the respiratory system by enrique ramirez ismael morales britney still brenda pedilla
Embed Size (px)
The Respiratory System
View of Our system
What is the respiratory system?
• The respiratory system is made up of the organs in your body that help you to breathe. Remember, that Respiration = Breathing. The goal of breathing is to deliver oxygen to the body and to take away carbon dioxide.
5 Basic Functions
• Provide large area for gas exchange between air and blood circulation
• Moving air to and from the gas exchange surface of the lungs
• Protects the respiratory surface from dehydration and temperature changes and defending against invading pathogens
• Producing sound permitting speech, singing, non-verbal, auditory communication .
• Providing olfate sensation to the central nervous system for sense of SMELL.
Organization of Respiratory System
• Nose (Nasal Cavity & Para nasal Sinus)• Pharynx (Throat)• Larynx (Voice Box)• Trachea (Wind Pipe)• Bronchi• Lungs
Primary function is Breathing
• The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases is the respiratory system's means of getting oxygen to the blood.
• Each day we breathe about 20,000 times. All of this breathing couldn't happen without help from the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, voice box, windpipe, and lungs. With each breath, you take in air through your nostrils and mouth, and your lungs fill up and empty out. As air is inhaled, the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth warm and humidify the air.
• Carbon dioxide is the waste gas that is produced when carbon is combined with oxygen as part of the body's energy-making processes. The lungs and respiratory system allow oxygen in the air to be taken into the body, while also enabling the body to get rid of carbon dioxide in the air breathed out. Now Let’s Begin
Two Major Divisions
• The respiratory system is separated into two major division.
• The first is the Conduction Zone• It makes air move in and out of the lungs • The Second is the Respiratory Zone • The exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
The Conductor Zone
• The conduction zone consist of the nose pharynx larynx trachea bronchi and bronchioles These structures form a continuous passageway for air to move in and out of the lungs
The Respiratory Zone
• The respiratory zone is found deep inside the lungs and is made up of the respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts and alveoli these thin-walled structures allow inhaled (O₂). to diffuse into the lungs capillaries in exchange for carbon dioxide or (CO₂)
• Besides the Respiratory system to spilt between the Conductor Zone and Respiratory Zone there is another.
• There are two tracts in the respiratory . • The Upper and lower respiratory tract .
The Upper Respiratory Tract
• The upper respiratory tract structures are found in head and neck and consist of nose pharynx and larynx Now Let’s Begin
• The First portion of the Respiratory tract is Made up of the Nose. And the Nasal Cavity
• The Nose serves as air exchange • The Two anterior Nares or
Nostrils allow air to enter the nose and pass the nasal cavity
• Inside the nasal cavity inhaled air is warmed moistened and cleaned so it can travel safely to the next process. Also the nasal cavity detects chemical odorants and resonate the voice after circulating over the nasal cavity Structure air passes into the pharynx through the Posterior Nares
Nose (Nasal Cavity & Para nasal Sinus) (continued)
• The Pharynx is a four to five inch Tube that conducts air from the nasal cavity to the larynx it’s divide into Three region
• Nasopharynx. Located behind the nasal cavity • Oropharynx. Located behind the tongue• Laryngopharynx. Located behind the Larynx. What a surprise
• The larynx is a small tube that is located in the throat below the base of the hynoid bone and tongue and anterior esophagus.
• Making the walls are several cartilages, ligaments and Mucosal or mucus.
• Allows you to swallow • It also houses the vocal ligaments the produces
sound or the Voice box.
The Lower Respiratory Track
• The lower respiratory track structures are located in the thorax or chest and include the trachea bronchi and lungs (= Bronchioles alveolar ducts and alveoli)
• The trachea is sometimes called the windpipe. The trachea filters the air we breathe and branches into the bronchi.
• The Trachea or windpipe is a 4-5 inch tube that runs through the lower neck and chest it’s function is to conduct air between larynx and primary bronchi
• In the walls of the Trachea are 16-20 hyaline cartilages rings. They stiffen the walls so that the air can flow
• Breathing starts with a dome-shaped muscle at the bottom of the lungs called the diaphragm . When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts. When it contracts it flattens out and pulls downward. This movement enlarges the space that the lungs are in. This larger space pulls air into the lungs. When you breathe out, the diaphragm expands reducing the amount of space for the lungs and forcing air out. The diaphragm is the main muscle used in breathing.
• So how do we breath . • The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory
system. In the lungs oxygen is taken into the body and carbon dioxide is breathed out. The red blood cells are responsible for picking up the oxygen in the lungs and carrying the oxygen to all the body cells that need it. The red blood cells drop off the oxygen to the body cells, then pick up the carbon dioxide which is a waste gas product produced by our cells. The red blood cells transport the carbon dioxide back to the lungs and we breathe it out when we exhale.
Lungs Yet Again>:
• The right and left lungs are soft elastic organs that occupy most of the thoracic cavity. That’s why your heart is located near your breast bone.
• Much of the tissues of the lungs are Branching tubes. Bronchi, Bronchioles, and alveolar ducts.
• Surrounding the tubes are 300 million alveoli and blood vessels
• Breathing starts with a dome-shaped muscle at the bottom of the lungs called the diaphragm When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts. When it contracts it flattens out and pulls downward. This movement enlarges the space that the lungs are in. This larger space pulls air into the lungs. When you breathe out, the diaphragm expands reducing the amount of space for the lungs and forcing air out. The diaphragm is the main muscle used in breathing.
Alveolus or Alveoli inDepet.
• The alveoli are the final branching of the respiratory tree and act as the primary gas exchange units of the lung. The gas-blood barrier between the alveolar space and the pulmonary capillaries is extremely thin, allowing for rapid gas exchange. To reach the blood, oxygen must diffuse through the alveolar epithelium, a thin interstitial space, and the capillary endothelium; CO2 follows the reverse course to reach the alveoli. There are two types of alveolar epithelial cells. Type I cells have long cytoplasmic extensions which spread out thinly along the alveolar walls and comprise the thin alveolar epithelium. Type II cells are more compact and are responsible for producing surfactant, a phospholipids which lines the alveoli and serves to differentially reduce surface tension at different volumes, contributing to alveolar stability.
The lungs and Alveoli
The Inhalation and Exhalation.
Bronchi .Bronchus What’s The deferens
• The bronchi are two air tubes that branch off of the trachea and carry air directly into the lungs.
• Superior Cortex• Inferior Cortex
• We breathe 13 pints of air every minute.
2. Each lung contains 300-350 million respiratory units called alveoli making it a total of 700 million in both lungs.
3. More than half a liter of water per day is lost through breathing.
4. People under 30 years of age take in double the amount of oxygen in comparison to a 80 year old.
5. Yawning brings more oxygen to the lungs .
• Why Do I Yawn? When you are sleepy or drowsy the lungs do not take enough oxygen from the air. This causes a shortage of oxygen in our bodies. The brain senses this shortage of oxygen and sends a message that causes you to take a deep long breath---a YAWN.
• Why Do I Sneeze? Sneezing is like a cough in the upper breathing passages. It is the body's way of removing an irritant from the sensitive mucous membranes of the nose. Many things can irritate the mucous membranes. Dust, pollen, pepper or even a cold blast of air are just some of the many things that may cause you to sneeze.
• What Causes Hiccups? Hiccups are the sudden movements of the diaphragm. It is involuntary --- you have no control over hiccups, as you well know. There are many causes of hiccups. The diaphragm may get irritated, you may have eaten to fast, or maybe some substance in the blood could even have brought on the hiccups.
• Smoking kills over 400,000 people a year -- more than one in six people in the United States -- making it more lethal than AIDS, automobile accidents, homicides, suicides, drug overdoses, and fires combined
• People who are exposed to second-hand or side-stream smoke are also at risk. Smoke that is exhaled not only contains the same dangerous contaminants as inhaled smoke, but the exhaled smoke particles are smaller, so that they can reach distant sites in the lungs of involuntary or passive smokers and do great harm.
• Smoking a cigarette raises the blood pressure by 5-10 mm Hg for about 30 minutes. If this is combined with drinking a cup of coffee, the effects are bigger and last longer.
• Surgeon General Changing Smoking . So that the Cigarettes would imprint the label of smoking and there wrong doings.
• Tobacco companies had countered the reports -- which purported to show links between smoking and cancer and other serious diseases -- with denials and competing studies.
• More than 30 years -- and more than 20 Surgeon General reports -- later, the issue appears headed for settlement in the courtroom rather than the laboratory.
Working with Other system
• The Digestive System and Respiratory System~• The well-known digestive system has a basic but important function. First,
food goes down to the throat, and leads to the digestive system. What makes this path is the epiglottis, which opens when air comes through, and closes when food comes down. The digestive system breaks down food into simpler substances that the body can use including proteins. This helps the respiratory system because the lungs need nutrients. The respiratory system helps the digestive system by giving oxygen to the digestive system. Another basic, but important system is the skeletal system.
• ~The Skeletal System and Respiratory System~• The skeletal system is very important. This system is responsible for
protecting the inner body. The skeletal system is like a metal shield covering the body. This system helps the respiratory system by protecting the lungs.
• ~The Circulatory System and Respiratory System~• The circulatory system is very useful. This system transports the food
nutrients, and oxygen to the body cells. It also delivers of carbon dioxide and waste products. This helps the respiratory system by transporting nutrients to keep the lungs clean, and healthy. In return the respiratory system allows air to keep the circulatory system going. The next system is the muscular system.
Working yet again
• ~The Muscular System and Respiratory System~• The muscular system is interesting. In the human body there are three types
of muscle tissue: Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle. The muscular system helps push air come into and leave the respiratory system through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm, which is a muscle. The respiratory system has the lungs that deliver air to the muscles. It is kind of weird to think of or read about how your muscles works, and then knowing what they are doing right at that second.
• ~The Nervous System and Respiratory System~• The nervous system is awesome! This system actually makes you feel what
you feel. It controls your bodies’ activities. Plus, it helps the respiratory system by allowing you feel and know when you are breathing and have somewhat control of it. The nervous system also triggers you to whine or scream when you get physically hurt. These systems are amazing.