toxic algae: a review p lus n otes on prymnesium parvum

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Toxic Algae: A Review P lus N otes on Prymnesium parvum. Jacob Butler. Overview. Algal communities and diversity Trends in succession Algal toxins and toxin production Allelopathy and allelochemicals Toxic algae found in AZ Consequences of toxicity Prymnesium parvum notes and research. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Toxic Algae: A review plus notes on Prymnesium parvum

Toxic Algae: A Review Plus Notes on Prymnesium parvumJacob ButlerOverviewAlgal communities and diversityTrends in successionAlgal toxins and toxin productionAllelopathy and allelochemicalsToxic algae found in AZConsequences of toxicityPrymnesium parvum notes and research

Algal Communities and DiversityOften quite diverseMany factors affect successionTemperature, pH, light, nutrient avaliabilitySeasonal trends, but not always

Deviations From Succession PatternsAtypical weatherPollutantsExcess nutrients

AndAlgal Toxins and SuccessionInhibit growth of some taxa, eliminate othersAids in succession to dominant statusCan cause formation of blooms

Because of the advantage provided, toxic secondary metabolite production seen many algae

Unintentional consequencesToxicity to humans, other organismsTaste, odor, aesthetic issuesAllelopathyAny positive or negative effect on growth or development of biological, agricultural systemsFrequent occurrence in aquatic ecosystemsEase of transmissionLow costChemical warfare among algal species

Allelochemicals

Allelochemicals Continued From Legrand et al. 2003 (42)

Only the beginningMany algal toxins difficult to detect, let alone quantifyProduction of toxins highly variableExact mechanisms, triggers largely unknownResults of toxin production en masse often all that is seen.

Fish Kills

Toxic Algae in the Salt River ReservoirsAnabaenaCylindrospermopsisAphanizomenonLyngbyaMicrocystis aeruginosaPrymnesium parvum

Capable of producing Anatoxin-A, Saxitoxin, Cylindrospermopsin, Microcystin, Prymnesins

Consequences of Algal ToxinsHuman health and water quality issuesNeurotoxicityHepatotoxicityTastes, odorsCollection in reservoirs, canalsEnvironmental costs and alteration

Environmental AlterationCorbicula die offs

Filter feeders gone, bloom susceptibility Food web dynamics

Less, different species recover

Prymnesium ParvumGrowth and toxicity of P. parvum likely effected by other algae present in systemCyanobacteria, Dinoflagellates most resistantLikely others follow suit

Interactions and Connectivity

Understanding Toxic AlgaeSecondary metabolites of P. parvum (prymnesins), vs those produced by others (Cyanobacteria, Dinoflagellates, etc)Tied to competition with one another, plus environmental factors

Connecting the DotsSeasonal monitoring Documentation of assemblage shiftsGeneration of history/database for comparisonDetection of algal toxinsSite specificityNo succession model works everywhereObservation of potentially toxic/allelopathic algaeNotes on conditions and assemblage present in field before blooms and toxic events invaluableInferences for laboratory studies

ResearchLaboratory experiments critical to identify and validate triggers and allelopathic interactions among algal speciesHighly complex, even when limited in number of species culturedPossible to find strains which are non-toxic, but suppress growth or toxin production of undesirablesFindings may be used to guide management actions in affected or vulnerable water bodies.

ConclusionAlgal toxins are potent and capable of massive impacts to both environments and our quality of lifeAllelopathy in phytoplankton is complex, but with diligent and thorough research it can be understood in much greater detailQuestions?

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