Thinking Skills Approaches and Plenaries. What do we mean by Thinking Skills? Thinking Skills is a method used by teachers to challenge their pupils to:

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Thinking Skills Approaches and Plenaries </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> What do we mean by Thinking Skills? Thinking Skills is a method used by teachers to challenge their pupils to: Thinking Skills is a method used by teachers to challenge their pupils to: extend their understanding extend their understanding use their imaginations use their imaginations transfer learning across situations transfer learning across situations and, above all to think for themselves and, above all to think for themselves Some of the thinking skills techniques particularly lend themselves to use in lesson plenaries. Some of the thinking skills techniques particularly lend themselves to use in lesson plenaries. This summary is based on 30 studies that formed part of the Behaviour for Learning Anthology which can be accessed at www.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/bfl_res_tasters This summary is based on 30 studies that formed part of the Behaviour for Learning Anthology which can be accessed at www.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/bfl_res_tasterswww.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/bfl_res_tasterswww.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/bfl_res_tasters </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> How have thinking skills approaches benefited pupils? Pupils have benefited from developing their thinking skills by: Pupils have benefited from developing their thinking skills by: increasing their grade achievement in both end of year and GCSE exams increasing their grade achievement in both end of year and GCSE exams accelerating their development through even deeper levels of thinking and learning accelerating their development through even deeper levels of thinking and learning </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Which techniques develop pupils thinking skills? Over the past 20 years there has been considerable research into how pupil thinking skills can be accelerated. Techniques include: Over the past 20 years there has been considerable research into how pupil thinking skills can be accelerated. Techniques include: preparing the ground preparing the ground cognitive challenge cognitive challenge social construction social construction metacognition metacognition building bridges building bridges These techniques are outlined in the slides following. As metacognition and bridging in particular lend themselves to use in plenaries, more detail is given about these techniques. These techniques are outlined in the slides following. As metacognition and bridging in particular lend themselves to use in plenaries, more detail is given about these techniques. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Preparing the Ground To make the most out of challenges pupils need to be prepared. To help pupils achieve this, effective teachers: To make the most out of challenges pupils need to be prepared. To help pupils achieve this, effective teachers: recap on relevant aspects of what pupils have already learned recap on relevant aspects of what pupils have already learned highlight and clarify the meaning of essential vocabulary through discussion with the pupils highlight and clarify the meaning of essential vocabulary through discussion with the pupils help pupils to become familiar with the task and what they have to do through examples help pupils to become familiar with the task and what they have to do through examples Unless you define terms and vocabulary a problem may not be seen as a problem Unless you define terms and vocabulary a problem may not be seen as a problem </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Cognitive Challenge Cognitive challenge is an activity designed to make pupils think. It can: Cognitive challenge is an activity designed to make pupils think. It can: challenge someones usual way of thinking challenge someones usual way of thinking introduce new information that does not fit with previous experience introduce new information that does not fit with previous experience pose questions by bringing together ideas in tension with each other pose questions by bringing together ideas in tension with each other Such activities lead pupils to be curious about the problem and prompt them to work through ideas for themselves Such activities lead pupils to be curious about the problem and prompt them to work through ideas for themselves The tasks set should be interesting and demanding, but achievable with the help of others The tasks set should be interesting and demanding, but achievable with the help of others </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Social Construction Once pupils have been set a challenge, effective teachers plan for them to work together to solve it, with support from each other and the teacher a process of constructing understanding and solving problems collaboratively Once pupils have been set a challenge, effective teachers plan for them to work together to solve it, with support from each other and the teacher a process of constructing understanding and solving problems collaboratively Conversation between the pupils and teacher helps to: Conversation between the pupils and teacher helps to: build new knowledge and understanding build new knowledge and understanding create dialogue within the group which helps children to refine their own thinking and widen perspectives create dialogue within the group which helps children to refine their own thinking and widen perspectives In collaboration the child can always do more than he can do independently. Lev Vygotskty In collaboration the child can always do more than he can do independently. Lev Vygotskty </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Metacognition Metacognition occurs when pupils become aware of/understand their own thinking Metacognition occurs when pupils become aware of/understand their own thinking While pupils are working together on a task, prompting them to say what they are thinking and why leads pupils to: While pupils are working together on a task, prompting them to say what they are thinking and why leads pupils to: become more aware of their own thinking become more aware of their own thinking discuss ideas and concepts within the group discuss ideas and concepts within the group Pupils may not be explicitly aware of their thinking, so holding a plenary discussion after the task can help to embed thinking by getting pupils to reflect out loud on the task and what they have learned Pupils may not be explicitly aware of their thinking, so holding a plenary discussion after the task can help to embed thinking by getting pupils to reflect out loud on the task and what they have learned </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> An example of an activity to support metacognition A secondary school designed a debriefing activity that could be used in plenaries, by pupils from years 7 to 10. Features included: A secondary school designed a debriefing activity that could be used in plenaries, by pupils from years 7 to 10. Features included: asking a high number of open questions asking a high number of open questions prompting pupils to carry on talking, so that they gave lengthy responses that justified their answers to questions prompting pupils to carry on talking, so that they gave lengthy responses that justified their answers to questions making frequent references to concepts such as cause, effect and planning and to learning skills making frequent references to concepts such as cause, effect and planning and to learning skills summarising the discussion and learning for the pupils summarising the discussion and learning for the pupils securing evaluative feedback to pupils from both the teacher and other pupils. securing evaluative feedback to pupils from both the teacher and other pupils. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Building Bridges Bridging involves enabling pupils to take their learning from one context to another and could include: Bridging involves enabling pupils to take their learning from one context to another and could include: using plenary sessions to broaden pupils understanding by connecting what they have just learnt to other situations using plenary sessions to broaden pupils understanding by connecting what they have just learnt to other situations offering examples of similar situations to pupils and getting them to discuss the similarities and differences to help them make links between the two offering examples of similar situations to pupils and getting them to discuss the similarities and differences to help them make links between the two </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> An example of why bridging is important A study from Brazil looked at children who sold fruit on the streets. The teacher presented them with the same set of problems, but in three different ways: A study from Brazil looked at children who sold fruit on the streets. The teacher presented them with the same set of problems, but in three different ways: the first was just like the buying and selling of fruit the first was just like the buying and selling of fruit the second was similar but involved different goods the second was similar but involved different goods the third removed all context and left abstract sums only the third removed all context and left abstract sums only The children answered almost all of the first set correctly, only three quarters of the second and scored an average of 40% on the decontextualised third set. The children answered almost all of the first set correctly, only three quarters of the second and scored an average of 40% on the decontextualised third set. Plenary sessions can help pupils to connect their understanding and learning to other situations by exploring the similarities between different cases that include or exclude important cues Plenary sessions can help pupils to connect their understanding and learning to other situations by exploring the similarities between different cases that include or exclude important cues </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> How was the information gathered? The evidence underpinning this bite was drawn together as an anthology of the evidence from 30 Research for Teachers studies written for GTC during the period 2000 2010. The 30 underpinning studies were all selected as high quality studies which are directly relevant to current practice These included: The evidence underpinning this bite was drawn together as an anthology of the evidence from 30 Research for Teachers studies written for GTC during the period 2000 2010. The 30 underpinning studies were all selected as high quality studies which are directly relevant to current practice These included: Assessment for Learning: putting it into practice - www.gtce.org.uk/teachers/rft/afl_prac0904/ Assessment for Learning: putting it into practice - www.gtce.org.uk/teachers/rft/afl_prac0904/ www.gtce.org.uk/teachers/rft/afl_prac0904/ Enquiry-based learning, cognitive acceleration and the spiral curriculum: Jerome Bruners constructivist view of teaching and learning - www.gtce.org.uk/teachers/rft/bruner0506/ Enquiry-based learning, cognitive acceleration and the spiral curriculum: Jerome Bruners constructivist view of teaching and learning - www.gtce.org.uk/teachers/rft/bruner0506/www.gtce.org.uk/teachers/rft/bruner0506/ Social interaction as a means of constructing learning: the impact of Lev Vygotskys ideas on teaching and learning - www.gtce.org.uk/teachers/rft/vygotsky1203/ Social interaction as a means of constructing learning: the impact of Lev Vygotskys ideas on teaching and learning - www.gtce.org.uk/teachers/rft/vygotsky1203/ www.gtce.org.uk/teachers/rft/vygotsky1203/ </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> How can teachers use the evidence in this study? If you arent yet using thinking skills strategies, or at least not in plenaries, you could start by systematically asking pupils open questions about the connections between what theyve done in a lesson and what they have learned and use these to open up discussion about thinking in a range of contexts. If you arent yet using thinking skills strategies, or at least not in plenaries, you could start by systematically asking pupils open questions about the connections between what theyve done in a lesson and what they have learned and use these to open up discussion about thinking in a range of contexts. Plenaries are useful for whole class discussion that connects lesson content with experiences outside school because different students will spot different connections. You could encourage your classes to brainstorm and evaluate increasing numbers of bridges, at the end of lessons, over time. Plenaries are useful for whole class discussion that connects lesson content with experiences outside school because different students will spot different connections. You could encourage your classes to brainstorm and evaluate increasing numbers of bridges, at the end of lessons, over time. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> How can school leaders use the evidence in this study? The evidence is clear about the value of pupils thinking aloud, so they can move towards new understandings. The evidence is clear about the value of pupils thinking aloud, so they can move towards new understandings. To what extent are pupils in your school able to talk about their own thinking during a lesson? You may wish to ask your teachers to use a plenary to video or record students reflecting on their thinking process during the lesson and to explore approaches together with teachers. What does this tell you about pupils confidence and skills in talking about thinking? To what extent are pupils in your school able to talk about their own thinking during a lesson? You may wish to ask your teachers to use a plenary to video or record students reflecting on their thinking process during the lesson and to explore approaches together with teachers. What does this tell you about pupils confidence and skills in talking about thinking? Do you, as a staff, need to use metacognition and model your own thinking aloud in order to help pupils develop an understanding of how they can talk about their thinking in plenaries? Do you, as a staff, need to use metacognition and model your own thinking aloud in order to help pupils develop an understanding of how they can talk about their thinking in plenaries? </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Follow-up reading This BITE is based on the Research for Teachers Behaviour for Learning Anthology accessible here: http://www.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/bfl_res_tasters/ This BITE is based on the Research for Teachers Behaviour for Learning Anthology accessible here: http://www.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/bfl_res_tasters/ http://www.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/bfl_res_tasters/ See also: See also: Vygotskys ideas on Teaching and Learning: http://www.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/vygotsky1203/ Vygotskys ideas on Teaching and Learning: http://www.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/vygotsky1203/ http://www.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/vygotsky1203/ Improving learning through cognitive intervention: http://www.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/learn_cog0601/ Improving learning through cognitive intervention: http://www.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/learn_cog0601/ http://www.gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/lear...</li></ul>