tissues of the body  cells combine to form tissues, and tissues combine to form organs  cells...

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  • Tissues of the BodyCells combine to form tissues, and tissues combine to form organsCells combine to form four primary tissuesEpithelial tissueConnective tissueMuscle tissue Nervous tissue

  • Tissue Types in the HumanEpithelialprimarily used for protectionConnectiveprimarily used for supportNerveprimarily used for controlMuscleprimarily used for movement

  • Epithelial TissueConsists almost entirely of cells, little extracellular materialOne side always exposed to:body exterior organ cavity

    Shapes of Epithelial Tissue Squamous (meaning scale) - flat cellsCuboidalColumnarSimpleStratifiedTransitional

  • Functions of EpitheliaProvide Physical Protection- protect surfaces from abrasion, dehydration, chemical and biological agents.Control Permeability- regulates molecules that enter or leave through the surface.

  • Simple: just one layer or cell shapeStratified: multiple layers and cell shapesClasses of Epithelia

  • Simple Epithelia

    Type

    Cell shape

    Example

    Squamous

    Squashed

    Endothelium (lines blood vessels), mesothelium (serous lining of celom)

    Cuboidal

    Cubed

    Walls of glands

    Columnar

    Columns

    Lining of gut tube; sometimes with cilia like lining of uterine tube

    Pseudo-stratified

    Flat cells give rise to columns

    With cilia in respiratory tubes to move mucous/particles out of lungs

  • Kidney tubules, glands, lining of terminal bronchioles, etc.

  • Glands, bronchioles, stomach, intestines, bile ducts, etc.

  • Bladder lining, ureters, and superior urethra

  • MatrixGround substanceFibersCellsConnective Tissue

  • Proteoglycans

  • CollagenReticularElasticFibers

  • Collagen Fibers

  • Fibroconnective TissueCartilageBone

    Types of Connective Tissue

  • Areolar Tissue

  • Adipose Tissue200 X(bv = blood vessel)(arrow: adipocyte nucleus)bv

  • Reticular Tissue

  • Dense Regular Tissue(Tendons & Ligaments)Horse Tendon x100

    arrow: orientation of collagen fibers

  • Dense Irregular Tissue(Dermis of Skin & Muscle Fascia)

  • Hyalin Cartilage X 250arrows: Perichondrial bordersHyaline Cartilage perichondrium on the leftchondrocytes form in the perichondrium and move out into the tissue

  • Fibrocartilage

  • Elastic Cartilage(note numerous chondrocytes and elastic fibers)

  • EndosteumPeriosteumHaversian System (osteon)Trabecular (Cancellous) BoneCompact (Cortical) BoneHaversian Canal(contain blood vessels)Osteocytes inLacunaeVolkmansCanalEpiphyseal PlatesMarrowCanaliculi(connecting tunnels)Bone HistologyLamellae(concentric rings of hard bone)

  • Cross Section of Cortical Bone Osteons

  • Anatomy of Nerve

  • Nerve Tissue X 200Large arrow: Soma (cell body)Small arrow: axon bodyBox: Axon Hillock

  • Nerves(Summary)Anatomy: Dendrites, Soma, Axon Hillock, Axon, Terminal Bouton, Synaptic cleftDefinitions: Membrane Potential, Afferent, Efferent, Neurotransmitter, Depolarization, EPSP, IPSP, Inhibition, etc.If EPSP + IPSP = Threshold.AP is generated along axon (All or none)Neurons may be excitatory (Na +) or inhibitory (Ca++ or Cl -)

  • Muscle Fiber TypesType IType IIaType IIbslow oxidativefast oxidative glycolyticfast glycolyticmany large mitochondriamany mitochondriafew mitochondriahigh aerobic capacitymedium aerobic capacitylow aerobic capacity

    fatigue resistantfatigablemost fatigablelow strengthhigh strengthhigh strengthlow contractile speedhigh contractile speedhigh contractile speedlow myosin ATP-high myosin ATP-ase activityhigh myosin ATP-ase activity ase activity