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    vii

    CONTENTS

    List of figures and tables xiii

    List of contributors xv

    Preface xxiv

    Acknowledgments xxxv

    Introduction: Apsychodynamic approach to leadership development xxxvii

    Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries, Konstantin Korotov, and Elizabeth Florent-Treacy

    PART ONE: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS

    1 THE CLINICAL PARADIGM: A PRIMERFOR PERSONAL CHANGE 3Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries and Konstantin Korotov

    THE INNER THEATER 5

    CONFUSION IN TIME AND PLACE: THE T-FACTOR 6

    THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PAINKILLERS: DEFENSE

    MECHANISMS 9

    ADDRESSING THE PHENOMENON OF NARCISSISM

    IN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 11

    KNOW THYSELF 13

    2 GROUP DYNAMICS: WHAT COACHES AND

    CONSULTANTS NEED TO WATCH OUT FOR 15Anton Obholzer

    INTRODUCTION 15

    THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE GROUP 17

    CONTEXTUAL ISSUES IN GROUP DYNAMICS 21

    THE UNCONSCIOUS AT WORK IN BOARD MEETINGS:

    ROLES EXECUTIVES PLAY 22

    TASK AND ANTI-TASK IN THE WORKPLACE 24ON CREATIVE, SANE AND SOBER LEADERSHIP 25

    THE ROLE OF THE COACH 27

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    viii

    3 DEVELOPMENTAL COACHING FROM

    A SYSTEMS POINT OF VIEW 29

    Theo CompernolleWARNING: THE MAP IS NOT THE TERRITORY 29

    WHAT IS A SYSTEM? 31

    SYSTEMS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS WITH DIFFERENT RULES 33

    FROM LINEAR CAUSALITY TO MULTI-CAUSALITY AND

    HISTORICAL HETEROGENEITY 37

    CIRCULAR CAUSALITY, FEEDBACK, ESCALATION AND

    HOMEOSTASIS 41

    GUILT, BLAME AND PATHOLOGY 43

    MOVING FROM INDIVIDUALS TO SYSTEMS, VIA DYADS

    AND TRIADS 45CONCLUSION 53

    4 LEADERSHIP COACHING IN FAMILY

    BUSINESSES 55Randel S. Carlock

    FAMILY AND BUSINESS PARADIGMS 55

    COACHING AND CONSULTING COMPETENCIES IN THE

    FAMILY BUSINESS CONTEXT 57

    ASSESSING AND UNDERSTANDING FAMILYBUSINESS SYSTEMS 63

    HELPING FAMILIES EXPLORE THEIR FAMILY SYSTEM 66

    CREATING THE FAMILY BUSINESS GENOGRAM 68

    ASSESSING YOUR PERFORMANCE AS A FAMILY

    BUSINESS COACH 73

    5 GOODBYE, SWEET NARCISSUS: USING 360

    FEEDBACK FOR SELF-REFLECTION 76Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries, Elizabeth Florent-Treacy, Pierre Vrignaudand Konstantin Korotov

    WHY USE FEEDBACK INSTRUMENTS IN A MORE

    CLINICAL WAY? 78

    WHY USE 360 FEEDBACK? 79

    A WORD ABOUT THE PSYCHOMETRIC DESIGN OF OUR

    INSTRUMENTS 80

    THE IGLC 360 SURVEY INSTRUMENTS 83

    INTERPRETING 360 FEEDBACK SURVEYS 96

    OBSTACLES TO IMPLEMENTATION 97

    THE IMPORTANCE OF FOLLOWING UP 98

    LEADERSHIP COACHING GUIDELINES 99TAKE THE EXECUTIVES PERSPECTIVE 100

    FACILITATE REFLECTION 100

    CONCLUSION 102

    CONTENTS

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    ix

    PART TWO: COACHING PROGRAM DESIGN

    6 EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND LEADERSHIPCOACHING 107Martine Van den Poel

    THE NATURAL LINK BETWEEN EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT

    AND LEADERSHIP COACHING 107

    OPTIMAL INTEGRATION OF LEADERSHIP COACHING AND

    EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT: KEY INGREDIENTS

    AND A VARIETY OF PROCESSES 111

    THE ETERNAL QUESTION: IS THERE ANY IMPACT AND HOW

    DO WE MEASURE IT? 117

    LEADERSHIP COACHING IS HERE TO STAY 118

    APPENDIX ONE A CASE IN POINT: MAP AND SYLA 119

    APPENDIX TWO A CASE IN POINT: THE GROUP CONFERENCE

    CALL WITH A GROUP OF FOUR PARTICIPANTS 100 DAYS AFTER

    THE MAP 121

    APPENDIX THREE SAP GLDP 124

    7 EXECUTIVE EDUCATION FROM THE

    PARTICIPANTS POINT OF VIEW 127

    Konstantin KorotovPRE-ENTRY EXPERIENCE 130

    SURPRISE AND LEARNING TO USE THE SPACE OF THE

    EXECUTIVE PROGRAM 131

    IDENTITY EXPLORATION: EXAMINING PAST AND CURRENT

    IDENTITIES 134

    IDENTITY EXPERIMENTATION 137

    STEPPING OUT OF THE EXECUTIVE PROGRAM:

    CRAFTING NARRATIVES AND INTERNALIZING

    TRANSITIONAL SPACE 138

    8 TRANSFORMATIONAL EXECUTIVE

    PROGRAMS: AN OWNERS

    MANUAL 142Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries and Konstantin Korotov

    EXECUTIVE PROGRAMS AS A TRANSFORMATION

    OPPORTUNITY 142

    UNDERSTANDING EXECUTIVES DEVELOPMENT NEEDS:

    THE FRAMEWORK OF THREE TRIANGLES 143

    IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR DESIGNERS OFTRANSFORMATIONAL PROGRAMS 149

    CONCLUDING REMARKS 157

    LEARNING TO CHANGE: A PROGRAM EXAMPLE 158

    CONTENTS

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    x

    PART THREE: BECOMING A COACH

    9 FROM THE BOARDROOM TO THE CLASSROOM:

    A PERSONAL JOURNEY 165Jean-Claude Noel

    CREATING A TRANSITIONAL SPACE 166

    DISCOVERY THROUGH SELF-REFLECTION 168

    THE FOCAL EVENT 170

    POSSIBLE SELVES 172

    FLYING SOLO 173

    NEW BEGINNINGS 176

    LESSONS LEARNED 178

    10 COACHING WITHIN AND WITHOUT 181Graham Ward

    SUPERVISION 184

    BUILDING TRUST 185

    BUILDING AN EXTERNAL COACHING PRACTICE 189

    GET BRANDED 191

    GET PLANNING 192

    GET OUT THERE 193

    SPEAK PUBLICLY 194

    BUILD A WEB PAGE 194

    GET ACCREDITATION 195

    TAKE IT FURTHER 195

    THE EVALUATION MATRIX 196

    SOME CRUDE MATH 197

    CONCLUSION 198

    11 COACHING EXECUTIVES ACROSS CULTURES 200Ann Houston Kelley

    LAYERS OF CULTURE 201DEALING WITH COMPLEXITIES 203

    EXPERIENCE IS THE BEST TEACHER 205

    A DELICATE BALANCE OF ART AND SCIENCE 216

    PART FOUR: THE PROCESS OF COACHING

    12 THE ART OF LISTENING 221Erik van de Loo

    INTRODUCTION: LISTENING AND THE CLINICAL APPROACH

    TO ORGANIZATIONS 221

    MENTALIZING 223

    EMPATHY AND INTUITION 226

    LISTENING WITH THE THIRD EAR 230

    CONTENTS

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    xi

    TRANSFERENCE, COUNTER-TRANSFERENCE, AND ENACTMENTS 232

    CONCLUSION 236

    13 THE DOS AND DONTS OF COACHING: KEYLESSONS I LEARNED AS AN EXECUTIVE

    COACH 240Elisabet Engellau

    LESSON 1: BE SPECIFIC ABOUT THE TERMS OF THE COACHING

    CONTRACT 246

    LESSON 2: BE UP FRONT ABOUT WHAT IS NON-NEGOTIABLE 247

    LESSON 3: USE YOUR INTUITION/COUNTER-TRANSFERENCE

    REACTIONS 248

    LESSON 4: DEAL WITH RESISTANCE UP FRONT 248LESSON 5: PLAY RESISTANCE JUDO 249

    LESSON 6: HAVE A SYSTEMIC POINT OF VIEW 249

    LESSON 7: ALWAYS SUPPORT SELF-EFFICACY 250

    FINAL REFLECTIONS 251

    REFLECTIVE TIME 252

    KNOW YOURSELF 253

    GET SUPERVISION 253

    AFTERWORD 254

    14 REFLECTIONS ON TEACHING LEADERSTO COACH: USING THE SELF AS A TOOL

    IN DEVELOPING OTHERS 255Roger Lehman and Konstantin Korotov

    MAKING SENSE OF THE SITUATION USING A PSYCHODYNAMIC

    APPROACH: A COACHS STORY 259

    INCREASING SELF-UNDERSTANDING THROUGH LEARNING

    TO LISTEN TO OTHERS 264

    PART FIVE: COACHING IN ORGANIZATIONS

    15 COACHING: A CHAIRMANS POINT OF VIEW 275Stanislav Shekshnia

    INTRODUCTION 275

    CHALLENGES OF A NONEXECUTIVE CHAIRMAN 276

    DIFFERENT WORLDVIEWS AND MODELS OF SUCCESS 277

    A QUESTION OF NARCISSISM 278

    CHIEF FACILITATOR 279

    ACTION IN THE BOARDROOM AND OUTSIDE IT 289

    A CHAIRMANS REFLECTIONS ON COACHING 292

    APPENDIX ONE BOARD RULES 294

    APPENDIX TWO BOARDS, DIRECTORS, AND CHAIRMANS

    EVALUATION FORMS 296

    CONTENTS

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    16 CRACKING THE CODE OF CHANGE: HOW ONE

    ORGANIZATION TRANSFORMED ITSELF

    THROUGH TRANSFORMATION OF ITS PEOPLE 302Cornelie van Wees

    INTERPOLIS: THE STORY 302

    FIRM & SECURE (1994 1998) 303

    THE CUSTOMER COMES FIRST 304

    CULTURE 306

    THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP 307

    PERSPECTIVES OF THE CEO 308

    FROM CEO TO TEAM LEADER 311

    LESSONS FOR OTHER ORGANIZATIONS 313

    A PERSONAL JOURNEY: ALICE IN WONDERLAND 314

    17 THE CASE FOR NOT INTERPRETING

    UNCONSCIOUS MENTAL LIFE IN CONSULTING

    TO ORGANIZATIONS 320Abraham Zaleznik

    A NOTE FROM THE EDITORS 320

    FIRST, DO NO HARM 321

    WILD PSYCHOANALYSIS 322

    THE ORIGINS OF CONSULTATION TO ORGANIZATIONS 323EXAMPLES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CONSULTATION 332

    CONCLUSION: TOWARD AUTHENTIZOTIC

    ORGANIZATIONS 343Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries

    DREAMING OF COCKAIGNE 343

    BEING AUTHENTIC 345

    CHALLENGES FOR FACULTY, COACHES, AND CONSULTANTS 350

    Index 354

    CONTENTS

    xii

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    3

    1THE CLINICAL PARADIGM: A PRIMER FOR

    PERSONAL CHANGE

    MANFRED F. R. KETS DE VRIES AND KONSTANTIN KOROTOV

    Many philosophers, poets, and other thinkers have posited through-out the ages that the key to growth and happiness lies in knowingand accepting oneself. A variation on this theme that leadershipdevelopment starts with an exploration of, and by, the leaderhimself or herself will reappear in many chapters in this book. Inundertaking this kind of human adventure, we use a concise butrobust framework: the clinical paradigm.1 The clinical paradigmis based on several premises. The first premise is that all human

    behavior, even in its most odd or deviant forms, has arational explanation. Although deceptively simple, this prem-ise poses a huge challenge to a business school professor, an exec-utive coach, or other professionals working with leaders; it meansthey will have to use the tools and methods of a psychologicaldetective to uncover explanatory factors underlying the behaviorthey perceive. Fortunately, the leader as an executive educationor coaching client can become a detective as well; the clinicalparadigm, when explained, offers the coach or educator a tremen-

    dous opportunity to use the leaders own behavior as a real-lifecase study, with the added advantage that this particular text issure to be of interest to the executive concerned.

    The second premise of the clinical paradigm tells us that ourunconscious plays a tremendous role in deter