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Natalia Delbono Silvina Brochini THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES Cultura y Civilización Británica III 15/5/2015

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Diapositiva 1

Natalia DelbonoSilvina Brochini

THE TREATY OF VERSAILLESCultura y Civilizacin Britnica III15/5/2015

Peace settlement imposed by the victorious powers (Britain, France and Italy).Negotiations started on 18th JanuarySigned in June 28th 1919 at Versailles Palace.Registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations October 21st 191970 delegates from 27 nationsGermany, Austria and Hungary were excluded. Russia too.THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

Peace settlementInaccurately known as the agreement which ended with WWI. (Saint Germain with Austria, Trianon with Hungary, Sevres with Turkey, Neuilly with Bulgaria). It failed to make peace!

The three most important politicians

David Lloyd George (Great Britain): Public support :"Make Germany Pay. Privately: Germany should be treated in such a way that left her as a barrier to resist the spread of communism in Russia.

Georges Clemenceau (France): Destroy Germany /Worried about neighborhood / Obtained Anglo-American support in case of a new German aggression

Woodrow Wilson (America):

Proposed his Fourteen Points before the end of the warReconciliation not revenge.Leave Europe to its own devices.Germany should be punished

The three main nationsdifferent positions

how Germany should be treated

What exactly did the treaty do to Germany?

Main clauses:

War guilt clause: Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war (Article 231)Obliged to pay indefinite reparations for cost of the war (20 billion gold marks)Lost territories 25000 square miles, colonies, Alsace-Lorraine back to France, creation of the Republic of PolandSaar - region of Germany occupied and governed by theUnited KingdomandFrancefrom 1920 to 1935 under aLeague of Nations mandateDeprived of an effective army and air force. Its army was limited to 100.000 men (7 infantry, 3 cavalry divisions, 3 military schools, arms trade was forbidden, surrender battleships, destroyers, etc. and could not manufacture anything for 6 months after the signing of the treaty)ALeague of Nationswas set up to keep world peace. Many achievements, most important: created the habit of consultation and discussion between governments.

Main clauses:

Philipp Scheidemann resigned and didnt sign the treatyGustav Bauer requested some articles to be withdrawnAllies sent an ultimatum-imminent invasion of Allied forces23rd June, Bauer capitulated (after Hindenburgs advice) 2nd telegram accepting the treaty28th June the treaty was signed

Guarantee:

The Rhineland and bridgeheads east of the Rhine occupied by Allied troops 15 years

Reactions:

Britain: French policy was greedy and vindictiveFrance: Clemenceau was voted out in 1920 USA: Wilson claimed that at last the world knows America as the savior of the world had a strokeGermany: condemned the treaty, Jews were seen as disloyal, week economy

Territorial ArrangementsAlsace and Lorraine back to FranceCzechoslovakia and Poland were created from Austro-Hungarian territoriesHungary became independentRumania was enlarged (Transylvania)Baltic Republics (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland) became independentTurkey-Asia MinorArabia independent kingdomIrak, Palestine and Transjordania Great BritainSyria- French

THE TREATY WAS A FAILURE

Isolated Germany and communist Russia. Far from restore peace, it paved the way for WWII. The problems that arose from the treaty improved relations between Germany and the other European Powers 1935 Adolf Hitler introduced compulsory military conscripton and rebuilt the armed forces1936 Germany reoccupied the demilitarized zone in the Rhineland1938 Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss (union of Austria and Nazi Germany)

1919 peace settlement was the product of national and imperial rivalries rather than of a yearning for a more harmonious world

REFERENCES

Hobsbawm, Eric Age of Extremes The Short Twentieth Century 1914-1991 Abacus 1995http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_versailles.htm MORGAN, Kenneth The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain Oxford University Press 1987 RAYNER, Robert A Concise History of Britain Longmans, Green and Co. 1951HALLIDAY, F.E. England A Concise History Thames and Hudson, Ltd. London 1994