to kill a mockingbird 2014
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- 1. n g b i r d by Harper Lee The mockingbird is not Alabamas state bird, but it is the state bird of Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas.
2. The whole story is flashback since we spend the entire book trying to find out how Jem broke his arm 3. Conflict: Man vs. society 4. The Scottsboro Boys 5. A True StorySamuel LeibowitzDuring the Great Depression of the 1930s, poor people would ride in railroad freight cars, trying to get to a town that might have work. In 1931, two white women were riding the trains along with two groups of men: one white and another black. A fight broke out between the two groups of men. The blacks won and threw the whites off the train. The whites reported this to the local sheriff, and the train was stopped in Scottsboro, Alabama. Everyone on board was arrested.Victoria Price was in serious trouble because her friend, Ruby Bates, was a minor. It's a federal crime to take a minor across state lines for the purpose of prostitution. In order to get out of trouble, Victoria and Ruby said that the black men had raped them. In 1931, rape was punishable by death. Considering the races of the accusers (white) and accused (black), the normal response would have been a lynching (hanging someone who is suspected of a crime). But the Victoria Price and Ruby Bates people of Scottsboro held a trial, instead. Of course, the result had been decided before the trial began. The Scottsboro Boys were convicted and sentenced to death - at the first trial. 6. In 1896, the US Supreme Court had ruled that separate but equal facilities were constitutional. Thanks to the Court, African-Americans suffered half a century from legalized discrimination. The Jim Crow laws, often referred to as merely Jim Crow, were state and local laws in force mainly in the Southern states of the United States between 1876 and 1965 (mostly voted by Democratic Party politicians). They enforced the segregation of blacks and whites in all public facilities (public schools, public places, phonebooths, public transportation, restrooms, restaurants etc.) and led to inferior treatment and accommodations for AfricanAmericans, although in theory they were designed to make things separate but equal (separation being supposedly in the interests of African-Americans because integration would expose them to white racism and would create low self-esteem). The laws were overruled by Brown v. Board of Education decision of the Supreme Court, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 pushed by Lyndon B. Johnson, but the practices were brought to complete end only in the 1970s. De facto segregation, particularly in schools, continues until today, as 7. The KKK and lynching 8. Strange Fruit by Abel Meeropol (publishing as Lewis Allan) Southern trees bear strange fruit, Blood on the leaves and blood at the root, Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze, Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees.Lynching, the putting to death (usually by hanging) of an individual by a mob under the pretense of administering justice, occurred throughout the United States in the 19th and 20th centuries, although it was especially common in the South. From the 1880s until the practice ended in the 1960s, the vast majority of lynching victims were AfricanAmerican.Pastoral scene of the gallant south, e bulging eyes and the twisted mouth, Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh, en the sudden smell of burning flesh. Here is the fruit for the crows to pluck, For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck, For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop, Here is a strange and bitter crop."Strange Fruit" is a song performed most famously by Billie Holiday, who first sang and recorded it in 1939. Written by the teacher Abel Meeropol as a poem, it exposed American racism, particularly the lynching of African Americans. Such lynchings had occurred chiefly in the South but also in other regions of the United States. 9. Exposition Simon Finch, a fur-trapping apothecary from Cornwall whose piety was exceeded only by his stinginess. In England, Simon was irritated by the persecution ofthose who called themselves Methodists at the hands of their more liberal brethren, and as Simon called himself a Methodist, he worked his way across the Atlantic to Philadelphia, thence to Jamaica, thence to Mobile, and up the Saint Stephens. Mindful of John Wesley's strictures on the use of many words in buying and selling, Simon made a pile practicing medicine, but in this pursuit he was unhappy lest he be tempted into doing what he knew was not for the glory of God, as the putting on of gold and costly apparel. So Simon, having forgotten his teacher's dictum on the possession of human chattels, bought three slaves and with their aid established a homestead on the banks of the Alabama River some forty miles above Saint Stephens. He returned to Saint Stephens only once, to find a wife, and with her established a line that ran high to daughters. Simon lived to an impressive age and died rich. It was customary for the men in the family to remain on Simon's homestead, Finch's Landing, and make their living from cotton. The place was self-sufficient: modest in comparison with the empires around it, the Landing nevertheless produced everything required to sustain life except ice, wheat flour, and articles of clothing, supplied by river-boats from Mobile. Simon would have regarded with impotent fury the disturbance between the North and the South, as it left his descendants stripped of everything but their land, yet the tradition of living on the land remained unbroken until well into the twentieth century, when my father, Atticus Finch, went to Montgomery to read law, and his younger brother went to Boston to study medicine. Their sister Alexandra was the Finch who remained at the Landing: she married a taciturn man .Include The Great Depression, Jim Crow, and Scottsboro information. 10. The Scottsboro Trials Took place in the 1930s Took place in northern Alabama Began with a charge of rape made by white women against African American men The poor white status of the accusers was a critical issue. A central figure was a heroic judge, a member of the Alabama Bar who overturned a guilty jury verdict against African American men. This judge went against public sentiment in trying to protect the rights of the African American defendants. The first juries failed to include any African Americans, a situation which caused the U.S. Supreme Court to overturn the guilty verdict. The jury ignored evidence, for example, that the women suffered no injuries. Attitudes about Southern women and poor whites complicated the trial.Tom Robinson's Trial Occurs in the 1930s Takes place in southern Alabama Begins with a charge of rape made by a white woman against an African American man The poor white status of Mayella is a critical issue. A central figure is Atticus, lawyer, legislator and member of the Alabama Bar, who defends an African American man. Atticus arouses anger in the community in trying to defend Tom Robinson. The verdict is rendered by a jury of poor white residents of Old Sarum. The jury ignores evidence, for example, that Tom has a useless left arm. Attitudes about Southern women and poor whites complicate the trial of Tom Robinson. 11. Harper Lee's ChildhoodScout Finch's ChildhoodGrew up in 1930s - rural southern Alabama town Father - Amasa Lee - attorney who served in state legislature in AlabamaGrew up in 1930s - rural southern Alabama town Father - Atticus Finch - attorney who served in state legislature in Alabama Older brother and young neighbor (Dill) are playmates Scout reads before she enters school; reads Mobile Register newspaper in first grade Six years old when the trial of Tom Robinson takes placeOlder brother and young neighbor (Truman Capote) are playmates Harper Lee - an avid reader Six years old when Scottsboro trials were meticulously covered in state and local newspapers 12. Atticus is a good father who spends time with his children and enjoys it. 13. I, Too, Sing America by Langston HughesConflictsJem vs. Scoutman vs. man Fear is man vs. himself Prejudice is man vs. society Boo Radleyman vs. societyI, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes. But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow Ill sit at the table When company comes Nobodyll dare Say to me, Eat in the kitchen then. Besides, theyll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed, I, too, am America. 14. I found this plot diagram that is almost impossible to read, but it was so interesting. 15. Protagonist: Scout Jem, Dill, Atticus, Calpurnia, etc. Antagonist: Boo??? Racism/Prejudice 16. Point of viewfrom a young Scout as she grows. She uses I and me 17. BILDUNGSROMAN a novel which tells of a characters growth towards maturity. Its what is referred to as a Coming Of Age novel.Mary Badham and Gregory Peck studying their lines. 18. Its a sin to kill a mockingbird Look up the references to mockingbirds (pp. 96, 100, 247, 261, 282). Who are the metaphorical mockingbirds in the novel? Tom Robinson, Boo Radley are two. Is Mayella Ewell another? Climb into a persons skin Look up the references to this idea (pp. 35, 163, 224, 285) How does this teach tolerance? How important is empathy for others to Harper Lee?Conflicts, themes, and symbolism. 19. What is the importance of family to the following characters: Atticus, Scout and Jem the Finches the Ewells Dolphus Raymond Dill. Racism: black and white in the novel the verdict of the trial Lula Dolphus Raymond the Ewells and white trash.Conflicts, themes, and symbolism. 20. Class distinctions: black mixed race old familiesConflicts, themes, and symbolism. white white trash the rural poor Other key ideas you might want to make notes on are: moral justice and legal justice prejudice democracy and dictatorship the need for soci