through such works as his plurality of worlds, bernard de fontenelle 1.confirmed the theories of...

Download Through such works as his Plurality of Worlds, Bernard de Fontenelle 1.confirmed the theories of Descartes on dualism 2.brought the findings of science

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  • Through such works as his Plurality of Worlds, Bernard de Fontenelleconfirmed the theories of Descartes on dualismbrought the findings of science to a lay audienceprovided precise definitions of all recent scientific termsbrought doubt on the legitimacy of the French class structurechampioned the idea of separation of powers

  • The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement thatsought to support old traditionsdeparted from the thought processes of the Scientific Revolutionsupported both Protestant and Catholic churchessought to reconcile faith and reasonsought to apply reason to understand human life

  • The writers of travel literature in the eighteenth century portrayednon-Christian religions as primitive and barbarousAsians as immoral and intolerantforeign philosophies as incomplete, waiting for Christian fulfillmentpeople living in nature in foreign places as happier than Europeansdemocracy on other continents as superior to the monarchies in Europe

  • Montesquieus most important contribution to political science was hisanalysis of the faults in the French political systemsatire on French customs, supposedly written by two Arabspraise for what he considered Englands system of checks and balancescritique of Machiavellis The Princesupport for freedom of the press and religion

  • In his writings, Voltaire condemnedreligious and legal intolerancethe Catholic Church for its persecution of the religious minorityparental mistreatment of their childrenthe practice of extraditing accused persons to foreign countriescorporal and capital punishment

  • Adam Smith argued the state should not interfere in economic matters in The Wealth of Nations The Spirit of the Laws Philosophic Letters on the English Treatise on Toleration Treatise on Human Nature

  • Rousseau argued in his novel Emile that educationwould and should blur the old distinctions between men and womenshould represent the General Will of the societywas impossible in a world where man is no longer freemust combine heart and mind, sentiment and reasonshould be supported by the state

  • In Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Mary Wollstonecraft argued thatwomen should have equal rights despite their natural inferiorityeven though women were as reasonable as men they should not have equal rightsequality of sexes in marriage would be achieved soonthe subjection of men to women was wrongwomen should enjoy equal social, economic, and political rights with men

  • The salonsincreased in importance during the French Revolutiontypically were composed of members of the lower and middle classesallowed the hostesses to influence political events and ideasdid not allow conversation critical of either the government or established religionwere subsidized by the government

  • The Rococo style of the eighteenth centurycontinued the stylistic elements of the Baroque impacted architectural style onlyfocused on religious themesemphasized movement towards graceful and gentle lines rather than strict linesfocused on the emotions of anger and hate

  • Mozart took his place in the pantheon of composers because of hisearly rise to international fametragic life and early death as a paupersuccessful competition with old men like Bach and Haydnapparently effortless blend of grace, emotion, and precisioninfluence at the English court

  • The emergence of a high culture in the eighteenth century contributed to agrowing sense of commonality and shared experience between the elite and poorincreased literacy among the poorgrowing divide between the elite and the poordeclining literacy among the elitesa decline of elements of popular culture

  • During the eighteenth century, lower-class criminals condemned to death were oftendrawn and quarteredguillotinedhangeddrownedbeheaded

  • Enlightenment thought regarding religious toleration contributed to an end to all persecution of religious minoritiesgreater acceptance of Jews, but religious persecution continuedthe granting of full political and civil rights for Jewsthe conversion of Jews to Christianity for the purposes of full assimilation to societythe granting of full economic equality for Jews

  • John Wesley incurred the animosity of Anglican Church officials becausehe criticized their lavish and indulgent life stylehe conducted worship services in the vernacular English of his dayhis services were often filled with excessive emotional enthusiasmhe called on his followers not to attend regular Anglican serviceshe would not support the Pietistic teachings of the church