thermal expansion of some bronzes

17
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF C OMMERCE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS RESEARCH PAPER RP1518 Part of Journa l of R esearch of the N ational Bureau of Sta ndar ds , Volume 30, J anuary 1943 THERMAL EXPANSION OF SOME BRONZES By Pet er Hidnert ABSTR ACT The results obtained in the course of i ndependent tests and investigations on the linear thermal expansion of four groups of bronzes designated as tin-zinc, l eaded, al uminum, and silicon bronzes are given for different temper ature ranges. Curves showing the typical expansion and contraction characteristics of these bronzes dur ing heat ing and cooling are prcsented. Ternary diagrams are given to show the effect of comp osition on the coefficients of expansion of copper-tin-zinc and copper-t in-I ead alloys. In general, the coefficients of expansion of these copper-base alloys increase as the addition of tin, zinc, or lead is increased. For the range from 20° to 100° C, the average coefficients of expansion of the various bronzes were found to be between 16.8 X 10- 6 and 19.0 X 10- 6 C. CONTE NT S Page 1. Introduction___ _ __ __ _ ___ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ __ __ _ __ _ ____ __ __ _ __ __ _ __ _ _ __ 75 II . Materials invest igated_ _ _ _ ___ _ __ __ _ __ __ ___ __ _ ___ __ __ __ __ __ _ ___ _ __ 79 I II . Apparatus____ ____________________________________ _____ ____ _____ 79 IV. Results and discussian_____ ______ ______________________________ __ 79 V. References______________________________________________________ 88 1. I NTRODUCTION During the past 30 years, data on the linear thermal expansion of copper-base alloys designated as tin-zinc, leaded, aluminum, and silicon bronzes have been obtained at the National Bur eau of Stand- ards. These results are based on independent tests and investiga- tions, the specific purposes of which in general were not related. Therefore, the ranges of temperature within which the bronzes were investigated differed in many cases. These data, together with some previously published results, are summa rized in this paper. Ternary diagrams showing the effect of composition on the coefficients of ex- pansion of copper-tin-zinc and copper-tin-lead alloys are given. Available data from previous investigators on the lineal' thermal expansion of various bronzes of known compositions are given in ta ble 1. 1 Some of the results in this tab le, in combination with data of the present paper, were used in the preparat ion of the ternary diagrams. 1 Data (not liste<l in table 1) from 2 manufacturers have been published by N. L. Mochel, Thermal Expansion of Metals, Symposium OLl Elfect of Temperaturc on the Properties of Metals, Am. Soc. Testing Materials and Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., p. 683 (1931). 75

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Page 1: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

U . S. DEPARTMENT OF C OMMERCE NATIONA L B UREAU OF STANDARDS

RESEARCH PA PER RP1518

Part of Journal of Research of the N ational Bureau of Standards , Vo lume 30, January 1943

THERMAL EXPANSION OF SOME BRONZES By Peter Hidnert

ABST R ACT

The results obtained in the course of independent tests and investigations on the linear thermal expansion of four groups of bronzes designated as tin-zinc, leaded, aluminum, and silicon bronzes are given for different temperature ranges. Curves showing the typical expansion and contraction characteristics of these bronzes during heating and cooling are prcsented. Ternary diagrams are given to show the effect of composition on the coefficients of expansion of copper-tin-zinc and copper-tin-Iead alloys. In general, the coefficients of expansion of these copper-base alloys increase as the addition of tin, zinc, or lead is increased. For the range from 20° to 100° C, the average coefficients of expansion of the various bronzes were found to be between 16.8 X 10- 6 and 19.0 X 10- 6/° C.

CONTENTS Page

1. Introduction___ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ 75 II . Materials investigated_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 79

I II. Apparatus____ ____________________________________ _____ ____ _____ 79 IV. Results and discussian_____ ______ ______________________________ __ 79 V. References______________________________________________________ 88

1. INTRODUCTION

During the past 30 years, data on the linear thermal expansion of copper-base alloys designated as tin-zinc, leaded, aluminum, and silicon bronzes have been obtained at the National Bureau of Stand­ards. These results are based on independent tests and investiga­tions, the specific purposes of which in general were not related. Therefore, the ranges of temperature within which the bronzes were investigated differed in many cases. These data, together with some previously published results, are summarized in this paper. Ternary diagrams showing the effect of composition on the coefficients of ex­pansion of copper-tin-zinc and copper-tin-lead alloys are given.

Available data from previous investigators on the lineal' thermal expansion of various bronzes of known compositions are given in table 1.1 Some of the results in this table, in combination with data of the present paper, were used in the preparation of the ternary diagrams.

1 Data (not liste<l in table 1) from 2 manufacturers have been published by N. L. Mochel, Thermal Expansion of Metals, Symposium OLl Elfect of Temperaturc on the Properties of Metals, Am. Soc. Testing Materials and Am. Soc. Mech . Engrs., p. 683 (1931).

75

Page 2: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

TABLE I.-Previously published values of coefficients of linear thermal expansion of bronzes by previous observers

Observer Date

Fizeau [11 __ ___________ _ 1 1869

Benoit b [21 ___ ___ __ _____ 1 1889

Le Chatelier [141- ____ _ .1 1889

Dittenberger and 11902 Gehrcke b [3].

Henning «[41 __ ________ _ 1907 Bein b [51 ___ ____ ____ ___ . 1912

Hidnert b [61 ___________ 1 1921

Material

BrOD,ze _______________ _ Bronze ____________ ___ _ ____ do __________ _____ _ _ Phosphor bronze __ __ _ _ ___ _ do ________________ _ ____ do __________ ____ __ _ ____ do ________________ _

{. ~:r:~~r:::::::::::::::: Aluminum bronze 0 _ _ _ Bronze _____________ __ _

. ____ do ________________ _ Bronze k __ ____ do.' ______________ _ Phosphor bronze m ___ _ ____ do ________________ _ Ohain bronze m ______ _ ____ do ________________ _ Bronze ____ do __ __ _____ _______ _ ____ do .m _____________ _ ____ do ___________ __ __ _ _ Aluminum bronze D __ _

___ .do. D ____________ - --

Cu

% ~3 ~~ ~w ~6 ~6 ~6 ~6 00 ~ m 00 Ul

M 00 ~5 Mm Mm ~. ~. nw nw .~ .~ nu ftU

Hidnert [71 ________ ____ _ 119321 [~,~~d~~p~::::::::::::::1 rs:r Wllkms [81 ______ ______ _ 1933 Silicon bronze Q _______ 94.75

Chemical composition

Sn Zn Pb Ni

Treatment P

Average coefficients of expansion per degree centigrade

0° to I 20° to I 20° to I 20° to I 20° to ~o C 100° C 200° C 3000 C 4000 C Other range

1--1--1---1--1--1 1--1--1---1--1--1---% % % % % X 10-6 X 10-6 X 10-6 X 10-6 X10-6 1 X 10-6 9.7 4.0 ______________________________________ >17. 8 _______________________________ _ 9.87 8.60 0.17 ___ ___ _______________ ___ _______ 17.9 ___________________ __ __________ _ 9. 87 8.60 .17 _______________________________ 18.0 ______________________ __ _______ _ 2.2 ____________________ 0.2 H ardened _______ 17.0 _________ ______________________ _ 2.2 ______ ____ ___ _____ __ .2 Annealed _______ 17.0 __ __ _________ _______ ___ ___ _____ _ 4.7 ______ _______ _____ __ . 7 Hardened _______ 17. 4 ________ ___ ____________________ _ 4.7 ______ _______ __ ____ _ .7 Annealed ___ __ __ 17.4 ___________________________________________ _____ __ __ _

10 __ ___ ____ _______ _______ ___ ____ Ao___________ ______ _____ ___ ______ __ ________ ________ 22.0 (00 to 9000 C) 20 _____ _____ ________ _____________ do_____ ______ __ ____ ________ ________ ________ ________ 27.0 (00 to 800° C) 30 ____________________________ __ _ do________ ___ ___ ___ ______ __ ________ ________ ________ 29.5 (00 to 700° C)

_ __ ____ ______ ____ _______ ___ ___ ___ ____ Ao___ ___ _____ ______ __ ____ __ ___ _____ ________ __ ____ __ 23.0 (00 to 9000 C) 6.2 8.7 .7 ___ __ __ ______ __________________ __ ____ __ _____ _ ________ d 18.1 0 18.7 f 19.2

6 26 &5 ~U ~U ~88 ~88 lM ~M

1014 1014

14.95 5.0 0.5

9 0.45

______ , ________ __ __ ___ _ h 18.21 ; IS. 7 17.2 ____ __ ______ __ __ _______ _ 17.5 __________ ____ __ _______ _

__ ___ _ ____ __ _ _______ .37 Cast . _________ __ ___ __ _ ___ __ _ _______ __ ____ _ .37 Co1d-rolled ____ ______ _ _ ______ _______ _______ .12 Cast ._ . __________ ____ _ ______ _______ ___ ____ . 12 Cold-rolled ___________ _ __ ____ ____ __ _ _______ . Il Cast ____ ____ ________ _ _ ______ ____ __ _ _______ . Jl Cold-rolled ___ __ _ _____ _ ______ _______ _______ . 00 CasL ___________ __ ___ _ ______ _____ __ __ _____ .00 Cold-rolled _____ _ ___ __ _

.40 ___ ____ 'rrace _____ _ Hot-rolled ____ ___ _____ _

.40 _________ _ do __ _____ _ Hot-rolled and _____ _ drawn.

5.1 1.5

4:~1 1:::::::I : :::::I _~~~~o_-_:::::::::c::::

17.4 17.S IS.2 17.217.618.0 17.3 17.7 18.1 17.1 17.4 17.S 17.5 U.9 IS.2 17.3 17.8 18.2 17. 7 18. 1 18. 6 17. 6 17. 9 IS. 3 16.5 17.3 IS.2 16.6 17.2 17. 8

18.0 17. 8

r 17.0

18.2 IS. 1

IS.6 18.5

lS.8 18.9

; 19.3

19.3 (200 to 500° C) 19. 3 (20° to 500° C)

~ 0)

"­I::> ~

;§ ~ ~ ~ ~ Co ~ ,:, '2

" ;;:,... I::> ........ "'" ;;:,... ~

~ "'" "". I::> ;:;: ,:, "" ~

~ ~ ~ C> ........ V:J

~ ~ ~

Page 3: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

Hldnert [91- .. ......... -1 1934

Koiso, Kusu moto, and I 1940 Yata [10].

Bronze ......... . ...... 95.70 1. 95 2.32 .03 CasL . ............... . . ... do.' ............... 82.28 6.70 3.20 7.48 0.15 . 05 ..... do ..... ........... . .... do.'_ . ....... . ..... 88.63 8.58 0.34 2.08 .25 ... .... .... do .. . ...... .. ..... . .... do.' ......... . .. . .. 80. 02 9.58 . 60 9.45 _IS _04 ... . . do ... _ .. ... . ...... . ... . do ......... ..... . . . 86.75 9.97 2.75 0.58 .03 ..... do _ .... . .... _ ... .. . .... do ................. 83.' 80 11.96 4.22 . ...... ..... .. . 02 . .. .. do ..... ......... . . . ... . do .......... ....... 87.75 12.25 . . .. . .... . . .. ........ 02 . .... do ..... ... _._ .. . _ .. Leaded b ronze ,_ ...... 73.00 4. 45 0.25 21. 79 .35 .05 .... _do _ .... .... . _ . .... . .... do ................ . 65.40 7.75 None 26.62 .25 ......... .. do _ ..... ....... . . . . .... do ...... .......... . 69.82 9.72 20.50 .02 ... . _do _ . . ..... _ ....... _ .... do ................. 77.00 11.08 11.90 .02 .. .. . do ....... ...... . .. . . . .. do.'._ ... _ . ... .. ... 75.86 11. 57 _2~ 12.00 .20 .04 . . ... do . ... : ........ ... _ "H B-5" bronze u __ __ _ _______________________________________ _

• Coefficieut of expansion at 40° C.

17.2 18. 1 17.5 18. 4 17.8 17.9 17. 7 18. 9 19. 0 18. G 18.6 18. 3 19_1

17.3 t 18.4

17.9 . 18.6

18.3 18.1 18.8 19.0 18.8 18.6 18.7

b Coefficients of expansion compnted from data in original publication. e Aluminum, 10 percent. d From 0° to 250° C.

I Iron, 0.09 percent. m Each coefficient of expansion is t he average of values on 4 sections of a cast rod. n Aluminum 7.34, silicon 0.09 percent.

• From 0° to 375° C . r F rom 0° to 500° C . g Coefficients of expansion compu ted from da ta repor ted by observer. Coefficient of

expansion from -191° to + 16° C, 15.1X10-<ljO C_ b F rom 16° to 250° C . ; From 16° to 375° C . ; From 16° to 500° C_ k Manganese, 0.61; iron, 0.22; aluminum, 0.10 percent.

° Coefficient of expansion from 20° to 600° C, 19.8XlO-6jO C . • Coefficients of expansion from 20° to 600° C and from 20° to 700° C, 20.0XlO-e and

20.GX10-<1jO C, respectively. q Silicon, 3.25 percent_ , From 0° to 100° C. 'Antimony, 0.15 percent. t Second hea ting. u Iron, 4; m anganese, 4; zinc, 1 ma.~; chromium, 0.5 max; aluminum, 10.5 percent;

copper, balance.

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ 0'> -C ;;3

~

~ ~ ~

bj 'i , C ;;3 (\) ~ ."

-.:r -.:r

Page 4: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

78 Journal of R esearch of the National Bureau of Standards

f­z w

~ T ~N zO

~ 1 0.. x W

o

p

p/ / /

"A

/ / /

/ v/ / %/ V

'\~ 0 HEAT IN G ."

./ • COOLI NG •

100 200 300·C TEMPER ATURE

FIGURE l.-Linear thermal expansion of two cast tin-zinc bronzes.

Sample 376: copper 88, tin 8, zinc 4 percent; sample 895: copper 86.5, tin 11, zinc 2.5, maximum impurities 0.2 percent.

Page 5: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

----- -------

Thermal E xpansion oj Some Bronzes 79

II. MATERIALS INVESTIGATED

The samples of bronzes were provided by the American Brass Co., Waterbury, Conn., American Bronze Corporation (now American Non-Gran Bronze Corporation), Berwyn, Pa., Bridgeport Brass Co., Bridgeport, Conn., E. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Wilming­ton, Del., Fredericksen Co. (now Saginaw Bearing Co.), Saginaw, Mich., National Bureau of Standards, Titanium Alloy Mfg. Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y., and W . & L. E. Gurley, Troy, N. Y. The chemical compositions and available information regarding the treat­ments of the samples are given in table 2. Most of the values for chemical composition were furnished by the manufacturers.

The length of each sample used in the determinations of linear thermal expansion was 300 mm (11.8 in). The cross sections of all samples except those designated as 38 and 39 were circular, with diameters of 8 to 13 mm (0.31 to 0.51 in). The diameter in each case was the same as that of the "as received" rod. Samples 38 and 39, machined to 5 mm (0.20 in.) square section, were cut from bars having a section 16 mm (0.63 in.) square.

III. AP PAR ATUS

The types of precision micrometric thermal-expansion apparatus used for determining the linear thermal expansion of the bronzes are described in previous publications [11, 12, 6, 13).2 In addition to the differences in design, the instruments differed in the ranges of temperature over which they could be operated. However, essentially the same results have been obtained with each of the instruments used for the same ranges of temperature.

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Typical expansion and contraction curves for four groups of bronzes are shown in figures 1 to 4. These figures indicate tha t for a relatively narrow range of temperature (fig. 1) the expansion and contraction curves nearly coincide, but in cases involving wider ranges of tempera­ture (figs. 2 to 4) the expansion and contraction curves diverge ap­preciably. It is of interest to note that the expansion curves in figure 3 indicate that a marked decrease in the rate of expansion oc­curred in the hard-drawn aluminum bronzes at temperatures between 700 0 and 800 0 C. On the other hand, the curves for both the hard­drawn and annealed silicon bronzes (fig. 4) showed a marked increase in the rate of expansion between 900 0 and 1,000 0 C.

The average coefficients of expansion of the four groups of bronzes, computed from the expansion and contraction curves (typified by figs. 1 to 4), are given in table 2 for t emperature ranges \vithin which observations were made. The differences in length of most of the bronzes before heating and after passing through the heating and cooling cycle are also shown in this table . In general, the aluminum and silicon bronzes (figs. 3 and 4, and table 2) were investigated over wider ranges of temperature than the tin-zinc and leaded bronzes (figs. 1 and 2, and table 2).

2 Figures in brackets indicate tbe literature references at the end of this paper.

497911-43--6

Page 6: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

80 Journal of Re8earch of the National Bureau of Standard8

1.0 1071

P

.9

.8

.7

/ fl

I

,;; r' V'I

t- .6 z .... //

,P/ '-' 0:: .... (L . 5 ~ z 0

.4 ;;; z « (L

x .... .3

/; /

v. I I

/ rf/

/ /

/ / /

/ /

I .2 V I o HEATING / I I

/ • COOLING .1

I I I

I I 0.0

../ • o 100 200 300 400 500·C

TEMPERATURE

FIGURE 2.-Linear thermal expansion of leaded bronze (treatment unknown).

Sample 1071: copper 70, tin 9, lead 21, maximum impurities 0.2 percent.

Page 7: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

I­z w

~ I z <t

~ I ~ x w

o

Thermal Expansion oj Some Bronzes 81

/ 'l v/ /

/ /,/

// /

- P / I vI /

/

/ /

// /

VI V / , /

/ / , , ,

VI / // , , , ,

~/ / I

" ,

V V V / //

/ / ,

/ I / ,

/

/ v . V VI V

/ "foL.

/ / . V V

/ / / V 0 HEATING

/ / • COOLING

/ /

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 800 C

TEMPERATURE FIGURE 3.- Linear thermal expansion of two hard-drawn aluminum bronzes.

Sample 1416: copper 89.71, tin 0.38, alnminum 9.29, iron 0.44 percent; sample 1417: copper 89.43, tin 0.33, aluminum 9.30, iron 0.58 percent.

--l

\

Page 8: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

TABLE 2.-Coefficients of linear expansion of four groups of bronzes

Chemical composition

Sample

Ou Sn Zn Ph AI SI Mn Fe Other elements

~----- --~

1l0L __ -I 9~61 {o31 __ 'Yo_L%_L%_L%_L%Jo.,*2 I %

84 ______ _ 90 6.5 308 ______ 88 10 376 ______ 88 8 1068 _____ 87 7 38 ______ _ }S6.7 11.2 39 ______ _

894 ____ __ }86.5 11 895 _____ _

2.0 2 4 5

2.1

1. 5 , _____ , _____ , _____ , ____ _

- i- --I: : ::: I ::::r::r:~:

2. 5 L----I-----I- - ---I-----L----I{~~i~mo~f' impur-

Average coefficients of expansion (and contraction a) per degree centigrade

Treatment 20° 20° 20° 20° 200 20° 20° 20° 20° 20° 900° to to to to to to to to to to to 50° 100° 200° 300° 400° 500° 600° 700° 800° 900° 1000° 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

_ ._-

A. TIN-ZINO BRONZES

Hot-rolled and an- ~JO;·I ~JO;I ~ _1~~ 1 ~ ~~~ I ~ ~~~~ I ~ ~~~ I ~ ~~~ I ~ ~~J ~ ~~J ~ ~ ~J ~ ~~~ nealed.

Ohang in

lengtb orsam pIe artE heatin

and cooling

r g

% -0.002

Not known _________ 017.4017. 8 ___________ _ _______ _____ ____ ____ _____ ______ _____ ________ _____ _ Oast- ________ ___ _______ ___ 17. 8 18.1 18.5 18.8 ______ ______ ___ ___ ______ ______ ___ ___ - . 018

_____ do ____________________ 17.S 18.1 IS. 5 _______ ______ ______ ______________ _______ __ - . OOi Oast at 2,250° F _____ d17.8 ______ ______ ____ __ ______ ___ ___ ______ ______ ______ ______ __ ____ +. 001

O~~4~~8 (~,~~~~~)d }:g: g :~g :~~: ~ :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::::: {O~;I~n g~rna1~~~ } ____ _ 18.1 IS. 3 18.7 ______ ___ ___ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ .000

2,2500 F. ----- 17.9 18.5 IS.6 _____ _ ______ - _____ - _____ - - - ___ - _____ -_____ -.001

B. LEADED BRONZES'

00 tv

r ~ ~ ~ Co ~ .::. ~ ;;,..

~ .,... ;;,.. ~

~ .,... ... ~ ~ .::. "" tt1

85 ______ _ 180 r! 1 - 4---I~g 1069 _____ 76

107L __ __ 70 _____ 21 --- --1-----1--- --1-----1--- -- ---- ---------- -I Not knowlL 0 - - --- --1 -i-- --loI8. 61 ______ 1 ___ ___ 1 ____ --1-- ----1- --- --1- --- --1- --- --1------1---- --1-------- ~ ::::: ::::: ::::: ::::: FVI;i~~ir'impu-r--- }~:t::02:~~ __ ~:: : :: (~:~ : ::: :: : ~~~~: :~~T : ~~~~ : :~fr :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: __ ~~~~~ ~

O. ALUMINUM BRONZES'

86 ______ -190

1416 ____ -189. 71 10.38 10.00 1 ____ -19.29

1417 __ ._-189.43 I .33 I .00 1 _____ 19.30

_____ , ____ _ , _____ ,10. -----'-----'-----1--------------------1 ii~~ct~r':::,-,;.-i;om- }---- -- o~~: ~ -~~~~- -~~~8- - ~~~~ - -~8~;- -~;;~~- -~8.-;;- :::::: :::::: :::::: }- -~~.-~~ _____ , _____ ,0.44 Nickel 0.18 ________ { ~di. tOt % lll. lU - - - - - L---- '16. 9 *17.7 *18.6 ______ '19.8 '20. 1 20.3 ___________ _

lame er.

I{H ard-d rawn frOm} {16 2 164 170 18.0 IS. 6 19.1 g19. 2 ------ ------ ------} _ 19 -----,-----, .58 I Nickel 0.36_ _______ d~6 tOt % in. in ----- __ ~ __ *17: 1 *17: 9 '18.6 ____________ *20.0 '20.4 ______ ____ __ .

lame er.

~ -­UJ §

l

Page 9: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

Average coefficients of expansion (and contraction a) per degree Ohang Ohemical composition centigrade in length of sam· Sample Treatment 20° 20° 20° 20° 20° 20° 20° 20° 20° 20° 900° pie afte

to to to to to to to to to to to heating Ou Sn Zn Pb Al Si Mn Fe Other elements 50° 100° 200° 300° 400° 500° 600° 700° 800° 900° 1000° and 0 0 0 0 0 C C C C C C cooling

D. SILICON BRONZES'

% % % % % % % %1 % X10'" XlO-6 XlO-<I XlO-6 X10-<l XlO-6 X10-<l XlO-6 XlO-6 XlO-6 X10'" % 1333 ..... 95.64 - -- -- 0.00 - - --- -- - -- 3.04 1. 03 0.09 Harddrawn . ... .. ... ..... 17.217.818.1 17.7 18. 6 19.3 19.820.220.861. h+0.57 1334. .... 95. 64 .00 - --- - - -- -- 3. 04 1. 03 .09 Annealed . .... ..... . .... . . 17.4 17.6 18.1 18.2 18. 7 19. 1 19.6 20.1 20.6 64. h+.58 1019 I ....

}9t/"6 151{PhOsPhOrus 0.06, 1020 ..•.. - - --- .00 --- -- - --- - 4.0 1.1 1021. .••. . Nickel 0.00. }Not knowL . ...... {tn UJ :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :88 1394._._. 94. 33 --- -- - -- - - -- -- - - --- - 4.40 0.96 .11 ...... Cast { . ... . 17. 4 17. 5 18.0 18.2 18.9 19.8 20.6 21. 1 21.7 . ..... } _ 13

. . .. ..... . ..... . . .... *16. 3 *17.3 *17.9 .. .. .. 'lB. B . •• •.. ••.•. . *21. 0 *23.1 ...... .

a Coefficients of contraction on cooling are indicated by asterisks. b Determined from the expansion curve on heating and the con traction curve on

cooling. The plus sign indicates an increase in length and the minus sign a decrease in length.

o Determined by A. W. Gray, formerly of the National Bureau of Standards. d From 20° to 40° C. Coefficients of expansion per degree centigrade from -20° to

0°,0° to +20°, and 0° to +40° C were found to be 17.0XlO-6, 17.0XlO-<I, and 17.4XlO-<I, respectively.

• From 20° to 150° C, determined by A. ,v. Gray.

(From 20° to 40° C. Coefficients of expansion per degree centigrade from _20° to 0°, 0° to +20°, and 0° to +40° C were found to be 17.1X1Q-<!, IB.1XlO-6, and 18.2XIQ-<!, respectively.

g From 20° to 650° C. h Change in length determined from length measurements on a duplicate sample

before and after heating it to 1,000° C and cooling to 20° C. i Chemical compOSition determined by G. F. Commisa, of the National Bureau of

Standards.

~ '" ~ ~ .... ~ ~

§ "" <-" . <::> ;::!

~

~ ~ '" ~ ;::! l\l

'" ""

00 C/.:I

Page 10: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

84 J ournal of R esearch of the National Bureau of Standards

I­Z W ()

~ T z v

o z

I o U; -L Z Cf: x w

o

~ , : : .

I

! /? , ,

, , ,/ I , ,

, I

,/ "

/ ,

;/

/ ~,~

/ // V? / V/ ~/('

~"V / V/// ~

~x; ~~ -t" ~'?' ~// I / ~~;; ./

/ / /. V/

I / ~4;i //

// / V' I

~ // ,"0

./ /' 'i / 0/ / ~

/ 'i I / ~ ,"i

/ :/ 0 HEAT I NG

• COOLING

/ 100 200 300 4 00 500 600 700 800 900 1000 C

TEMPERATURE FIGURE 4.-Linear thermal expansion of three silicon bronzes.

Sample 1394: copper 94.33, silicon 4.40, manganese 0.96, iron 0.11 percent; samples 1333 and 1334: copper 95.64, silicon 3.04, manganese 1.03, iron 0.09 percent . •

Page 11: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

Thermal Expansion oj Some Bronzes 85

The ternary diagrams in figure 5 show the influence of additions of tin and zinc on the coefficients of expansion of copper-tin and copper­tin-zinc alloys for three ranges of temperature. The effect of different contents of tin and lead in leaded bronzes is shown in a similar manner

PERCENT TIN

2 4 G 8 10 14 PERCENT TIN

FIGURE 5.-Portions of trianJular diagTams indicating the effects of composition on the coefficints of expansion (in millionths per degree centigrade) of copper-tin and copper-tin-zinc alloys.

C=Cast. CA=Cast and annealed. CR= Cold-rolled.

I-I = Hot-rolled. I-IA = Hot-rolIed and annealed. I-ID=Hot-rolled and dl'Rw.6.

in figures 6 and 7. These figures are based on the data in table 2 and previously published results of the author [6, 7, 9]. These diagrams show, in general, that the coefficients of expansion of the bronzes increase as the content of these addition elements is increased.

Page 12: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

86 Journal 01 R esearch 01 the National Bureau 01 Standards

4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 PER CENT TIN

FIGURE 6.-Portion of triangular diagram indicating the effects of composition on the coefficients of expansion (in millionths per degree centigrade) of copper-tin and copper-tin-lead allays between 20° and 100° C.

C=Cast. CR=Cold-rolIed_

H=Hot-rolIed.

HA = Hot-rolled and annealed . HD=Hot-rolled and drawn.

X=Treatment unknown.

Page 13: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 PERCENT TI N

87

FIGURE 7.-Portion of triangular diagram indicating th., effects of composition on the coefficients of expansion (in millionths per degree centigrade) of copper-tin and copper-tin-lead alloys between 200 and 2000 c.

C=Cast. HD =Hot-rolled and drawn. CR= Cold·rolled. X ='l"'reatment unknown.

H=Hot-rolled.

Page 14: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

88 Journal of Re8earoh of the National Bureau of Standard8

The limiting coefficients of expansion of different bronzes for three temperature ranges are given in table 3.

In cases where comparison was possible, the data presented in this paper were found to be in good agreement with the results of other investigators.

TABLE 3.-Ranges of coefficients of linear expansion a of various bronzes

Alloys

Copper-tin (0 to 15.0% tin) _________ _________ ____________ _ Copper-tin-zinc (8 to 12% tin, 2 to 4% zinc) ______ ______ _ _ Copper-tin-lead (2.0 to 11.6% tin, 2.1 to 26.6% lead) ____ _ _ Copper-tin-zinc-lead (5.0 to 6.7% tin, 2 to 5.1% zinc, 1.5 to

7.5% lead) . . Copper-aluminum (7.3 to 10% aluminum) ______________ _ Copper-silicon b (3.0 to 4.4% silicon) ____________________ _

Average coefficients of expansion per degree centigrade

20° to 100° C. 20° to 2000 C. 20° to 300° C.

X 10--16.B to IB.O 17.B to IB.l 17.2 to 19.0 17.8Jo l B. l

16.2 to 17.1 17.20 to 17.4

XIG-' 17.2 to IB.2 lB.l to lB.5 17.3 to 19.9 18.1 to lB.4

16.3 to 17.3 17.5' to 17.B

XlO--17.6 to IB.6 lB.5 to lB.7

16.8 to lB.2 lB.Oo to lB. 1

• Data from previous publications by the author [6, 7, 9] were also used in the preparation of this tahle_ b Con tain 1% manganese. o Coefficients of contraction of a cast 4.4% silicon hronze were found to be 16.3XI0-6, 17.3Xl()-o, and

17.9XI0-- for the ranges 1000 to 20° C, 200° to 20° C, and 300° to 20° C, respectively.

V. REFERENCES [1] H_ Fizeau, Tableau des dilatations par la chaleur de divers corps simples metal­

liques, ou non metalliques. et de quelques composes hydrogenes du carbone, Cornpt. rend. 68, 1125 (1869)_

[2] R. Benoit, Comparaisons de regles metriques et meSU1'es de dilatations, J_ phys. 8, 451 (1889).

[3] Dittenberger a nd Gehrcke, Die Thatigkeit der Physikalisch-Technischen Reichsanstalt irn Jahre 1901, p . 112. (See also W. Dittenberger, ueber die Ausdehnung von Eisen, Kupfer, Aluminium, Messing und Bronze in hoher Temperatur, .Z. Ver. deut. lng. 46, 1532 (1902).)

[4] F. Henning, Uber die Ausdehnung fester I(orper bei tiefer Temperatur, Ann. Physik 327, 631 (1907).

[5] W. Bein, Ausdehnungsbestimmungen am Abbe-Fizeauschen Dilatometer, Verhandl. deut. physik. Ges. 14, 1097 (1912) .

[6] P. Hidnert, Thermal expansion of copper and some of its important industrial alloys, BS Sci. Pap. 17, 91 (1922) S410.

[7] P. Hidnert, Thermal expansion of copper alloys, Phys. Rev. 39, 551 (1932). [8] R. A. \\filkins, Herculoy, A copper-silicon-tin-zinc alloy, Metals & Alloys 4,

123 (1933). [9] P. Hidnert, Thermal expansion of bearing bronzes, BS J . Research 12, 391

(1934) RP665. [10] G. Koiso, K. Kusumoto, and M. Yata, Some corrosion-resistant wrought

aluminum bronzes of high strength, T etsu-to-Hagane 26, 537 (1940). Ab­stracted in Chern. Abstracts 35, 422 (1940).

[11] A. W. Gray, A new type of apparatus for measuring linear expansion, Phys. Rev. 34, 139 (1912).

[12] A. W. Gray, New methods for displacement measurements and temperature uniformity applied to the determination of linear expansivity, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 2, 248 (1912).

[13] W. Souder and P. Hidnert, ~Measurements on the thermal expansion of fused silica, BS Sci. Pap. 21, 1 (1926-27) S524.

[14] H. Le Chatelier, Sur la dilatation des metaux aux temperatures elevees, Cornpt. rend. 108, 1096 (1889).

WASHINGTON, October 22, 1942.

o

Page 15: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

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MATHEMATICAL TABLES

Attention is invited to a series of publications which is being prepared by the Project for the Computation of Mathematical 'Tables conducted by the Federal Works Agency, Work Projects Administration for the City of New York under the sponsorship of the National Bureau of Standards. To date, 14 tables have been made available through the National Bureau of Standards. These are listed below:

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Page 17: Thermal Expansion of Some Bronzes

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