tissues of the body cells combine to form tissues, and tissues combine to form organs cells...
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Tissues of the BodyCells combine to form tissues, and tissues combine to form organsCells combine to form four primary tissuesEpithelial tissueConnective tissueMuscle tissue Nervous tissue
Tissue Types in the HumanEpithelialprimarily used for protectionConnectiveprimarily used for supportNerveprimarily used for controlMuscleprimarily used for movement
Epithelial TissueConsists almost entirely of cells, little extracellular materialOne side always exposed to:body exterior organ cavity
Shapes of Epithelial Tissue Squamous (meaning scale) - flat cellsCuboidalColumnarSimpleStratifiedTransitional
Functions of EpitheliaProvide Physical Protection- protect surfaces from abrasion, dehydration, chemical and biological agents.Control Permeability- regulates molecules that enter or leave through the surface.
Simple: just one layer or cell shapeStratified: multiple layers and cell shapesClasses of Epithelia
Endothelium (lines blood vessels), mesothelium (serous lining of celom)
Walls of glands
Lining of gut tube; sometimes with cilia like lining of uterine tube
Flat cells give rise to columns
With cilia in respiratory tubes to move mucous/particles out of lungs
Kidney tubules, glands, lining of terminal bronchioles, etc.
Glands, bronchioles, stomach, intestines, bile ducts, etc.
Bladder lining, ureters, and superior urethra
MatrixGround substanceFibersCellsConnective Tissue
Types of Connective Tissue
Adipose Tissue200 X(bv = blood vessel)(arrow: adipocyte nucleus)bv
Dense Regular Tissue(Tendons & Ligaments)Horse Tendon x100
arrow: orientation of collagen fibers
Dense Irregular Tissue(Dermis of Skin & Muscle Fascia)
Hyalin Cartilage X 250arrows: Perichondrial bordersHyaline Cartilage perichondrium on the leftchondrocytes form in the perichondrium and move out into the tissue
Elastic Cartilage(note numerous chondrocytes and elastic fibers)
EndosteumPeriosteumHaversian System (osteon)Trabecular (Cancellous) BoneCompact (Cortical) BoneHaversian Canal(contain blood vessels)Osteocytes inLacunaeVolkmansCanalEpiphyseal PlatesMarrowCanaliculi(connecting tunnels)Bone HistologyLamellae(concentric rings of hard bone)
Cross Section of Cortical Bone Osteons
Anatomy of Nerve
Nerve Tissue X 200Large arrow: Soma (cell body)Small arrow: axon bodyBox: Axon Hillock
Nerves(Summary)Anatomy: Dendrites, Soma, Axon Hillock, Axon, Terminal Bouton, Synaptic cleftDefinitions: Membrane Potential, Afferent, Efferent, Neurotransmitter, Depolarization, EPSP, IPSP, Inhibition, etc.If EPSP + IPSP = Threshold.AP is generated along axon (All or none)Neurons may be excitatory (Na +) or inhibitory (Ca++ or Cl -)
Muscle Fiber TypesType IType IIaType IIbslow oxidativefast oxidative glycolyticfast glycolyticmany large mitochondriamany mitochondriafew mitochondriahigh aerobic capacitymedium aerobic capacitylow aerobic capacity
fatigue resistantfatigablemost fatigablelow strengthhigh strengthhigh strengthlow contractile speedhigh contractile speedhigh contractile speedlow myosin ATP-high myosin ATP-ase activityhigh myosin ATP-ase activity ase activity