the road to war how russia, italy, and germany brought the world to war
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THE ROAD TO WARHOW RUSSIA, ITALY, AND GERMANY BROUGHT THE WORLD TO WAR
RUSSIA IN THE MONARCHYThe Last of the Romanovs to rule RussiaDetermined to keep autocratic governmentfelt the Alexander II, and his reforms were to blame- wanted to hold down reforms-keep a hold of monarchyRomanovs rule for 300 years
1. Early 20c: Russian Social Hierarchy
First Stages of IndustrializationAn Early Russian Factory
3. Weak Economy1905 Russian Rubles
4. Extensive Foreign Investments & InfluenceBuilding the Trans-Siberian RR [Economic benefits only in a few regions.]
5. Russo-Japanese War [1904-1905]The Yellow Peril
Russo-Japanese War [1904-1905]
Russo-Japanese War [1904-1905]
Russian & Japanese Soldiers
Russia Is Humiliated
Treaty of Portsmouth [NH] - 1905President Theodore Roosevelt Acts as the Peacemaker [He gets the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.]
1905 REVOLUTIONJanuary 1905 striking workers march for better working conditions Right to strike and other moderate demands.led by Orthodox Priest Gapon- Marched to Winter Palace singing God Save the Tsar- After the assembly starts loyal tsarist troops open fire and kill over 1,000 marchers- Riots and Strikes by workers sweep the city- peasants roam the countryside looting and burning the homes of nobles
BLOODY SUNDAY 1905
Nicholas and the Royal familyRUSSIA AND WORLD WAR I-War was a disaster for Russia-Russia lost battle after battleThere were shortages in food, clothing guns and ammoLoses wear down the morale of the troopsRussia has troops deserting, rioting peasants, workers striking and Duma members demanding reform, country ripe for reform.
RasputinThe Mad MonkNICHOLAS II AND HIS FATAL MISTAKERussia war effort is demoralizing at home so to help Nicholas goes to the front to take command leaving Alexandra in chargeAlexandra enlist the aid of a man named Rasputin who is supposed to have great power (Improved the health of her son)Gives him power to add and remove people in the governmentAble Russia leaders cant work with him so they quit, many believing that he was working with the GermansDecember 1916 was assassinated by members of the Duma.
Russia March 1917THE REVOLUTION OF MARCH 1917Began spontaneously in March 1917 in PetrogradWar weariness, inflation and shortages of foodNicholas ordered military to put down riots, instead they joined.Government crumbles after thisMarch 15 Tsar Nicholas abdicates in favor of his brotherRevolution quickly spread throughout Russia.
LENINA TEMPORARY FIX TO THE PROBLEMAFTER THE ABDICATIONDUMA (Russian Legislature) POLITICAINS SET UP PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENTSTART MAKING PLANS FOR GOVERNMENT REFORM KEEP RUSSIA IN THE WARBIG MISTAKELENIN AND BOLSHEVIKS WAIT THEIR TURN IN THE WINGS
TrotskyStalinRUSSIAS NEW REGIMELENIN IN SWITZERLAND AT TIME OF REVOLUTIONGERMANS HELP GET LENIN BACK IN RUSSIAINTENSIFY REVOLUTION AND WEAKEN WAR EFFORTFOLLOWERS INCLUDED TROTSKY,AND STALINWANTED END TO WAR, LAND FOR PEASANTSOWNERSHIP OF FACTORIES BY WORKERS
LENIN STRIKES, TAKES CONTROLBOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION STARTS LATE OCTOBER 1917LENIN ORDERS TROOPS TO OVERTHROW PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENTTROOPS LED BY TROTSKY CAPTURE WINTER PALACEBY NOV 7 LENIN IS IN CONTROLKILL ALL CAPTURED GOVERNMENT OFFICIALSESTABLISHED NEW GOVT ON NOV 9 WITH LENIN IN CHARGE
After Lenins death in 1924 Stalin takes overForces Soviets to take Great Leap ForwardLaunches the first in a series of 5 year plans to modernize agriculture and businesses from ground upCollective farms meet with resistanceStalin punished resistant farmers by taking all or most of the food the produced: millions starved, Millions more were forced off land or sent to work camps in SiberiaFood shortages led to rationing
Industrialization was more successfulPoured money into industry hurts standard of living but by 1940 the Soviets are an industrial power.SOVIET PURGESpolitical term for removing enemies and undesirables (opponents of Stalin) fake trialsmillions killed to purify USSR
MUSSOLINI INTRODUCES FASCISM
WHAT IS FASCISMCOMES FROM THE ITALIAN TERM FASCIO MEANING UNION OR LEAGUEWANTS TO HELP COUNTRY REGAIN PRIDE BY GIVING IT A HEIGHTENED SENSE OF NATIONAL PRIDEREJECTS LIBERAL IDEASWANTED THE DESTRUCTION OF ELECTION, LEGISLATURES AND OTHER DEMOCRATIC IDEASREJECTS COMMUNISM, SOCIALISM AS TO INDIVIDUAL.
Fascism gains ground in ItalyWhy did Mussolinis fascist party become popular after World War IItaly suffered badly during the warItaly promised extra land, but not given it. Looked like Italy was being ignoredWeak government after the warRising unemployment
Who was Benito MussoliniSon of a blacksmithBefore WWI he was a SocialistBrilliant organizer, agitator and journalistSet up Fascist party, promised to rebuild ItalyCreated Black shirts who dealt with troublemakers and criminalsHad a newspaper that spread his ideasAs the problems of Italy get worse the people turn to Mussolini to solve Italys problems
MUSSOLINI TAKES CHARGE IN ITALYOCTOBER 1922, MUSSOLINI DEMANDS TO BE MADE PRIME MINISTERKING OF ITALY, SUPPORT MUSSOLINI AND INVITIED HIM TO BECOME PRIME MINISTER
MUSSOLINI DICTATES HIS TAKEOVERMUSSOLINI PERSUADES KING TO ALLOW HIM RULE AS DICTATORTHEN HE PASSED THE ACERBO LAW WHO EVER WON THE NEXT ELECTION WOULD GET MOST SEATS IN PARLIAMENTAPRIL 1924 FASCIST WON 60%MUSSOLINI FULLY IN CHARGESETS UP SECRET POLICE AND CONCENTRATION CAMPS FOR HIS OPPONENTS
MUSSOLINI CHANGES ITALYFIRST OF THE DICTATORSOTHERS COPIED IDEAS BUT DID NOT MAKE SAME MISTAKESPOLITICAL PARTIES WERE BANNEDBOOKS AND NEWSPAPERS WERE CENSOREDEDUCATION WAS CONTROLLEDMUSSOLINI BATTLES TO IMPROVE ECONOMYMUSSOLINI WAS POPULARFOR A WHILE
WHAT DID MUSSOLINI DO WRONG?HE LIED TO THE PEOPLE TO MANY OF HIS WERE PLANS WERE POORLY EXECUTEDMANY ECONOMIC IDEAS FAILEDMOST ITALIANS WORSE OFF BY THE EARLY 1930S Mussolini maintains power by the use of his Black shirted Secret Police
TEACHER AND THE PUPIL
GERMANY INTRODUCES WEIMAR REPUBLICKAISER WILLIAM II ABDICATES UNDER THREAT OF REVOLUTION.- NEW LEADERS SIGN ARMISTICE AND LATER TREATY OF VERSAILLES 1919, NEW GERMAN GOVERNMENT DRAFTS CONSTITUTION IN WEIMAR CREATED DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT KNOWN AS THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC 1919-1933GOVERNMENT LED BY CHANCELLOR & REICHSTAGBILL OF RIGHTS
UNREST IN GERMANYGERMANS OF ALL CLASSES BLAMED THE GOVERNMENT FOR THE HATED VERSAILLES TREATY.MANY ACCUSED MARXISTS AND JEWS FOR AN IMAGINARY CONSPIRACY TO BETRAY GERMANY.
OUT OF CONTROL INFLATIONRIDICULOUS REPARATIONS PAYMENTSRECOVERY IS HELPED BY AMERICAN DAWES PLANSTOPPED BY GREAT DEPRESSIONGERMANY LOOKS TO ENERGETIC LEADER NAMED ADOLF HITLER TO SAVE THEM
HITLER FINDS A CALLINGHITLER DESPISES WEIMAR GOVERNMENTFIND HIS CALLING AS A POLITICANJOINS SMALL RIGHT WING GROUP CALLED NAZINATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS PARTYHE WAS ONE OF THE FIRST MEMBERSWITHIN A YEAR HE WAS THE LEADER BY 1932 THERE WERE 17 MILLION NAZIS
SUPPORT GROWS FOR NEW HITLERFEB. 1920 2,000 PEOPLE LISTEN TO HITLER LAY OUT HIS IDEAS OF NEW GERMANY INCLUDING EXPELING JEWS HITLER READS THE PROTOCOLS OF THE ELDERS OF ZIONANTI SEMITIC BOOK FULL OF LIES ALLOWS HITLER TO BLAME JEWS FOR EVERYTHING
Dates back 3,000 yearsSanskrit word meaning to be goodOften meant life, luck, strength, etc
SwastikaSouthwest Cave DrawingArmy 45th Infantry Division Patch
Storm Battalion (1921) (Storm Troopers)aka Brown ShirtsCreated to:Protect Nazi MeetingsBreak up other groups meetingsTerrorize Nazi opponentsHeaded by Ernst RhmSturmabteilung (SA)
IF AT FIRST YOU DONT SUCCEED TRY AGAIN1923 HITLER TRYS TO TAKE POWER BEER HALL PUTSCHCOUP FAILS AND HITLER IS JAILED SPENDS LESS THAN 1 YEAR IN JAILHE WRITES MEIN KAMPFMAIN THEME WAS SOCIAL DARWINISMFELT GERMAN PEOPLE WERE RACIALLY SUPERIORMASTER RACE OR ARYANSVIEWED JEWS AS A SEPARATE RACE
Mein KampfWanted to title it Four and a Half Years (of Fighting) Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice Part autobiography /part ideologyThe personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew.
HITLER LOOKS TO SEIZE POWER LEGALLYUSING ANTI SEMTISM AND THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES AS CATALYSTS HITLER AND THE NAZIS GAIN A LARGE FOLLOWING1930 ELECTIONS WINS 18% OF THE VOTE
Increases rhetoric / popularityHitler vows to:Make Germany strongNot pay reparationsRepudiate Versailles treatyStamp out corruptionGive every German bread and a job1930 Second largest party in Germany107 seats in ReichstagGreat Depression>
IN 1932 HITLER RUNS FOR PRESIDENT AND WINS 30% OF THE VOTE FORCING A RUNOFF ELECTION.VON HINDENBERG GAIN PRESIDENCY GIVES CHANCELLORSHIP TO HITLER FOR HIS SUPPORT.HITLER IS APPOINTED IN 1933. SUCCEEDS HINDENBURG UPON HIS DEATH IN 1934.
GERMAN DEMOCRACY SET ABLAZE
February 27th, 1933Blames communistsMain opponentNext day HindenburgLimits liberty, expression, press, assembly, associationPermits wire tappingEliminates search warrantsRestricts property ownershipAllowed federal government to take over statesReichstag Fire
Prelude to WarHitlers Brown Shirts quickly seized absolute authority with terror on the streetsHitler made himself dictator of GermanyHe denounced the Treaty of Versailles and begin to rebuild Germanys armed forces.1936- Rome-Berlin Axis was formed1937- Hitler announced plans to obtain lebensraum or living space for Germans through territorial expansion
CONSOLIDATES POWER AND TAKES POSITION AS DICTATOR.ELIMINATES ALL CHALLENGER