transforming the roman world

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Transforming the Roman World. 9-1. New Germanic Kingdoms. 476 CE – fall of Western Roman Empire Germanic states set up around Europe: Spain – Visigoths Italy – Ostrogoths Britain – Anglo- Saxons France/Germany – Franks (longest lasting). Germanic Society. Importance of family - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Transforming the Roman World

Transforming the Roman World9-1New Germanic Kingdoms476 CE fall of Western Roman EmpireGermanic states set up around Europe:Spain VisigothsItaly OstrogothsBritain Anglo-SaxonsFrance/Germany Franks (longest lasting)

Germanic SocietyImportance of familyGermanic law handled personally (instead of through Roman system)Crimes settled by blood feuds and savage acts of revengeWergild money for a manOrdeal to determine guilt physical test

Church OrganizationMonks and their MissionPope Gregory I uses the monastic movement to convert non-ChristiansSaint Benedict - regulates monasteries (Benedictine Rule)Day of prayer and manual labor7 daily gatherings for group prayer and chanting of PsalmsStrict rule by an abbot (father)

The Carolingian Empire600s-700s slow decline of the Frankish Kingdom eventually taken over by one of the kings officers who establishes hereditary rule, which passes to his son: Charlemagne (Charles the Great)768-814: rule of CharlemagneExpanded Frankish territoryVast administration system (counts, missi diminici)Intellectual renewal (Carolingian Renaissance)Charlemagne the Man

Charlemagne the Conqueror

Charlemagne the Administrator

Charlemagne the Patron of Learning

Charlemagne, Emperor of Rome800 CE - Germanic King crowed Emperor of Rome by the PopeSymbolic coming together of different European heritages

Feudalism9-2End of the Carolingian EmpireDeath of Charlemagne in 814 30 years later the Carolingian Empire was divided amongst his grandsons into three major sections:West Frankish landsEastern Frankish landsMiddle KingdomLocal nobles gained powerMany areas were invadedThe Invaders

FeudalismBecame increasingly difficult to defend their subjects against invaders as the Carolingian Empire fell apartPeople turned to local aristocrats, nobles, for protection > new political and social system called feudalismFeudal SocietyVassal: man who served a lord in a military capacity (Germanic tradition) received land (fief) in return for serving in a lords army Knight: heavily armored cavalry social prestige

The Feudal ContractSystem of honor and chivalry made up of unwritten rulesObligations of vassal:Military service (approx. 40 days/year)Give advice in court when summonedFinancial payments for lords sons knighting, daughters wedding, or ransom paymentObligations of lord:Grant landProtectionTake vassals side in court of law

Nobility of the Middle AgesNobility: kings, dukes, counts, barons, bishops and archbishops = aristocracy Great lords and knights were included as wellSocial divisions within the aristocracy based on wealth and landholdings

TournamentsContests where knights could show off fighting skills

ChivalryCode of ethics that knights were supposed to upholdTreat captives as honored guestsKnights fight for glory, not material reward

Aristocratic WomenCould hold property (most controlled by men)Men often away at war women in charge of the estateManage householdTake care of financial accountsOversaw food supply Expected to be subservient to husbandsException: Eleanor of Aquitaine Heiress married to King Louis VII of France annulledMarried King Henry II of England created her own court two of her sons (Richard and John) became kings of England

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