Timber material

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Timber Introduction in Building

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<ul><li>1.AAR 553 STRUCTURAL THEORIES &amp; APPLICATIONSTIMBER MATERIALS MOHD HILMI FAKHRUDDIN B. ZAKARIA 2012417304 MOHAMED FIQRYN B. MD. SHAHRODIN 2012829808MUHAMMAD FAIZ B. ABD. GHAFAR 2010121001SHAFWANDIN BIN SHAMSUL BAHRI 2010984975KHAIRUL ASYRAF BIN MOHD YUSOF 2010789227</li></ul> <p>2. Terminologies Timber wood suitable for use as building material Wood the tough, fibrous cellular substance that makes upmost of stem and branches of tree behind the bark Log a length of trunk of a felled tree ready for sawing Lumber (timber) timber product manufactured bysawing, re-sawing, planed, cutting to length and grading Dressed lumber (dressed timber) lumber or timber that hasbeen smoothed by planing machine and of uniform size Undressed lumber (undressed timber) lumber that is sawnedged and trimmed, but not planed smooth Treated wood wood that has been coated or impregnatedwith chemicals to resist decay and insects infestation Fire-retardant wood wood impregnated with mineral saltunder pressure to reduce flammability or combustibility 3. The nature of timber Timber is a naturalproduct, drawn fromthe wood in the trunksof trees. Its character isconsistent with thespecies of tree and theform and growth overtime of the wood in it.Regrowth in a native forest 4. Tree growth New wood on outside of tree oldest wood on the inside youngest wood on the outside diameter largest at the base one ring (layer) per growing season Tree in forest grows toward light trunk is straight lower branches die leaving small knots in wood Bark protects wood from damage the tree sheds bark each year 5. Production of woodPith - the start of growth in the tree the original saplingCambium - growth cells wood cells created on the inside bark cells created on the outsideSapwood - newest wood on the outside of tree (~ 1-3 cm) takes nutrients from root to leavesHeartwood - older wood cells closed - cant pass nutrients storage for waste - extractives 6. Classification of Timber Softwood usually found in temperatecountries (cooler climate) Hardwood usually found in tropicalcountries (warmer climate)Softwood &gt;&gt; conifers / cone bearing plants,needle shaped leaves, naked/exposed seedHardwood &gt;&gt; broad-leaved plants, seedenclosed in pods 7. Variation: fibre &amp; grainvessels hardwood fibres earlywood softwoodrays cells latewood rays rays The cell structure is designed to serve particular functions ina tree. Its properties vary in different directions. 8. Variation: species &amp; growth Species and genetics: selected stock or naturalseed. Climate: wet or dry, cold orwarm. Arrangement: native forest orplantation. 9. Each piece is uniqueQuarter sawn hardwoodMyrtle burl veneer 10. Properties are variable Drying (seasoning) &amp; shrinkage Strength &amp; hardness Durability Appearance 11. Timber &amp; Timber by-products Timber is available in a wide range of productsand species including: Solid sawn, moulded pieces; laminated timber; Veneer; Plywood; and Wood panels. 12. Solid Timber: sawn timber (lumber) Hardwood orsoftwood. Solid timber cut from alog and dried. It is a versatile materialused formoulding, frames andexposed structures. Size is restricted. 13. Solid Timber: mouldings Hardwood orsoftwood. Solid seasoned timbermilled to a widevariety of shapes. 14. Timber products: glue laminated (glulam) Small pieces of timber gluedbeam together to form a larger element. Used as both a structural and finishing element. bench top Size is limited only by transport capacity. curved glulam - Glue laminated material can be curved.Curved bar 15. Timber products: veneer Thin layers of solid wood slicedfrom a flitch or peeled from a logand dried. High quality material is used as adecorative finish. Lower grade material is used tomake plywood, LVL (laminatedveneer lumber) and similar products.Veneer leaf 16. Timber products: plywood Layers of veneer glued together so that the grain direction alternates between layers. Usually produced in sheets. Very good in a structure, as a lining and as a flooring surface. 17. Timber products: manufactured panels Panels made fromwood or wood fibresbound together withglue, or other binder: Particleboard / woodchip board Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF)MDF sheet Hardboard Core board 18. Advantages of Timber Environmentally friendlymaterial Good appearance, aestheticappeal Low weight to strength ratio Light, easy to handle, easilyjoined Suitable for prefabrication ofcomponents (reduce amount ofsite work) 19. Dry construction, fastercompletion period Good sound, thermal andelectrical insulation property Capacity to withstand shock /vibration 20. Disadvantages of Timber Subjected to rot dry rot /wet rot Is a combustible material Being a living material, it issubjected to attack byinsects / termite 21. Traditional usage of timber Main structure of Malayhouse made of heavyhardwood such ascengal, cengal mas,cengal batu and balau Floor of balau, cengal 22. Walls made of mediumhardwood such asmeranti Colonial buildings otherspecies of timber such askeruing and merbaufor structures 23. Timber usage in brick buildings FLOOR floor beams /bearers, floor joist, floorboards WALL studs, wall panel /sheathing CEILING beams, ceilingjoists 24. ROOF beams, rafters,trusses, purlins, battens DOOR &amp; WINDOW frames, door panels,window leaves, sills VERANDA balusters,handrails, flooring, stairs,columns </p>

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