: Mary Tudor, but wanted son Divorced Catherine to marry Anne Boleyn Catholic pope refused to annul marriage

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English Ref (cont) Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII

established himself as head of Church of England Catholics refused to recognize this

Elizabeth I: daughter of Henry & Anne B Takes throne after Mary dies (After Edward)

Edward VI: son of Henry w/ 6th wife, took throne @ age of 9 Made many Protestant reforms

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Catholic Reformation

Catholics wanted to end corruption w/in Church & revive Catholic faith Council of Trent, est. education

Mary Tudor restored Catholicism in England, est. Inquisition Tortured & executed


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The Center of the Universe

Heart of Scientific Revolution= mathematical reasoning

Before 1500s= earth was center of universe

Heliocentric: Sun-centered universe Discovered by Nicolaus

Copernicus (1543) Tycho Brahe: provided evidence

to support Copernicus’ theory

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Earth, Space, & the Church

Johannes Kepler: used Brahe’s info to calculate planetary orbit

Galileo: assembled telescope & saw 4 moons of Jupiter Attacked by society & the Church

because he challenged Christian teachings

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Science & Methods

Hypothesis: scientists used observations, experiments, & data to explain reasoning

Process became known as scientific method

Sir Francis Bacon & Rene Descartes= developed scientific method

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Science of Change

Robert Boyle: explained matter is composed of particles chemistry

Isaac Newton: used mathematics to show planetary orbits & force of gravity Also developed calculus to

explain his theories