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  • The use of exploratory learning for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments Freitas, S. d. & Neumann, T. (2009). The use of exploratory learning' for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments, Computers & Education, 52(2), 343-352. Presenter: Ming-Chuan Chen Advisor: Ming-Puu Chen Date: 3 / 2 / 2009
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  • Abstract More emphasis upon sequencing learning experiences, meta-reflection, peer assessment & group work This paper proposed an exploratory learning model which allows practitioners to rethink how they teach in 3D and immersive spaces The ELM extends from Kolbs experiential learning model to adapt the use of 3D applications Providing examples from research and development projects to exemplify how the model works in practice. 2
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  • Introduction User interfaces for teaching tools are becoming more intuitive and are more closely following the requirements of the individual learner. Social software (e.g. FaceBook, MySpace), 3D computer modelling (e.g. Krucible), serious games (e.g. business games) & virtual worlds applications (e.g. second life) The main advantages with more immersive media To rich learning experiences for the learner To provide better simulations of real-life contexts for training To enhance deeper conceptual thinking for learning. The aim of the model is to give tutors the tools to enable them to give their learners greater control, and to support more engaging learning experiences. 3
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  • Conceptual underpinning of the model 3 main descriptor categories for learning approaches (cycle of learning) (Mayes & de Freitas, 2007) => immersive learning environments and simulations Situative : support communities of practice Cognitive : build upon experience, reflection, abstraction & experimentation Associative : immediate feedback, contextual transfer The transfer of learning from the virtual context to the physical context => exploring environments A series of different outcomes, activities and assessment methods, be integrated into the learning design => 3D game 4
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  • How ELM might work in practice The goal-based approach, as defined by Squire (2006), includes 7 key components The learning goals should be intrinsically motivating. The mission which can only be accomplished by using specific skills and knowledge. The cover story creates the need for the mission to be accomplished. The role the player as protagonist. The scenario operations the level design. Resources (tools and resources available). Feedback. Both negative and positive feedback is inherent and automatic. 5
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  • Kolbs experiential learning cycle The exploratory learning model (ELM) extends from the Kolb (1984) model of learning. it relies upon an engagement with social interactions and experience drawn from the real world. Ideally, all three major components of the learning cycle, associative, cognitive and situative, need to be brought into play to support game-based and other immersive learning approaches. 6
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  • The exploratory learning model (ELM) Experience Exploration Reflection Forming abstract concepts Testing (and experimentation or reinforcement) 7
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  • The exploratory learning model (ELM) - Experience Experience: Kolbs model needs to be updated to include e-learning and virtual learning (v-learning). Lived experiences => Virtual experiences & Transactional learning (Barton & Maharg, 2006; Maharg, 2007) Helping in pre- real-life occupational work, and allowing for mistakes to be made in a secure environment Social presence 8
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  • The exploratory learning model (ELM) - Exploration Exploration: More 3D immersive learning opportunities and increased learner control through observations or more usually through collaborative activities, communication & social interactions Learning transfer into social and working experiences role-plays & rehearsal Flow (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, 2002) may help to create a self-reinforcing loop to sustain learner interest in an exploration. clear goals, immediate feedback, learner control, challenge etc. 9
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  • The exploratory learning model (ELM) Reflection, Forming abstract concepts & Testing Reflection is central throughout the learning process. Meta-reflection is particularly important to support the main challenge of effecting learning transfer between virtual, abstract and lived contexts. Abstract concepts can then be supported either within or outside of the learning session and these can then be tested in a range of different contexts 10
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  • Case studies from practice A growing academic interest in the use of simulation and game-based learning More experience-centred and visualising engaging The ELM places a great emphasis upon learning as an open-ended process Previous understanding, social interactions & practice- and problem-based approaches are important Learning in immersive worlds can be open- ended and activity centric It helps learners to scaffold learning in the real world (de Freitas, 2006a). 11
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  • Case studies: Triage trainer and infection control games The areas of medical training (de Freitas, 2006) 4 dimensional framework (de Freitas & Oliver, 2006) pedagogy, context, representation & the learner The two games provided: The chance to reflect, and play the game again A self-assessment tool High quality medical scanners The games both aim to support behavioral change through engagement and motivation. Modest significant changes when compared with face-to-face learning 14
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  • Conclusions The new tools in this study allow tutors to become choreographers of experiences Learning experiences, meta-reflection, peer assessment & group work Exploration may become a more critical construct in the evaluation and development of immersive learning experiences in the future. Future work : to test and validate these tools against exploratory 15


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