The Romance Balkans

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<p>THE ROMANCE BALKANS Collection of papers</p> <p>SRPSKA AKADEMIJA NAUKA I UMETNOSTI</p> <p>BALKANOLO[KI INSTITUTPOSEBNA IZDAWA 103</p> <p>ROMANSKI BALKANZbornik radova sa me|unarodnog nau~nog skupa odr`anog 46. novembra 2006. Urednici Biqana Sikimi} Tijana A{i}</p> <p>Beograd 2008</p> <p>SERBIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS</p> <p>INSTITUTE FOR BALKAN STUDIESSPECIAL EDITIONS 103</p> <p>THE ROMANCE BALKANSCollection of papers presented at the international conference The Romance Balkans, 46 November 2006</p> <p>Edited by Biljana Sikimi} Tijana A{i}</p> <p>Belgrade 2008</p> <p>Published by Institute for Balkan Studies Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Belgrade, 35 Knez Mihailova St. e-mail: balkinst@sanu.ac.yu www.balkaninstitut.com</p> <p>Editorial Board Tijana A{i}, Andrej N. Sobolev, Biljana Sikimi}, Annemarie Sorescu-Marinkovi}, Julijana Vu~o Editor in Chief Nikola Tasi}</p> <p>Reviewed by Prof. Dr. Aleksandar Loma, corresponding member, SASA Prof. Dr. Vesna PolovinaPublication of this collection of papers was financed by the project Ethnic and social stratification of the Balkans supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.</p> <p>CONTENTS</p> <p>The Romance Balkans: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Etymology and Language History</p> <p>7</p> <p>Klaus Steinke: Contribution of Latin to the Balkansprachbund . . . . Helmut Schaller: Balkanromanischer Einfluss auf das Bulgarische . Alexander Falileyev: Roman and Pre-Roman: the Balkans and Hispania. A case of mal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anna Kretschmer: Djordje Brankovi} as etymologist: ethnonyms and toponyms in the Balkans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maslina Ljubi~i}: Geosynonyms in the seventeenth-century Croatian dictionary. About some Italianisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maja Kalezi}: Calamus (reflexes of Latin names as designations for the plant species Acorus calamus L. in Serbo-Croatian language) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ljiljana Dimitrova-Todorova: Sur letymologie de quelques mots demprunt roumains en bulgare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Todor At. Todorov: Trois mots demprunt roumains dans les parlers bulgares: kornica, p, trantuvam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Language Contact</p> <p>17 27 37 45 65</p> <p>73 83 89</p> <p>Christian Voss: Romanisch-slawische Sprachkontakte: Balkanisierung, Akkommodation oder Gegenakkulturation? . . . . . . . . . . Xhelal Ylli: Aromunische Interferenzen in den slavischen Minderheiten Albaniens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Andrej N. Sobolev: On some Aromanian grammatical patterns in the Balkan Slavonic dialects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thede Kahl: Does the Aromanian have a chance of survival? Some thoughts about the loss of language and language preservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kleanti Anovska: Sociolinguistic aspects in the Aromanian folk tales</p> <p>97 107 113</p> <p>123 141</p> <p>Anna A. Plotnikova: RussianRomanian contacts in folk culture in the Balkans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petya Assenova, Vassilka Aleksova: Observations sur la romanite balkanique en Bulgarie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annemarie Sorescu-Marinkovi}: The Bayash in Croatia: Romanian vernaculars in Baranja and Medjimurje. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biljana Sikimi}: Karavlachs in Bosnia and Herzegovina today . . . . Corinna Leschber: RomanianSerbian code-mixing phenomena . . . Marijana Petrovi} Rignault: Do- : etude dun prefixe verbal en valaque . Ingmar Sohrman: A cognitive approach to case-marked and prepositional genitival constructions in Romanian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jelena Filipovi}, Ivana Vu~ina Simovi}: Language and identity among the Sephardim in the territory of the former Yugoslavia . . . . . Ana Jovanovi}, Marija Mati}: Language acquisition through exposure to Hispanic telenovelas: an excuse? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tatjana [otra: Autour de la francophonie et de la francophilie en Serbie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tijana A{i}, Veran Stanojevi}: Lemploi des temps verbaux chez les locuteurs non-natifs du franais le cas de gastarbeiters serbes, valaques et tziganes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Julijana Vu~o: Foreign language policy: the Italian language in Serbia and Montenegro today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .</p> <p>151 161 173 227 247 261 289 303 319 339</p> <p>351 375</p> <p>ETYMOLOGY AND LANGUAGE HISTORY</p> <p>LANGUAGE CONTACT</p> <p>Collection of papers THE ROMANCE BALKANS Published by Institute for Balkan Studies Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Belgrade, 35 Knez Mihailova St. e-mail: balkinst@sanu.ac.yu www.balkaninstitut.com Graphical Design Davor Pal~i} Cover Design Sladjana Rajli} Cover Vlach traditional costume at the village fair in Urovica, north-eastern Serbia, photo by Annemarie Sorescu Marinkovi} Copy Editor, Translator and Lector Aleksandra Popovi}, Vladimir Pavlovi} Printed by PUBLISH Printed in 500 copies CIP Katalogizacija u publikaciji Narodna biblioteka Srbije, Beograd 811.13(082) 811.16 (082) INTERNATIONAL Concerence The Romance Balkans (2006 ; Beograd) The Romance Balkans : collection of papers presented at the International Conference The Romance Balkans, 46 November 2006 / edited by Biljana Sikimi}, Tijana A{i} ; translator Aleksandra Popovi}, Vladimir Pavlovi}. Belgrade : Institute for Balkan Studies SASA, 2008 (Belgrade : Publish). 386 str. : ilustr. ; 24 cm. (Specijal Editions / Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Institute for Balkan Studies ; 103) Na spor. nasl. str. : Romanski Balkan. Radovi na engl. , franc. i nem. jeziku. Biljana Sikimi} and Tijana A{i}. Napomene i bibliografske reference uz tekst. Bibliografija uz svaki rad. ISBN 978-86-7179-060-4 a) Romanski jezici Zbornici b) Slovenski jezici Zbornici COBISS.ST-ID 150841612</p> <p>THE ROMANCE BALKANS: INTRODUCTION</p> <p>THE ROMANCE BALKANS: INTRODUCTIONThe Romance Balkans resulted from a conference held from 4 to 6 November 2006 in Belgrade by members of the Commission on Balkan Linguistics of the International Committee of Slavists and attended by Balkanologists and Romanists dealing in various aspects of the Romance languages. The meeting brought together linguists from separate Balkan-related areas and scholars in other fields of the humanities in an effort to help the linguists move towards an interdisciplinary approach as a sine qua non in Balkan Studies. Notwithstanding the Romance title of this collection, and although English, French and German are the meta-languages, the link with Slavistics remains the common thread running through almost all contributions, including this Introduction. The Balkan Romance languages, from the current synchronic aspect, include (Daco-) Romanian as spoken in Romania and Moldova and the Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian of the Central Balkans. The papers collected here expand this to the maximum by adding, along with Daco-Romanian dialects, Ladino and contemporary contacts between Balkan and non-Balkan Romance languages. From the diachronic aspect, this volume does not pretend to give a systematic overview of Balkan Romance. However, Balcania Romana, Orthodoxa, Islamica and Judaica are all represented. It also takes account of a revision of the theory on the Roman origin of Balkanisms (Lindstedt 2000) as a mutual reinforcement of change. The convergence model is corroborated by the fact that the Balkan Sprachbund properties are most numerous in those parts of the Balkans where the greatest number of languages are co-territorial. The epicentre of Balkanisms seems to be in the area around the southern parts of the lakes of Ohrid and Prespa, where Greek, Albanian, Macedonian and Aromanian intersect. The</p> <p>8</p> <p>THE ROMANCE BALKANS</p> <p>structures of local dialects of the languages spoken in this area are actually very perspicuously similar to each other (Mi{eska Tomi} 2004). Nonetheless, these are only papers collected from the conference (with minimal subsequent editorial intervention), and the objective is not to offer a representative overview of the present situation in European Balkan linguistics. The Commission on Balkan Slavic Linguistics of the International Committee of Slavists, founded in 1993, holds regular meetings in various Balkan studies centres as part of topic-focused scholarly conferences. The official Commission meetings were held in April 1997 in Marburg (Germany) under the title Current Problems of Balkan Linguistics. Basic questions of the Balkan Linguistic Atlas; May 2001 in St. Petersburg (Russia) Current Problems of Balkan Linguistics and Questions of Elaboration of the Balkan Linguistic Atlas; October 2002 in Sofia (Bulgaria) Current Problems of Balkan Linguistics. Aspects of research of a Common Balkan Lexicon; August 2003 in Ljubljana (Slovenia) as part of the 13th International Congress of Slavists, in June 2004 again in St. Petersburg The Languages and Dialects of Small Ethnic Groups in the Balkans, and in November 2006 in Belgrade (Serbia) The Romance Balkans. The Romance Balkans conference was organized by a research team from the Institute for Balkan Studies, Belgrade, engaged on a multidisciplinary project called Ethnic and Social Stratification of the Balkans financed by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia. This international linguistic conference focused on the diachronic and synchronic dimensions of Romance languages in the Balkans, the historical influence of Latin and the Romance languages on other Balkan languages, and the current state of linguistic research (Romanian dialects, Sephardic Spanish). The papers presented covered comparative linguistics, etymology, onomastics, geographical linguistics, socio- and anthropolinguistics, applied linguistics, theoretical and methodological issues, while addressing various questions and phenomena linked to the presence of Romance languages and culture on the Balkans. Many were described and elucidated from different scientific standpoints. The variety of topics and approaches suggests that both Romance and Balkan studies should be broadened and adapted to meet the exigencies of contemporary study. The beginning of the 21st century in Balkan Studies saw growing interest in the vernaculars of small ethnic groups in the Balkans, evident at the previous conference of the Commission on Balkan Linguistics, held in St. Petersburg in June 2004 (a collection of papers appeared in 2005, six dealing with Aromanian issues). The interest in Aromanian studies continues in this volume (Xhelal Ylli: Aromunische Interferenzen in den</p> <p>THE ROMANCE BALKANS: INTRODUCTION</p> <p>9</p> <p>slavischen Minderheiten Albaniens, Andrej N. Sobolev: On some Aromanian grammatical patterns in the Balkan Slavonic dialects, Kleanti Anovska: Sociolinguistic aspects of Aromanian folk tales, Thede Kahl: Does Aromanian have a chance of survival? Some thoughts about loss of language and language preservation). As in modern Slavistics, current Balkan linguistic research is interested in non-standard varieties, especially from the point of view of a combination of functional and typological approaches: each non-standard variety is a self-contained system. The fundamental postulate of linguists working in Balkan dialectology today is that any dialect is as good and systemically complete as any other, whether standard or non-standard. A key difference is that a standard is the object of conscious intervention, whereas a non-standard is not. In recent years, there has been too much emphasis in Slavistics on standards and not enough on dialects as non-standards (as opposed to the sense of systemic language variant be it standard or non-standard). There is a long and rich tradition of Balkan linguistics, but it has by and large focused on historical issues and mainly dealt with phonology and morphology. Traditionally, far less attention has been directed toward the syntax of the Balkan languages per se or to its place in Universal Grammar (Rivero/Ralli 2001). The situation can be compared to that of Slavic linguistics which has deep roots in its philological origins. While the study of linguistic systems has diverged considerably from theories of literature in recent decades, Slavic linguistics remains firmly committed to the pursuit of synchronic and diachronic knowledge that often simply cannot be captured by formalist approaches. In fact, Slavic linguists continue to engage in diachronic studies where many linguistics departments do not. As the next feature of this collection, we would point to a new approach to the now classic but rare 1718th century sources on the Balkans. Maslina Ljubi~i} in a paper called Geosynonyms in the 17th Century Croatian dictionary. About some Italianisms analyses Ivan Belostenecs Latin-Croatian and Croatian-Latin two-volume dictionary, written in the 17th century and edited more than sixty years after the authors death. Belostenecs lexicographic approach is defined as tridialectal, so his dictionary, consisting of kajkavian, ~akavian and {tokavian components offers many geosynonyms. The paper focuses on some Italianisms found among Dalmatian words of the Gazophylacium. Anna Kretschmer reexamines the historical beginnings of scientific etymology, especially in examples of Romance toponyms and ethnonyms in the study Djordje Brankovi} as etymologist: ethnonyms and toponyms in the Balkans.</p> <p>10</p> <p>THE ROMANCE BALKANS</p> <p>This volume draws particular attention to Daco-Romanian vernaculars in the diaspora, with as many as four studies devoted to Romanian Bayash speech patterns across an extensive geographical area stretching from Croatia through Bosnia-Herzegovina to Bulgaria (Petya Assenova, Vassilka Aleksova: Observations sur la romanite balkanique en Bulgarie ; Biljana Sikimi}: Karavlahs in Bosnia and Herzegovina Today; Annemarie Sorescu-Marinkovi}: The Bayash in Croatia: Romanian vernaculars in Baranja and Medjimurje and Corinna Leschber: Romanian-Serbian code-mixing phenomena). These anthropological and socio-linguistic articles endeavour to avoid the traps of inventing new ethnic myths in the construction of small ethnic groups, or the myth of Roma nomadism in opposition to the myth of territory among sedentary peoples. The stress on the Romance, apart from traditional Balkan linguistic fields and a diachronic approach (etymology, onomastics, folk-etymology), points to current research in Balkan linguistics, whether mutually coordinated or not. This is a new anthropologically oriented approach to fieldwork, and consequently more care has to be paid to research ethics. Extensive audio material gathered during field research has enabled a grow...</p>