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    Tissues, Organs,and Systems ofLiving Things

    Tissues, Organs,and Systems ofLiving Things

    Scanning electronmicrograph of red andwhite blood cells flowingthrough a vein in a humanleg (magnification 4000)

    U N I T

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  • Unit Task

    Advancements in systems biology have affected societyboth in good ways and in bad ways. Your task is to presentan opinion on how these advances have affected society.You may also discuss the controversies surrounding theadvancements as well as the next step in development thatmay occur. Your presentation should be in the form of acollage, comic, video, PowerPoint presentation, monologue,written report, or brochure.

    Essential QuestionHow have advancements in systems biology affectedindividuals and society?

    Cells are the basic unit of life and oftencombine with other cells to form tissues.

    1.1 Plant and Animal Cells

    1.2 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

    1.3 Specialized Plant and Animal Cells

    An organ consists of groups of tissues andworks with other organs to form organsystems.

    2.1 Organs in Animals and Plants

    2.2 Organ Systems in Animals and Plants

    2.3 Interdependent Organ Systems

    Advances in biological technologies have animpact on individuals and society.

    3.1 Medical Imaging Technologies

    3.2 Public Health Strategies to Prevent Disease

    3.3 Social and Ethical Issues in Systems Biology

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    Contents

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  • To protect themselves from the Spanish flu pandemic, people were encouraged to wear cloth masks.

    Reviving a KillerIn 1918, one of the deadliest diseases was unleashed on the world. In earlyMarch of that year, medical authorities in the United States reported thefirst case of a deadly influenza. The symptoms the skin turned blue, thefeet turned black, and the lungs filled with blood were unlike anysymptoms previously seen. Victims, who were mostly young men andwomen, became ill and died within hours. At a time when hundreds ofyoung adults were being killed while fighting in a world war, thousandsmore were being killed at home by the influenza virus. Within months ofthe first case, there were reports of widespread outbreaks in many parts ofthe world. Because the influenza infected people around the world, it wasknown as a pandemic. This influenza became known as the Spanish flubecause it was first widely reported in Spanish newspapers. During thefirst six months of this pandemic, millions of people died. The Spanish fluwas responsible for the deaths of between 25 million and 50 million peopledied from the Spanish flu.

    At the time, doctors believed that the spread of influenza could becontrolled by limiting contact with the source of disease. People weretold to wear masks when they were out in public, to cover the nose andmouth when coughing, and not to shake hands. Some people were putin quarantine, a situation in which an ill person or a suspected illperson was kept away from other people.

    4 UNIT A Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things

    Exploring

    Between 25 millionand 50 million peopledied from the Spanishflu.

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  • 5Exploring

    Lessons LearnedScientists learned valuable lessons from the 19181919 Spanish flupandemic and were better prepared for the Asian influenza pandemicthat occurred in 19571958 and the Hong Kong influenza pandemic in1968. Governments and organizations, such as the World HealthOrganization, developed plans to handle future influenza pandemics.

    One strategy involved studying and researching the Spanish fluvirus itself. In 1997, a team of researchers led by Canadian Dr. KirstyDuncan dug up bodies of 1918 influenza victims buried in a Norwegiancemetery and attempted to revive the virus. Although researchersbelieved that the virus would still be capable of reproducing, this wasnot true. However, in 2005, American researchers were able to restorethe virus using pieces of the virus obtained from various sources.Researchers in Canada and the U.S. are currently working with therestored virus to understand what made it so deadly.

    In 2008, scientists gained permission to study the corpse of a 39-year-old British diplomat who had died in 1918 from influenza.Because the body is in a lead-lined casket, researchers believe the bodywill be very well preserved and they will be able to obtain samples thatwill reveal information about the virus. By reviving and studying akiller virus, scientists hope to prevent future deaths from the virus.

    A scientist works with the resurrected1918 influenza virus in a specialairflow cabinet. Air is sucked into thecabinet and filtered before it isrecirculated in a sealed laboratory.

    A1

    Questions about Quarantine

    During the Spanish flu pandemic, health officialsattempted to prevent the spread of the disease byplacing sick people in quarantine. Quarantinerestricted the actions of individuals who appeared tohave the illness and kept them away from healthypeople. An individual would be kept in quarantineuntil symptoms of the illness were gone. In somesituations, signs would be posted on the front door ofhouses to indicate the presence of a quarantine.Today, public health officials may impose quarantineto stop the spread of disease.

    You will consider some of the political, economic,social, and ethical issues associated with usingquarantine to prevent the spread of infectiousdiseases.

    1. As a class, discuss the term quarantine andgive examples of the use of quarantine in society.

    2. Work with a partner and think about theimplications of living in your house under animposed quarantine for two weeks.

    3. Repeat step 2, but assume that you are in needof medical care and that the local hospital isunder quarantine.

    4. Should governments have the right to impose aquarantine on individuals? Explain your answer.

    5. What economic problems could be associatedwith the imposition of quarantine ?

    6. Explain some of the social problems that could beassociated with the imposition of quarantine.

    7. Explain some of the ethical issues associated withthe imposition of quarantine.

    8. Do you think that placing sick people in quarantineprevents the spread of disease? Explain youranswer.

    Science, Technology, Society, and the EnvironmentSTSE

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  • 6 UNIT A Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things

    1 Cells are the basic unit of life and oftencombine with other cells to form tissues.

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  • Cells are the basic unit of life and often combine with other cells to form tissues. 7

    Astrocytes (light green) are star-shaped cells in thebrain and spinal cord.

    Skills You Will UseIn this chapter, you will:

    examine cells under a microscope to identify the variousstages of mitosis in plants and animals

    examine different plant and animal cells under a microscope,and draw labelled biological diagrams to show how the cellsorganelles differ

    investigate, using a microscope, specialized cells in thehuman body or in plants, focussing on different types of cells,and draw labelled biological diagrams to show the cellsstructural differences

    investigate the rate of cell division in cancerous andnon-cancerous cells using pictures or images, and predict theimpact of this rate of cell division on an organism

    Concepts You Will LearnIn this chapter, you will:

    describe the cell cycle in plants and animals, and explain theimportance of mitosis for the growth of cells and repair of tissues

    explain the importance of cell division and cell specializationin generating new tissues

    explain the links between specialized cells and tissues inplants and animals

    Why It Is ImportantAn important step in understanding how your body works isunderstanding the cell. Your body is made of trillions of cells.

    Set a Goal to Understand New Vocabulary

    To understand the content of this chapter, you will need to

    understand many new terms. How many words in the

    following list of key terms do you recognize? Preview section

    1.1, and note the terms in bold print. Make a two-column

    chart, recording new terms in the first column. Add

    definitions or explanations in the second column as you read.

    Key Terms

    anaphase cell concentration differentiation diffusion

    meristematic cells meristematic tissue mesophyll

    mitosis organelle phloem prophase red blood cells

    regeneration stomate tissue xylem

    Before Reading

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  • 8 UNIT A Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things

    The Discovery of the CellWhen the microscope was invented in the mid-1600s, it becamepossible for scientists to look at the previously invisible world of thecell. Imagine the strange and beautiful structures that appeared beforethe eyes of these scientists. Today, we use sophisticated electronmicroscopes that allow us to not only see the cell in detail but also to geta glimpse of some amazing sights (Figure 1.1).

    Robert Hooke was the first to describe cells in 1663 (Figure 1.2). He thought