treaty of versailles exercise

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Exercise looking at the treaty

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  • 1. Background

2. The Treaty was signed after World War One had ended in 1918 Signed at the vast Versailles Palace near Paris between Germany and the Allies in 1919 Three most important politicians there were David Lloyd George (GB), Georges Clemenceau (Fr), and Woodrow Wilson (USA) known as the Big Three Many wanted Germany, led by Friedrich Ebert, smashed, but others, like Lloyd George were more cautious 3. WWI left Europe devastated, casualties of the Entente were: Britain: 750,000 killed, 1,500,000 wounded France: 1,400,000 killed, 2,500,000 wounded Belgium: 50,000 killed Italy: 600,000 killed Russia: 1,700,000 killed America: 116,000 killed 4. Those who fought against the Entente suffered heavy casualties as well: Germany: 2,000,000 killed Austria-Hungary: 1,200,000 killed Turkey: 325,000 killed Bulgaria: 100,000 killed Total deaths of all nations who fought in the war are estimated at 9.5 million with 21 million wounded 5. Vast areas of north-eastern Europe had been reduced to rubble The homes of 750,000 French people were destroyed along with infrastructure Roads, coal mines, telegraph poles had all been destroyed which hindered progress 6. The victors from the Great War were in no mood to be charitable to the defeated nations Germany in particular was held responsible for the war and its consequences Mid-1918 saw Europe hit by the Spanish Flu which saw 25 million people die, added to bitterness throughout Europe Treaty was signed June 28th 1919 after months of negotiation 7. Note: Rhineland is the part of Germany near France, France wanted it to be under supervision so that Germany would not attack again in the future Alsace-Lorraine was taken from France by the Germans for its resources in 1870 Saar is German territory but the Allies would like it to rebuild their countries Poland: Old country that was taken over by Russia and Germany Danzig: Important port, citizens are 90% German Czechoslovakia: very important industrial part of Austria/Hungary, 67% Czechs or Slovaks 8. Note: Poland: Old country that was taken over by Russia and Germany Danzig: Important port, citizens are 90% German Czechoslovakia: very important industrial part of Austria/Hungary, 67% Czechs or Slovaks 9. Satisfied the Big Three: Kept Germany weak Safeguarded the French/German border Created League of Nations to end warfare Made Germany pay for war damages Left a mood of anger throughout Germany: Felt they were treated unfairly Hated the clause giving them blame for the war Those who signed for Germany were called November Criminals People felt they were being punished for something the government did 10. 1. Compare the size of Germany before and after the war. Locate and name two countries that received territory in 1919, which formerly belonged to Germany. 2. What happened to Austria-Hungary in 1918? Name the newly independent nations that were created in Europe. 3. Name and locate four new countries that were created from former Russian territory. To what other countries did Russia lose territory? 11. 4. Locate the Polish Corridor on the map. How might the creation of the Polish Corridor lead to problems among nations in the future? 5. How might the creation of a number of new small nations in Europe lead to future territorial disputes? 12. Was the Treaty of Versailles a Fair and Just Settlement to the War? Choose and analyse 5 points from your voting points sheet. For each, explain whether each was fair or unfair and why. Use this information to practice writing a paragraph. 13. http://www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID=317366 14. Write a paragraph describing your experiences in the simulation. Touch upon: The role of your country How other countries were treated Was the treaty process fair? What do you think Germany deserved/didnt deserve? Do you see this benefitting or hurting Europe? Your opinion on the experience: how can it be improved?