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  • 15 January 2018

    Nadia Touihri

    Director of Demographic Statistics

    Chief migration unit

    National Institute of Statistics

    touihri.nadia@ins.tn

    Tunisian emigration

    through censuses:

    Pros and cons

    Measuring Emigration through censuses Paris , 15 January 2018

  • 01 Plan

    1. Introduction

    2. Methodology

    3. Limits of measuring emigration through census

    4. Advantages of measuring emigration through census

    5. Data quality

    6. Tabulation and data Dessimination

    7. Some results

    8. Conclusion

  • Introduction 01 .

    Spatial mobility is one of the fundamental axes of the societies functioning

    and changing.

    It is impossible to understand these societies without taking into

    consideration spatial mobility.

    Mobility can not be analyzed separately, because it is linked to the

    economic, social, cultural, geographical and demographic elements at the

    place of departure and at the place of arrival.

    Thus, population censuses remain the most relevant source of information

    on migration, given its completeness and the opportunity it for further cross-

    checks with other key variables of migrants.

  • Introduction 02 .

    Tunisian population census represents a snapshot of the resident population

    in the country at a given point in time (exp: 23 April 2014, round 2010)

    Periodicity : 10 years

    face to face interview

    Emigration module introduced in round 2000 ( census 2004)

    Emigration is measured over a period of 5 years

  • Methodology

    03

    .

    Is (name) resident in the same

    housing unit, in April 2009?

    Other housing unit

    Country / delegatio of

    residence April 2009

    Urban / rural Reason Year of departure

    Same housing unit

    Immigration and return migration

    Census 2004

    Census 2014

  • 04 .

    Are there any member of your household riside currently abroad, and was resident in

    this household in April 2009?

    Oui

    Relationship with the head

    of hh

    Gender

    Year of birth

    Reason

    Current country of residence

    Year of departure

    Level of education

    Non

    Emigration

    Census 2004

    Census 2014

    Methodology

  • 05 limits of measuring emigration through census

    Information about emigrant gathered by proxy

    It recall interviewer s memory

    No information about emigrants after migration; situation, profile,

    integration

    Only a limited set of question could be inserted into census questionnaire;

    its not the purpose of a census

    Departure of entire Household (no left behind); possibility of missing some

    emigrants

  • 06 Advantages of measuring emigration through census

    Measuring emigration through census allows to:

    Get information about the structure of emigrant within a given period

    Get information about the level of education of emigrant before departure

    Get information about the country of destination

    A cross check with the other census modules, allows in depth analysis to

    understand the emigrant behavior:

    Housing unit characteristics,

    Life conditions of household ,

    Individual characteristics of the head of household

  • 07 Data quality

    To improve data quality :

    Improving enumerator training, and instructions

    Providing a full explanation to enumerators about the migratory context

    and its concepts,

    Formulating easy and clearly worded questions

    Choosing good position and sequence of items within the census: the

    migration modules appears in the 7th out of 14 theme,

    for household that emigrate with all his members; questions should be

    addressed neighbors in order to get at least information about their

    number and their gender

  • 08 Tabulation and data dissemination

    For census 2014; emigration is measured between 2009 and 2014:

    First results was dessiminated from the 20% of

    A core tabulation with descriptives analysis was provided in a

    publication titeled Carectristiques migratoires en Tunisie

    Specific tabulation are addressed to migration unit in INS

  • 09 Some results

    Destination country

    The number of emigrants between April 2009 and April 2014 was about 66

    thousands; a yearly average of 13 thousand.

    41.8

    16.1

    14

    13.1

    4.5

    2.9

    2.7

    2.5

    2.4

    0 10 20 30 40 50

    France

    Libya

    other

    Italy

    German

    Emirates

    Saoudia Arabia

    Qatar

    Canada

    % of emigrants by country of destination

  • 10 Some results

    -20000 -15000 -10000 -5000 0 5000

    moins 15 ans

    15-19 ans

    20-24 ans

    25-29 ans

    30-34 ans

    35-39 ans

    40-44 ans

    45-49 ans

    50-54 ans

    55-59 ans

    60 ans et plus

    Female

    Male

    Structure of Emigrants

  • 11 Some results

    Reason for Emigration

    73.4

    14.2

    9.7

    2.7

    % of emigrants by reason of departure

    Economic reason

    Study

    Marriage

    Other

  • 12 Some results

    Level of education of Emigrants

    24.5

    40

    28.6

    7

    % of emigrants by level of education before departure

    high

    secondary

    primary

    nothing

  • 12 Data comparaison

    Share of women from Tunisian total stocks (DIOC) and Tunisian Emigrants (Census)

  • 13 Conclusion

    Although its limits, and with the absence of accurate administrative

    data, and the high cost of specific migration survey, Census remain a reliable

    source and an opportunity to measure emigration.

    Provide a database for sampling purposes to undertake survey about

    migration; limit cost

    Emigration module will be considered in the next round where

    the variable economic situation before departure will be added

    Specific migration survey is needed to cover some aspects that could not be

    covered by population Census ( emigrant profile, situation after

    emigration,.)

  • Thank you