the use of ‘exploratory learning’ for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments

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The use of ‘exploratory learning’ for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments. Presenter: Ming-Chuan Chen Advisor: Ming-Puu Chen Date: 3 / 2 / 2009. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • The use of exploratory learning for supporting immersive learning in virtual environmentsFreitas, S. d. & Neumann, T. (2009). The use of exploratory learning' for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments, Computers & Education, 52(2), 343-352. Presenter: Ming-Chuan ChenAdvisor: Ming-Puu ChenDate: 3 / 2 / 2009

  • AbstractMore emphasis upon sequencing learning experiences, meta-reflection, peer assessment & group workThis paper proposed an exploratory learning model which allows practitioners to rethink how they teach in 3D and immersive spacesThe ELM extends from Kolbs experiential learning model to adapt the use of 3D applicationsProviding examples from research and development projects to exemplify how the model works in practice.*

  • IntroductionUser interfaces for teaching tools are becoming more intuitive and are more closely following the requirements of the individual learner.Social software (e.g. FaceBook, MySpace), 3D computer modelling (e.g. Krucible), serious games (e.g. business games) & virtual worlds applications (e.g. second life) The main advantages with more immersive mediaTo rich learning experiences for the learner To provide better simulations of real-life contexts for trainingTo enhance deeper conceptual thinking for learning.The aim of the model is to give tutors the tools to enable them to give their learners greater control, and to support more engaging learning experiences.*

  • Conceptual underpinning of the model3 main descriptor categories for learning approaches (cycle of learning) (Mayes & de Freitas, 2007) => immersive learning environments and simulationsSituative : support communities of practiceCognitive : build upon experience, reflection, abstraction & experimentationAssociative : immediate feedback, contextual transfer The transfer of learning from the virtual context to the physical context => exploring environmentsA series of different outcomes, activities and assessment methods, be integrated into the learning design => 3D game*

  • How ELM might work in practiceThe goal-based approach, as defined by Squire (2006), includes 7 key componentsThe learning goals should be intrinsically motivating.The mission which can only be accomplished by using specific skills and knowledge.The cover story creates the need for the mission to be accomplished.The role the player as protagonist.The scenario operations the level design.Resources (tools and resources available).Feedback. Both negative and positive feedback is inherent and automatic.*

  • Kolbs experiential learning cycleThe exploratory learning model (ELM) extends from the Kolb (1984) model of relies upon an engagement with social interactions and experience drawn from the real world.Ideally, all three major components of the learning cycle, associative, cognitive and situative, need to be brought into play to support game-based and other immersive learning approaches.


  • The exploratory learning model (ELM)ExperienceExplorationReflectionForming abstract conceptsTesting (and experimentation or reinforcement) *

  • The exploratory learning model (ELM) - ExperienceExperience:Kolbs model needs to be updated to include e-learning and virtual learning (v-learning).Lived experiences => Virtual experiences & Transactional learning (Barton & Maharg, 2006; Maharg, 2007)Helping in pre- real-life occupational work, and allowing for mistakes to be made in a secure environmentSocial presence*

  • The exploratory learning model (ELM) - ExplorationExploration:More 3D immersive learning opportunities and increased learner controlthrough observations or more usually through collaborative activities, communication & social interactionsLearning transfer into social and working experiencesrole-plays & rehearsalFlow (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, 2002) may help to create a self-reinforcing loop to sustain learner interest in an exploration.clear goals, immediate feedback, learner control, challenge etc.*

  • The exploratory learning model (ELM) Reflection, Forming abstract concepts & TestingReflection is central throughout the learning process.Meta-reflection is particularly important to support the main challenge of effecting learning transfer between virtual, abstract and lived contexts.Abstract concepts can then be supported either within or outside of the learning session and these can then be tested in a range of different contexts


  • Case studies from practiceA growing academic interest in the use of simulation and game-based learningMore experience-centred and visualising engaging The ELM places a great emphasis upon learning as an open-ended processPrevious understanding, social interactions & practice- and problem-based approaches are importantLearning in immersive worlds can be open-ended and activity centricIt helps learners to scaffold learning in the real world (de Freitas, 2006a).*

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  • Case studies: Triage trainer and infection control gamesThe areas of medical training (de Freitas, 2006)4 dimensional framework (de Freitas & Oliver, 2006)pedagogy, context, representation & the learnerThe two games provided:The chance to reflect, and play the game againA self-assessment toolHigh quality medical scannersThe games both aim to support behavioral change through engagement and motivation.Modest significant changes when compared with face-to-face learning*

  • ConclusionsThe new tools in this study allow tutors to become choreographers of experiencesLearning experiences, meta-reflection, peer assessment & group workExploration may become a more critical construct in the evaluation and development of immersive learning experiences in the future.Future work : to test and validate these tools against exploratory*


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